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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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It is surgical asepsis that is defined as the absence of all microorganisms, including spores. A pathogenic infection is an invasion of the body by a pathogen, or disease or germ, and a urinary infection is only one type of infection. MRSA is a commonly known and widespread bacterium that is resistant to antibiotics. A patient who is coughing is likely to be placed on droplet precautions, not contact precautions. A patient who just had hip surgery would require standard precautions, unless they were positive with a bacteria or virus requiring contact or droplet precautions.

An elderly patient does not need to be placed on contact precautions just because they are elderly, only if infected with a bacteria or virus that requires higher precautions. Standard precautions include hand washing or sanitizing, and wearing gloves when bodily fluids are present such as urine, stool, or sputum. Standard precaution assumes that all bodily fluids are considered infectious.

Nurse Aide Practice Exam

Gloves are only necessary when handling bodily fluids, otherwise hand washing between patient rooms is appropriate. A mask would only be required for droplet precautions. Hand washing is necessary when in a patient care setting at all times as a standard precaution. You would most likely expect to see Reverse Isolation Precautions on a floor of patients with decreased immune systems, such as cancer patients. It is appropriate to wear a gown, glove, and a mask to prevent the spread of infection to these patients. A surgical floor would be more likely to have Contact Precautions or Standard Precautions.

All of the above choices are hazards of immobility. However, only the calcium loss from the bones is a skeletal system impairment that results from immobility. Contractures are a muscular tightening due to immobility. Constipation is a gastrointestinal side effect with prolonged immobility. Catabolism is a chemical hazard related to immobility, not skeletal.

Depression is the correct answer. There are also emotional hazards of immobility. Some of these emotional changes are depression, poor decision making and a decreased self esteem. Dementia, delirium and diversion are neurological hazards that can be aggravated by a prolonged stay in a hospital or unfamiliar environment. They may present similarly to emotional hazards but a neurological in function. While falls are not an expected result of aging, patients in the elderly age group are at higher risk for falls due to weakness and comorbid conditions, such as Alzheimer's.

These falls frequently cause injuries due to weakened bones as the body ages. Middle-Aged and Young Adults are at lower risk for injury-causing falls. While children may fall frequently, these falls do not usually cause injuries. Repositioning, applying skin barrier cream, and minimizing skin contact with urine or stool act as preventive measures against pressure ulcers. Contractures boots are placed to prevent contractures, not pressure ulcers. If not applied properly, they may increase the risk for pressure ulcers. The wheelchair should be placed as close to the patient's strong side as possible to minimize the distance they need to travel to get positioned into the wheelchair.

If placed on the patient's weak side, this will create more difficulty as the patient will need to manipulate their weak side further to get into the chair. The chair should be placed on the patient's strongest side, regardless of whether that is the head or foot of the bed once the patient is sitting up. Restraints are placed to prevent the patient from harming himself or others around him. They would not normally be considered a fall-risk intervention. Fall mats, bed or chair alarms, and non-skid socks are all commonly used as fall risk interventions.

It is not appropriate for the CNAs to discuss another patient's care in front of another patient, even if the patient is not fully oriented, as this is a violation of HIPAA and may cause further confusion in the patient they are caring for. It is appropriate to stand on either side of the bed to help turn the patient, for one CNA to hold the patient up while the other CNA cleans the patient and for the CNAs' to boost the patient in bed using the draw sheet.

These signs and symptoms are most likely to indicate that the person is having a heart attack. The CNA must immediately report these signs and symptoms to the nurse. It is likely that this is a medical emergency. It cannot be ignored. The patient has the symptoms and care indicative of congestive heart failure, not dementia or diabetes. People with congestive heart failure CHF have dependent edema of the legs. They have too much volume in their blood so the person will have a fluid intake restriction and a low salt diet.

The person will also get daily weights to determine how much water weight the person is gaining or losing each day. Diabetes and dementia would not present with edema, be required to have a fluid restriction, or low salt diet. Diabetes has to do with blood sugar regulation, and dementia is a neurological disorder.

Contiguous heart disease is not a disease. This is a diabetic patient who is presenting with symptoms of a low blood sugar, a common finding in diabetic patients in the hospital. The nurse will most likely request you to take the patient's blood sugar. The patient's vital signs were normal one hour ago and he is presenting with signs of low blood sugar, sweating, tremors, and dizziness. While a Rapid Response or Code would be appropriate if the patient was unresponsive, this patient is alert and oriented. The nurse will most likely as you to check the patient's blood sugar and assist with any other tasks related to this patient who is symptomatic, prior to answering the call light of another stable patient.

Making sure the patient wipes from front to back is important to emphasize to prevent bacteria from traveling from the anus to the urethra. Instructing the patient to stand up slowly will prevent orthostatic hypotension and potential falls. Making sure the patient presses the call light will be important in patients that are weak and at risk for falls.

Helping the patient use proper body mechanics when standing will help to prevent strained muscles and improve movement. A slow shuffling gait, jerky movements, and difficulty speaking, while being oriented, would be common signs of Parkinson's disease. A patient with Alzheimer's may walk slowly but a shuffling gait and jerky movements of the arm are more symptomatic of Parkinson's disease.

This patient is also oriented. These are not symptoms of heart failure or stroke and would not need to be reported to the nurse. COPD would cause shortness of breath and requirement of oxygen therapy. The patient may require additional breathing medications at times which would be administered by the nurse or respiratory therapist.

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Coronary Artery Disease would not cause shortness of breath, but may lead to heart attacks. Urinary Tract Infections and Constipation would not cause shortness of breath or require oxygen therapy unless there are respiratory complications. Anticipatory grief is grief that is experienced before the loss or death. There are multiple stages in the grieving process and anticipatory grief is considered normal and healthy. Complicated grief may occur if another tragedy happens at the same time for the person. Unresolved grief is grief that does not resolve over a set period of time, based on what would be expected.

Inhibited grief may be a sign that the person has not accepted the tragedy, and may cause complications later on. We must respect and uphold the cultural needs of our patients. You must immediately notify the nurse about this cultural need. It is possible that the nurse can accommodate the wishes of the family.

The CNA should notify the nurse to come assess the patient. Because this patient is on hospice, the nurse will then notify the doctor if the patient does not have a heartbeat. No interventions will be attempted as the patient is on hospice care. A patient on hospice care would be considered DNR, or Do Not Resuscitate, therefore chest compressions or calling would not be appropriate as this patient is deceased and does not want further intervention.

Because there is no rise and fall of the breath, it would be more appropriate to check for a pulse or notify the nurse that the patient appears to be deceased. Shouting at the patient would not be appropriate. A CNA should leave the determination of time of death up to the nurse to report to the physician.

A CNA can report a suspected patient condition to the nurse. A CNA can provide physical and emotional care for the patient and family during a hospice encounter, as well as making legal records of vital signs and care for the patient. Nursing assistants work in a lot of different places. One place that CNAs work is a skilled nursing facility. Many people, particularly older people, go to what kind of healthcare facility after they are discharged from a hospital after a stroke?

A subacute care center. A hospice. A respite center. A group home. What is the term for this collaborative approach to patient care? Group Care. Primary Care. Team Nursing. She answers the light for a patient who complains of chest pain. Who should the CNA report this finding to?

Director of Nursing. The other CNA when back from lunch break. You are asked to complete a bed change for a lb. You feel uncomfortable changing the bed yourself. What is your next course of action? Schedule a time with another nurse or CNA to have assistance during the bed change. Complete the bed change yourself even though you are uncomfortable. Wait until shift change to let the next shift take care of it. Tell the patient that they do not need a bed change. Which duties would be performed by a CNA in team nursing? Assessment of the heart and lungs. Teaching physical therapy exercises.

All of the above. None of the above. The director of nursing at your long term care nursing home has assigned you to be in charge of the nursing home for the weekend because she is going away on a cruise vacation to the Caribbean. What should you do? Refuse to do the assignment. Do the best you can do. Ask about the details. Call the owner.


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Which of the following actions is ethically wrong in the care of nursing home residents? The CNA remains right outside the bathroom door and instructs the patient to pull the call light when they have finished urinating. The CNA wipes the patient's finger with an alcohol swab prior to taking a blood glucose level. The CNA does not let a confused high-fall risk patient ambulate in the halls without assistance. The CNA chooses to complete an incontinence change every 4 hours on a patient who is incontinent every hour. A patient requires a dressing change for the first time after surgery.

Which of the following staff cannot legally change the patient's dressing immediately after surgery? Which of the following is now the minimal requirement to be able to legally record and document data, such as vital signs and blood sugar readings, within a hospital setting? College Degree. Priorities and Priority Setting. Who developed the Hierarchy of Needs? The CNA is working on a busy med-surg hospital floor and is caring for 10 patients.

Vital signs are taken every 4 hours, with meals delivered at , and It is currently and all patients have received their breakfast trays. Last vital signs were taken at Which of the following is the highest priority? A patient is requesting a full bed bath right now. Taking vitals on all patients since they were not taken at The patients have finished their meals and are requesting the trays to be taken from the room. A patient is complaining of chest pain after surgery and is requesting pain medicine. It is nearly time for your lunch break. A nurse is requesting assistance with an incontinence bed change.

Which of the following is not a proper response? Gather supplies and assist the nurse with the bed change. Tell the nurse you cannot help as you are going on lunch. Delay your lunch if needed to assist the nurse as possible. Request the CNA covering your lunch to assist the nurse. Acceptable and Unacceptable Abbreviations. You are the CNA caring for Mrs. You see a notation on the nursing care plan that states, "ambulate at least 10 yards qid".

This patient will be assisted with ambulation at which of the following times? The RN asks you to bring the unit's collected lab specimens to the lab "stat". Before the end of your shift or after your lunch.

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Hospital policy states that patients on the medical floor should have vital signs taken every 4 hours. Which of the following is an appropriate abbreviation for this order? Signs QID. VS q4 hrs. Vital signs QOD. Vitals QD x 4. What does the medical abbreviation ADL stand for? Activities of Daily Living. Advantages of Disability and Life Insurance. Assessment of Depth and Length. All Day Long. You are caring for a patient with a BKA. What do you expect to see when entering the patient's room related to this abbreviation when working with the patient?

A patient with an amputation below the knee. A patient with tubes coming out of both kidneys. A blood sugar of once you take a finger stick glucose. A patient with swollen legs from heart failure. Observation, Reporting and Abbreviations. Which of the following lists the five senses? What senses do nursing assistants use to observe patients and residents?

Certified Nursing Assistant Exam Prep (90 Questions with Fully Explained Answers)

Sight, hearing and touch. Sight and hearing only. Sight and common sense only. Taste and hearing only. A CNA is caring for an immobile patient and notices a new open sore to the patient's sacrum. What should the CNA do? Report this finding to the nurse.

Place barrier cream over the sore. Ask the patient how they got the sore. Do nothing. A CNA is working in the resident dining hall and notices a resident grabbing at her throat without making any noise. What should the CNA's response be? Perform the Heimlich maneuver. Start chest compressions. Slap the residents back.

Call for help and wait. A CNA is bathing a child on a Pediatric hospital unit. She notices the child has bruising to his arms and legs. What should be the CNA's first response be? Call Child Protective Services. Ask the child what happened. Confront the parents. Report the finding to the charge nurse per hospital protocol. Safety and Managing Behavior. Which risk factor places patients and residents at the greatest risk for falls? Old age.

Middle years. Which sensory impairment places residents and patients at risk for falls? A and c only. You are caring for a resident in an Alzheimer's unit in a nursing home. The resident is repeatedly pushing on the locked door trying to exit the building. Which of the following would be your first response? Unlock the door and allow the resident to exit the building.

Take hold of the resident's elbow and direct them toward the room. Attempt to verbally reorient or redirect the resident back to their room. Assist the resident to their room and apply restraints to prevent her from leaving. You are working in a dual occupancy room in a long-term care facility when the residents start arguing back and forth from their beds. What is the best response? Tell the residents they must stop arguing.

Notify the nurse or resident care manager. Change the room for one resident. Pull the curtain between the two residents. Which of the following is most likely to de-escalate a disoriented patient who is starting to become verbally abusive? Address their concerns in a slow and calm manner. Shout at them to snap out of it. Close the door to their room. Physically assist the patient back into a supine position in bed.

A CNA notices an uncapped syringe lying on the floor in the patient's room. What is the CNA's response? Safely pick up the syringe and place in the sharps container, then report it to the nurse. Ignore the syringe, the cleaning staff will find it and dispose of it. Safely pick up the syringe and place it in the trash can. Leave the syringe in place and report it to the nurse. Disasters and Emergencies. The fire alarms in your nursing home begin ringing.

Nobody on your unit is in immediate danger. A small contained fire breaks out in a small trash can near the lobby of the nursing home. No visitors or residents are in immediate danger. You have pulled the alarm, what should you do next? Extinguish the fire if you can do so safely and without harm. Run away from the fire. Cover the fire with a blanket.

Open the windows and exit the floor. Which of the following locations would provide you with the most up-to-date information on how to respond to a disaster within your facility? Google Search. Ask another CNA. The Facility's Policy and Procedures Manual. Human Resources Handbook.

In the event of a tornado spotting near the proximity of the building, what is the CNA's response to maintain patient safety? Move patients as far away from windows as possible.

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Assist ambulatory patients to exit the building. Do nothing, the building is secure. Take patients down to the basement using the elevator. Which patients should be evacuated first in the event of a fire within the area? Immobile patients or patients on life support.

Small children and ambulatory patients. Patients requiring transfer assistance or use of a stretcher. Patients in wheelchairs or who can ambulate with walkers. You hear the code for an infant abduction over the intercom in the hospital. You notice a suspicious person walking with a large bag quickly through the halls. What is your response? Tell the person to give you their bag. Ignore the suspicious person. Block the exit to prevent the suspicious person from leaving.

Safely attempt to detain the person until security arrives. Personal Care Skills. A patient is confined to their bed and needs assistance at meals. What position should you place the bed in as you are feeding the patient? High Fowler's. Reverse Trendelenburg. Which of the following tasks would more likely be performed by a nurse?


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Feeding an Alzheimer's patient who does not have trouble swallowing. Ambulating a low fall-risk patient with a walker. Bathing a surgical patient prior to surgery.

CNA Practice Test 1

Trimming the toenails of a patient with Diabetic Neuropathy. Which of the following patients is likely to be placed on contact precautions in a hospital setting? A patient with MRSA. A patient who is coughing. A patient who just had hip surgery. An elderly patient. What are standard precautions? Hand washing or hand sanitizing between patients, wearing gloves if handling bodily fluids.

Wearing gloves at all times, only hand washing between patients. Wearing gloves and a mask while in the patient's room. Gloves and hand washing is not required between patient rooms. Which of the following hospital floors would you most likely expect to see Reverse Isolation Precautions? Mobility is an important human function. Topics covered: active listening skills, working with clients from other cultures, assisting vision and hearing impaired clients, and more.

Review Communication and Interpersonal Skills questions before your exam. These 25 questions cover the following topics: helping a new resident feel comfortable, understanding non-verbal communication, supporting patients who are grieving, how to ask open-ended questions, understanding body language.

This test covers Infection Control and contains 20 questions that are very similar to the real test. As a trained CNA providing direct patient care, you should be familiar with protective protocols and how pathogens are shared. Example topics: types and causes of infections, personal protective equipment, respiratory etiquette. There are many things to know about the laws and ethics of being a professional in health care.

It may seem complicated, but once you understand the basics, you will become a responsible and successful CNA. Some of the topics covered include scenarios with neglect and abuse, confidentiality and privacy, advanced directives, patient right to refuse, situations involving patient rights. As a health care professional, the CNA provides more than physical care for clients. You will often be the first to notice a change in their mental status. Once you learn more about mental health, you will also be able to offer support and care for clients in all types of situations.

This practice test covers Personal Care Skills and contains 40 questions that are very similar to the real test. Personal care includes everything from assisting with the basics, such as getting dressed and eating, to supporting the family when they have concerns about their loved one.

Providing personal care and helping each person feel their best can be one of the most satisfying parts of becoming a CNA. Personal care involves all aspects of physical and emotional support. It is different for each person, and can change from day to day. Often it includes the family, who can be concerned about their loved one. Many CNAs say that personal care is the favorite part of their job. Health care professionals who work in nursing homes and long-term care facilities are responsible for protecting the rights of the residents.

Violation of these rights, or not protecting them, is a legal offense, with possible severe consequences.

Certified Nursing Assistant Exam Prep

Topics covered: religious and cultural rights, right to refuse care or treatment, understanding use of restraints, scenarios demonstrating Resident Rights, sexuality in the elderly, sharing a room with a spouse or partner. Every health care professional faces a possible safety or medical emergency. As a first-line caregiver, the CNA may be the first to recognize signs of distress. This practice test will provide some case studies that a CNA could encounter. Some of the topics covered in this Safety and Emergency Procedures practice test include the following topics: patient falls: how to prevent them and what to do if a fall happens; understanding medication side effects; identifying common medical emergencies: stroke, shortness of breath; safety during a fire; what to do when a patient vomits.

Contains 60 questions that have been divided among the domains, or categories, in the same way the actual CNA exam is constructed. The questions in this exam are taken from our practice tests and are very similar some are even identical to those on the real test. Each time you restart the Exam Mode, the questions are shuffled into a new order.

No two exams are the same. The site provides free practice tests that simulate the official exam. Start NOW. Total confidence. Exam Mode. This site helped me so much. I was super nervous about taking my CNA state exam.