Elizabeth Freeman was a slave and a wage earner but she was also a family member. The will she dictated shortly before her death in enumerates her own family. A daughter, a granddaughter, and four great-grandchildren survived her to inherit an estate that included real property, furniture, clothing and jewelry.
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With the legal transmission of her property, Elizabeth Freeman claimed the lineal family that slavery had denied her. At the same time that Freeman was preserving and extending a lineal family, she was also a member of the Sedgwick family. To incorporate Freeman into their family imaginary, the Sedgwicks discursively severed her from her own. But they also register a plaintive enviousness. Did Freeman even sit for the portrait? How was the miniature displayed, and to whom? Here, it is suggestive to consider the possibility that the painting was a gift, given from one Sedgwick to another.
That symbolic exchange would have recalled a literal one. As children, Elizabeth Freeman and her sister were gifts, given by their owner, Pieter Hogeboom, to his daughter, Annetje, to celebrate her wedding. It is governed by an aesthetic that is as deeply racialized as the conventions governing the likeness of Elizabeth Freeman. Like so many other nineteenth-century ivory miniatures, the painting was undertaken as a gift. Rather than reinforcing familial bonds within a single generation, it reinforced them across several generations.
In the end, the painting realized its purpose: it became a symbol of family, a symbol of love. But it was also a symbol of unrealized aspiration. Betsey Way Champlain could never have scraped up the cash to commission such a painting. Most of the time, she barely managed to make her rent. It was only her skill, her labor, that made the gift possible. On ivory, if not in life, Betsey Way Champlain could claim more than gentility; she could claim the security that went with it. I would also like to thank my co-editor Georgia Barnhill for her wonderful insights, patience, and good humor as we worked together on this volume.
Truettner and Roger B. Stein, eds. Scholars of early New England have notably worked with artifacts on a wide variety of scales from landscapes and buildings to textiles and decorative arts. For a classic statement of this position, see W. For a sample of the diversity of approaches to material culture studies, see Robert Blair St. George, ed. Vanessa R. Schwartz and Jeannene M.
For a study of the relationship between late nineteenth-century visuality and the rise of mass culture see Vanessa R.
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Hall, David G. Allen, and Philip C. Ward Boston: Colonial Society of Massachusetts, Boston : Museum of Fine Arts, Kennebunk, Me. The absence in this volume of scholarship on Native American culture reflects the content of the proposals submitted for the conference from which these essays were drawn. Calloway and Neal Salisbury, eds. Libby, and Walter G. Davis, eds.
Noyes et al. For a discussion on the rarity and symbolic importance of silver in early Maine see Edwin A. The quote is from York Deeds , 2: York Deeds , 5, pt. Emerson W. Libby, ed. Paul J. Lindholdt, ed. Halsey Thomas, 2 vols. Cary Carson, Norman F. Barka, William M. Carson et al. Milet-Mureau London, , I: 37— New Haven: Yale University Press, , — Department of the Interior, Boston: Northeastern University Press, For a study of how international trade influenced the early American economy see James R.
There is an extensive bibliography on eighteenth-century voyage narratives. New Haven: Yale University Press, Amherst, Mass. Like the Salem Social Library, libraries in other seaports functioned as elite social institutions collecting a wide range of books; like the East India Marine Society, they collected unusual objects for their cabinet of curiosities. Hall, eds. Cambridge, Eng. Gross and Mary Kelley, eds. Chapel Hill, N. The Social Library published its holdings several times. Secondary sources on the Salem Athenaeum include Cynthia B. They include financial, catalogue, and charge records.
Dabney, Harold L. MS 88, Box 1, Folder 1. This was the basis of the sumptuously illustrated atlas published in French in MS 88, Box 4, Folder 2. MS 88, Box 1, Vol. For a study of ideological aspects of mapping see Matthew H. Frederic W. These books, as well as maps and atlases were easily available. Cambridge, Mass.
William A. For a comparison with holdings on aesthetics in other libraries, see Janice G. London: J Nourse, William Mason York, Eng. Entry for December 18, Entry for July 25, The sketches are reproduced in Bean, Edes suggests that this print was never produced, however, it was; see John W. On Burgis and his works, see Richard B. John Harris is identified on the finished print as the engraver. On Harris, see Clayton, 21; and Edes, — According to Reps, writing in the early s, the only known copy exists at the Essex Institute now the Peabody Essex Museum ; see Reps, See for example, the May 6—13, issue of the New-England Courant.
On the Townhouse, see Martha J. For a brief biography of Price see Edes, — On Selby himself, see also Edes, — The following discussion is drawn from P. Marshall Oxford, Eng. On the introduction of the picturesque to early eighteenth-century English elites, see Ellis Waterhouse, Painting in Britain, —, 4th ed.
Obadiah subsequently became a merchant, owner of sloops, brigantines, and schooners see James B. This procedure is the one typically used for coasting. Until the invention of the chronometer, however, this procedure was prone to error, so landfall sightings—navigational elevations—were particularly important. On the development of more accurate survey methods, see Ibid. The following discussion draws on Marshall, 11—12; and Price, 81— For an example of smuggling, see the activities of Thomas Hancock as discussed in W.
On eighteenth-century men-of-war, see E. Poole, Eng. On station ships, see John W. On merchants and the changing urban fabric of New England, see Hunter, 84—88, — By identifying specific structures in the print, Burgis, Price, and Selby might hope that individuals associated with these structures would purchase the print. Alternatively, they might have included the identifying numbers and labels only after subscriptions were paid.
On shipyards and shipbuilding, see Joseph A. On cargo carried by Boston-based vessels and the complexities of the transatlantic trade, see the career of Thomas Hancock as discussed in Baxter, 45— On merchants commissioning ships, see Goldenberg, 82— For a brief discussion of the sailing characteristics of a fore-and-aft rigged vessel, see Douglas Phillips-Birt, A History of Seamanship London: George Allen and Unwin, , , — On the sailing characteristics of a square-rigged vessel, see Phillips-Birt, — The American Magazine was published for just over three years, from to For an overview of the scope of trade and the individuals affected, see Price, 78— Interestingly, Hyde omits views of towns in the colonies.
For a short account of this incident, see Edmund S. Morgan, The Birth of the Republic, —89, rev. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , 35— Robert Blair St. Richard M. Clark, James S. Leamon, and Karen Bowden, eds. James F. Fisher received an invitation to become minister at Blue Hill on October 5, , according to his diary entry for that day, although he had preached in Blue Hill during the summer months in previous years. Diary entries for October 13 and 15, The painting is in the collection of the William A.
Except when quoting directly from Fisher, or referring to a period title, the modern form is used here. Joseph S.
To the gym for the Motherland – Black Ivory Tower
David C. Charles E. On Federalist opposition in Maine to the War of , and its impact on the statehood movement, see Ronald F. Richard L. Knopf, , Paul Coffin, D. Transcribed in James H. Hallowell, Me. Also see: Samuel M. Richard Eliot of Thomaston and Mrs. William R. Tobey who was 90 years old in Taylor, Liberty Men , 41— The quotation is from page Roger G. Reed, unpublished study of the Ruggles House, —8, 4—6. The author kindly made his manuscript available to me for consultation. The fundamental treatment of this conflict is found in Stephen A. David Cobb to C. The discipline of cultural geography has been effective in describing the ways in which landscape and architecture were manipulated in early America and elsewhere as means of reproducing social relations.
Jay Miskowiec, Diacritics Vol. For information regarding the sugar box crafted by Winslow, see Jonathan L. Fairbanks and Robert F. Trent, Style, vol.
This figure is the most conservative within the recently published literature on the loyalists, and another 15, can be added to the total if one counts slaves that were brought with fleeing loyalists. Peter Coldham has recently set the figure at 70,, although both historians agree that quantifying the number of loyalists that entered into exile is extremely difficult given the numerous destinations of flight and the ambiguities surrounding definitions of loyalism.
Many loyalist refugees also filed claims requesting compensation for lost property from the British government; for a summary of these claims, see Mary Beth Norton, The British Americans: The Loyalist Exiles in England, — Boston: Little, Brown and Company, , — These three strategies operate at the center of my dissertation, and this essay serves as an overview of the predominant themes of the larger project.
Hanover, N. For the structure and unreliability of transatlantic networks, see Ian K. Arjun Appadurai Cambridge, Eng. Jennifer Roberts has taken the issue of movement more literally, proving the centrality of spatial issues such as transmission and mobility in the Atlantic world, especially in relation to the objects that connected the widely dispersed subjects of the British crown; see Jennifer L.
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For a discussion of the inalienable spirit, or hau, at the center of gifts and the social networks they create, see Marcel Mauss, The Gift: the Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies, trans. Halls New York: W. Norton, , viii, 11—12, Schrift, ed. Fairbanks and Trent, Style, —99 and Ian M. The above sources disagree, however, in relation to the name of the female recipient of the sugar box; Fairbanks and Trent stated it was Mary Belcher Oliver while Quimby named the recipient as Elizabeth Belcher Oliver. Privately Printed, , 34— Fairbanks and Trent, Style, The box was likely given to commemorate the birth of Daniel Oliver, born June 13, , who did not survive infancy.
For information regarding the Oliver family genealogy, see Oliver, Faces of a Family, Appendices 5 and 6. For the inherent liquidity of silver objects, see Mark A. For a discussion of the inalienable spirit of objects enmeshed in social networks, see Mauss, The Gift, 11—12 and Weiner, Inalienable Possessions , 4—6. See Fairbanks and Trent, Style, The provenance of the object at Winterthur, however, maintains that it left the family at some point in the nineteenth century and entered the collections of a Scottish Church, where the same American dealer found it in the s.
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M rs Hutchinson tells me this was your greatest dread. Salmon, Women and the Law of Property, xv. The adoption of the principle of separate estates largely depended on a colony adopting the dual system of English law, which involved establishing both courts of law and courts of equity chancery courts. While Salmon states that the Puritan bias against chancery courts prevented them from being established in New England, New York, Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina did establish chancery courts.
Pennsylvania did not, but did give its courts of law the ability to rule in cases of equity, giving the courts some teeth in terms of enforcing separate estates. See Salmon, Women and the Law of Property, 81—84, — For colonial women who articulated political opinions, particularly in opposition to those of their spouse, see Cynthia Kierner, Southern Women in Revolution, — Personal and Political Narratives Columbia, S. The exception of course, is the aforementioned settlement of a separate estate within a marriage contract.
Separate estates, however, were not available to women in all thirteen colonies see n21, above , and were employed by only a few families. Confiscation laws varied by state, although all state governments acted against the estates of loyalists in some manner. For confiscation law in Massachusetts, see Richard D. For New York, see Harry B. For Pennsylvania, see Anne M. For Georgia, see Robert S.
For the hope that loyalist objects entrusted to women would remain safe from confiscations, see Kerber, Women of the Republic, 9— Although Gilbert died in England in , he returned briefly to Boston in and while there, made a will. An inventory of his possessions followed in and included a large number of goods, all of which Ann Deblois likely played a role in preserving.
See Gilbert Deblois Inventory, 13 March , docket no. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston also holds a c. See Clothespress This is evidenced by the fact that all the original hardware is intact and most of the damage sustained has been the result of wood expansion and shrinkage related to natural shifts in climate.
See Robert Mussey Associates, Inc. The fact that the desk-and-bookcase was constructed of a grade of particularly hard, dense mahogany also made it less susceptible to the dents, bruises, and dings that occur with the passage of time. Robert Mussey, email message to author, 15 June The Deblois desk-and-bookcase proceeded down a direct line of family descent until The Deblois clothespress, or chest-on-chest, has a similar provenance, remaining in the family until the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston acquired it in See Edward S.
Byrd also talked with another portrait in his home, that of his sister-in-law, Jane Pratt Taylor. I owe this citation to the collegiality of Jennifer Van Horn. Jephcott Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , 9. The Copley portrait evidently made some, if not all, of these trips with her. See Rebora et al. The pendants of James and Susannah Boutineau painted by Robert Feke in are also believed to have made the trip from Massachusetts to Nova Scotia with fleeing loyalists; see Richard H. Saunders and Ellen G. Only The Knatchbull Family c. The near-esoteric approach that the Belarusians opt for on this album inevitably results in not everybody being able to comprehend what they are talking about, definitively dismantling the interpretation of this work as the umpteenth flagrant brainwashing attempt to emerge from the RAC scene; the mere presence of a poetic dimension is in itself more than sufficient to place Voiceless are your words firmly outside the field of rash propaganda music.
Difficult to tell at which side of the political spectrum the band members position themselves, however, it is not. It reflects a worldview that is dictated by ethnic nationalism, albeit the variation that seeks fraternisation between European peoples instead of dedicating its efforts to the promotion of chauvinism. The conservative perspective that the band commonly unleashes upon phenomena such as reproduction, technology, drug use and commerciality flirt with sentiments that — largely due to religious demographics — enjoy significantly more support in Eastern lands than they do in the ultra-liberal, secularised West.
Even still, the approach of such themes on Voiceless in your words is characterised by an unusual degree of subtlety. When held against this light of political extremism, a large part of the contents of Voiceless are your words seems relatively tame, and at times even mystical. The more educated listener will no doubt recognise fragments, albeit sporadically, that indicate the band has not exactly abandoned its ideological foundation, though the implicit approach makes it easier to detach such elements from the music, should such a need arise.
What essentially defines the aesthetic of Voiceless are your words , and by extension the modern incarnation of Kamaedzitca , is the concept of self-improvement. Indeed, this is the very source of the peculiar combination of romantic heathen themes, strict social-conservative values and the MMA aura that has been surrounding the band over the last couple of years.
The paradoxical nature of this mish-mash is to be found in the fact that the present-day gym, and all that occurs within its walls — be it body-building, contemporary martial arts or regular fitness — is commonly identified with the egocentric. The principal motivation of modern man to maintain corporal fitness is to be found in vanity. In the oeuvre of Kamaedzitca , this multidimensionality experiences a revival, with its creators taking normally light-hearted activities such as lifting weights, doing push-ups or beating one another, and repositioning them in the service of a higher goal: in this case the ambition of becoming a superhuman, that, by having a healthy mind in a healthy body, embodies the ideal of the total man.
Only he possesses the discipline and self-control required to combat the excrescences of modernity whilst also resisting its temptations. A gym membership for the Motherland, so to speak. Not only because, in this wretched world, it is difficult to imagine that one might take care of his own body for reasons other than landing dates, but also due to the cult of weakness that, over the years, weaseled its way into political rhetoric, television culture and the general perception of the Western world, to the point of sheer domination.
I care not for the psyche of a child, for that is a nuisance of our time. The return of a fitness ideal that transcends masturbatory self-complacency does not only clarify why the approach of the band may seem so confusing at first, but it goes on to explain why the music itself may initially come across as convoluted.
From the martial arts subculture, Kamaedzitca exports musical influences that one would be hard-pressed to encounter in the work of any of the other artists in the genre. Present on the album is a rich amount of elements from other musical styles, such as electronics, hardcore, and at times even a whiff of rap.
Each of them provides the compositions with a worked-up MMA atmosphere, an additional result of which is that many a track on this album is more than suitable as a soundtrack for weight-lifting sessions, or street brawls if that is your fancy. This culminates into a duality that simply cannot be observed in any other musical project. A similar duality can be found in the ambient tracks and fragments that are prominently featured yet again on Voiceless are your words. In contrast with earlier material, the ambient is now enriched with subtle yet noticeable electronica influences.
Coincidental or not, it is only fitting that the band would introduce said element at this point, given that these ambient compositions in particular hint towards the relationship between modern man, ancient civilisations and a possible alien influence on the latter. Whether the band touches upon these themes out of a genuine interest or even conviction, or just in reflection of a casual interest, remains a source of speculation.
The song was written for an MMA tournament and draws a parallel between the battle spirit that is required to win a cage fight on one side, and the warriors mentality that the peoples of Ruthenia have acquired across the centuries, on the other. In reflection of this juxtaposition, the music painlessly switches from rave beats to solos played on traditional instruments, primarily the bagpipe and the flute. As such, the underlying message is masterfully utilised to shape the music, making the latter considerably easier to comprehend, and a lot less likely to confuse attentive listeners.
Even though some of these stylistic raids are bound to make the listener wonder what on earth just happened, actual touch-and-go aesthetic decisions are not made throughout the album. This tells us that, while Kamaedzitca has been setting out its own unique path for quite some time, it is only with Voiceless are your words that the band started hitting the nail on the head at this frighteningly consistent rate. By connecting its own history to present-day culture with a high degree of success, Kamaedzitca accomplishes what is — or should be — the final objective of music of this kind: to deliver a work of national art.
Luty and Artsem show that they are able as well as prepared to make music that does not just honour the rich musical and cultural traditions of the Belarusian homefront, but transcends them; transcendence in the sense that a musical effort is delivered that may not always sound traditional — sometimes even the direct opposite of that — but which at all times emits a traditional spirit. In other words, the musicians lend their talents, visions and ambitions to the benefit of a broader national-cultural context.
And for this the band deserves recognition, regardless of the political ideology that its members are proponents of. For in this day and age, in which culturally uprooted fastfood music is the standard — regardless from whether we are looking at the low or the supposedly high culture — it is encouraging to see how firmly and self-consciously a duo of utterly unknown musicians is connected to its home soil, respecting tradition without lapsing into gimmicks; remaining in connection with the here and now without losing sight of the self.
At the end of the day, what separates Kamaedzitca from the countless circus artists that swarm like locust the avant-garde and experimental metal scenes, is the fact that the band operates by no means randomly in deciding which sources of inspiration it wants to drink from, and which muscles of its talented musical body it is going to flex. Quite to the contrary: the group can fully and effortlessly justify all of the remarkable choices it makes on Voiceless out your words through a clear approximation of its own aesthetic.
Not the contrast between urban melancholy, grey imagery and colourful music; not the presence of both modern and classical music styles; not the constant switching between metal and ambient tracks will turn out at all inexplicable or unfathomable upon closer inspection. This clears the path for a uniform, consistently high-quality listening experience that is never obstructed by the great variety of atmospheres and styles present.
Such is the face of true originality: she is the means towards the goal, and in spite of all the applause she may receive, she never gives in to the temptation of claiming the lead role for herself, as it would rupture coarsely the carefully construed equilibrium. Voiceless are your words of Kamaedzitca will provide a moment of reflection for all those amateuristic style mixers that persist in the illusion that throwing together a few musical genres automatically earns them the right to boast about being the instigators of a new genre; they who, driven by the same vanity as those roid-addicted bullies, submit their feeble attempts to innovate to the goal of cultivating their own edginess.
It is also a good lesson for all those post metal simpletons who hastily rehash old sub genres and deem it unnecessary to surpass their inspirations to truly create something new. At the same time, Voiceless are you words is a voice in the desert. Because notwithstanding the maturity of their musical mission, for the time being they are damned to waddle in the periphery of obscurity, propagating a vision that may just be heard accidentally by a casual passerby — such as yours truly — all the while the daily madness has all eyes fixed on it.
Then let this magnificent album, this tremendous artistic victory at least be the first snow on a deserted road [ 4 ]. From the distance we can hear the raging traffic on the chaotic interstate, where one car after another crashes. Perhaps, a few brave souls will eventually be properly motivated take a detour across the tranquility of this small road, wondering why they never travelled through this part of the land before.
Voiceless are your words can be listened to and downloaded here for free or whatever you wish to pay for it. Line-up: Radan Luty — vocals, lyrics Artsem — music. Tracklist: 1. The Queen mother, the most important woman in the realm, is also present and surrounded by her court exclusively made up of women. The Ashanti funerals are celebrated to commemorate the deceased and are a unique event that takes place after the burial.
It celebrates the transition of the soul of the deceased, called Okra, into the ancestral world where it becomes a protective spirit for the clan, therefore highly venerated. Family, friends and acquaintances, sometimes in their hundreds, take part in the celebrations. They all come dressed traditionally. Men wear a large piece of black cloth over their shoulder, just like a toga, and relatives can be recognized as they only wear black or red clothes.
The chiefs attending the funeral sit in the shade of large colorful umbrellas surrounded by their court. After the traditional greetings on arrival, everyone takes a seat. Some start to dance, performing slow and graceful movements with an obvious erotic and heroic touch to them. It is celebrated around the traditional chiefs in order to benefit from the constant protection of the guardian spirits and also to strengthen unity between the people and their chiefs, the people kneeling down to pay their respects to the chiefs.
It is a unique opportunity to attend a highly colourful royal ceremony enjoying the sound of great drums giving rhythm to the strong moments of this ancestral ceremony. Each year, at the end of April, the Krobo people perform one of the most spectacular African initiation ceremonies exclusively intended for girls. It is called Dipo.
Through ancestral rites, the girls are initiated to their future role of mothers and brides over a long week-end. The peak of the festival is when the girls have to take their clothes off to cover themselves in beads instead, made by the Krobo themselves.
That way their freshness and beauty is highlighted and in this majestic atmosphere the girls finally enter adulthood. The village is entirely transformed during those days: parties, dances, colors, rhythms and joyful emotions give us the opportunity to live an unforgettable experience.