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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Front Plant Sci 8:Art. Dendrochronologia , DOI Forstarchiv 88 1 , DOI Auflage, Juli Version 1. April im Kultur- und Kongresszentrum Bad Langensalza. Carbon Balance Manag Art. Data Brief , DOI Schum an economically important tree species from tropical West and Central Africa. Fungal Ecol , DOI In: Innovationstage : Die Zukunft ins Jetzt holen ; Oktober in Bonn.

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Ecosystems 15 7 , DOI Heidelberg; Berlin: Springer, pp Liesebach H, Ewald E Optimisation of a multiplex PCR assay of nuclear microsatellite markers for population genetics and clone identification in Robinia pseudoacacia L.. Lepidoptera, Torticidae. Forstarchiv 83 1 , DOI J Heredity 4 , doi Juni ; Cottbus. Scand J Forest Res 26 Suppl. Ecol Model 7 , DOI Variation among natural populations in different density.

A [Kap. J Heredity 6 , doi Der Wald als Komponente eines Landschaftssystems. Schweiz Z Forstwesen 9 , doi Forum Hydrol Wasserbewirtsch Lepidoptera, Tortricidae. Holzforsch 63 4 , DOI Environ Pollut 3 , DOI Don] Lindl. In: Implementation of MCPFE commitments : national and pan-european activities ; forests for quality of life ; November Appl Geochem 22 6 , DOI Mol Ecol 15 2 , DOI Progeny Test.

Angew Wiss Mues V, Seidling W Evaluations of the international cross-calibration courses and Oktober , Teisendorf, Deutschland. Forstwiss Centralbl Suppl. Oktober Schmallenberg-Grafschaft, pp Oak defence: Biomarker for monitoring pest-tolerant oaks in different climates.

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Microbiotas on African import timber: non-indigenous fungi and bacteria. Analyses of the microbiome for identification and selection of potential antagonists and their evaluation in planta against the causative agent of ash dieback. Crossing scales and disciplines to identify global trends in tree mortality. Genetic reference data and statistical methods for the identification of species and geographical origin. Genetic monitoring network for European beech and Norway spruce in Germany. Quantification and regionalisation of economic values of forest ecosystem services in Germany.

Material and process development for the production of wood-biopolymer sandwich panels based on renewable resources. Further development of emission factors for living biomass in forests. Autonomous technology for power supply in the intensive forest monitoring.

Sampling based survey of the soil conditions of forest sites. Carbon and nutrient storage of forest sites of Rhineland-Palatinate. Capacity Development for forest-related Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Adaptibility and growth under climate change of provenances of Scots pine. Studies on stability, growth and diversity of progenies of crosses from selected tree species.

AFZ Wald 74 1 ProWald 5 Buschbom J Exploring and validating statistical reliability in forensic conservation genetics. AFZ Wald 73 9 Liesebach M Growth performance and wood properties of Betula maximowicziana and B. Eusemann P, Liesebach M, Liesebach H Managing beech forests for seed production - increasing phenotypic quality while preserving genetic diversity. Liesebach M, Schneck V The German forest tree breeding concept - the base for new seed orchards.

AFZ Wald 72 5 Forstzeitung 6 Forstzeitung 7 Holz Zentralbl 24 Studia Forestalia Slov AFZ Wald 72 10 Landschaftsentwickl Umweltforsch Holz Zentralbl 4 Joensuu: European Forest Institute, pp AFZ Wald 71 20 Cham: Springer International Publ, pp Rom: Bioversity International, 44 p. Forstarchiv 86 2 Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 12 p. AFZ Wald 70 11 Ewald D, Naujoks G Vegetative propagation of wavy grain Acer pseudoplatanus and confirmation of wavy grain in wood of vegetatively propagated trees: a first evaluation.

AFZ Wald 70 23 AFZ Wald 70 6 Bolte A, Stanturf JA, Madsen P Adaptive forest management in global temperate forests: pathways for a co-operative network concept. Int Forestry Rev 16 5 Spathelf P, Bolte A Adaptive forest management: the key for forest adaptation to climate change.

Eickenscheidt N, Wellbrock N Consistency of defoliation data of the national training courses for the forest condition survey in Germany from to BDF Aktuell 11 Wood Fiber Sci 46 2 AFZ Wald 69 14 Berlin: Rhombos-Verl, pp AFZ Wald 69 2 Tuexenia LWF Aktuell 98 Allg Forst Jagdzeitg AFZ Wald 68 23 Eickenscheidt N, Brumme R Contribution of 15 N-labelled leaf litter to N turnover, nitrous oxide emissions and N sequestration in a beech forest during eleven years. AFZ Wald 68 5 Cordes M Establishment of forest mitigation fund to improve the protection of forests by generating revenues of ecosystem services in Peru.

Amsterdam: Elsevier, p, Dev Environ Sci Mitt Dt Dendrol Gesellsch BfN Skripten Jolivet C, Rogge M, Degen B Molecular and quantitative signatures of biparental inbreeding depression in the self-incompatible tree species Prunus avium. Dev Environ Sci Bolte A, Kampf F, Hilbrig L Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests - signs for facilitation?

Forschungsrep Ern Landwirtsch Forsten 2 AFZ Wald 68 17 Forensic Sci Int Genetics 7 1 Beitr Nordwestdt Forstl Versuchsanst AFZ Wald 67 5 Silvae Genetica 61 The four recreation areas differed in the share of people who know and who have visited them. The Altes Land had the second highest level of recognition Having the choice among the four areas, Less favoured were the Elbe Marshes The more known a recreation area was, the higher the number of people who had visited it was. The non-existing correlation shows that better-known recreation areas are not per se more popular.

Initially, it was assumed that better-known recreation areas would be used more frequently. Also, we assumed that more preferred recreation areas were used more frequently. Respondents were asked to name their most important criterion for recreation areas from the given criteria diversity, uniqueness, naturalness, place attachment, accessibility, food services, and information services.

Also, when analysing each criterion individually, there were no significant differences among recreation areas. This means that the preference for a criterion did not influence the preference for a recreation area or vice versa. However, there were some differences worth mentioning although they were not statistically significant. This means that preferred recreation areas were characterised by positive ratings of uniqueness and naturalness. Most of the criteria were assessed significantly different among the individual recreation areas diversity, uniqueness, accessibility, food services and information services , while others were assessed similarly naturalness and place attachment; Fig.

This means that high and consistent ratings of naturalness were strongly related to preference. The only social factor which showed a fundamental influence on outdoor recreation was age. Other social factors like gender, educational level and place of residence were not significant. For older people outdoor recreation outside of Hamburg was much more important than for younger ones. For this age group recreation outside of the city is exactly as important as recreation within the city. The older the respondents were, the more likely it was that they knew the recreation areas and that they had visited the recreation areas.

Older respondents generally assessed the criteria more positively than younger ones. Overall, outdoor recreation was very important for urban dwellers. Especially outdoor recreation within the city was highly important and also carried out often. Although most people use parks and green spaces within the city more often than rural recreation areas outside of the city, the respondents stressed the importance of outdoor recreation outside of the city.

This symbolic value of outdoor recreation outside of the city means that people cherish a landscape more because of its existence existence value , than because of their frequent use of the landscape value of use. Obviously, outdoor recreation sites outside of the city have a high symbolic value for urban dwellers besides of their value of use. The high symbolic value of recreation areas outside of the city might be due to the higher quality of the visit, namely higher aesthetic qualities of the rural areas or longer stays of the respondents in these areas.

The high importance of outdoor recreation for urban dwellers found in this study is similar to other surveys which identified walking and hiking as the number one activity during day trips in the metropolitan region compared to other leisure activities [27]. For urban dwellers of Hamburg, walking and hiking is even more important than for the residents of the more rural counties in the metropolitan region [27]. A high symbolic value was found for specific recreation areas outside of Hamburg as there was no correlation between preference and use of recreation areas. Some of the recreation areas were highly valued, although they were not used more often than others, e.

On the contrary, there were less preferred recreation areas, like the Harburg Hills and the Elbe Marshes, which were used as frequently as highly preferred recreation areas. Concerning the characteristics of recreation areas, landscape-related criteria such as diversity, uniqueness, and naturalness which indicate landscape attractiveness were most important for urban dwellers. Especially, perceived naturalness was by far the most important criterion. Additionally, preferred recreation areas were characterised by positive ratings of uniqueness and naturalness.

These results show that practical and service-related criteria, like the accessibility of recreation areas and the availability of service facilities are of minor importance. Although the results show the low importance of service-related infrastructure compared to landscape-related characteristics, it cannot be concluded that urban dwellers do not want service infrastructure at all. As we only asked for the most important criterion, it might be that urban dwellers regard service infrastructure as lower-ranking, but still as an important criterion.

The different results might be explained by the focus on different qualities and distances of recreation areas. Results might be different for cities and regions, which do not have attractive landscapes in close proximity. Then, the factor naturalness might be less important, because the most important issue would be to have accessible recreation landscapes of any kind. Furthermore, urban dwellers might have different preferences than people in rural areas. Hunziker [29] for example found that assessment results differ between experts, locals and tourists, especially for landscape change scenarios.

Additionally, there might also be different preferences or even conflicts within the group of recreationists and tourists. This study focussed on quiet, nature based forms of outdoor recreation. In contrast, people who prefer other more infrastructure dependent outdoor activities like skiing or downhill mountain biking show different recreational preferences concerning infrastructure and landscape [30] , [31].

Therefore, potentially different preferences of local inhabitants, farmers, tourists and other stakeholders who use different ecosystem services have to be considered when it comes to planning for recreation areas. Different planning approaches might also be necessary to consider the preferences of different age groups as age was the only social factor among gender, educational level and place of residence that significantly influenced outdoor recreation preferences and behaviour.

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While it might be more difficult to engage young people in outdoor recreation activities outside of the city, an option might be to focus on recreation activities within the city as young people have a higher preference to recreate there. The study suggests that respondents' understanding of naturalness differs from an ecological definition.

While urban dwellers perceived a similar degree of naturalness for all landscapes, the recreation areas have different degrees of human influence when taking account of naturalness and human influence as defined by Kowarik [32]. Boll et al. As all recreational landscapes that were considered in the study have a high aesthetic value in comparison to non-recreational landscapes, it is assumed that intensively-used agrarian areas would be evaluated less positively in terms of naturalness.

Studies on a finer scale, which used photographs in the survey, show a more differentiated perception of naturalness. Their results showed that judgments of naturalness were related to ecological naturalness, but not equivalent. The findings of this study suggest that the assessment of landscape aesthetics is not as subjective and individualistic as it is often claimed.

Not only were landscape-related criteria evaluated more consistently among respondents, but also were more respondents able to assess landscape-related criteria than service and infrastructure-related criteria. These results are noteworthy as many authors regard landscape aesthetics as highly subjective [35] , compared to measurable criteria like food and information services.

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Similar inter-subjective assessments might be due to the common cultural background of Hamburg residents. Hunziker [36] found that inter-subjective agreement among respondents increases, the larger and more complex the assessed landscape was. As the size of the individual subsamples varies for some of the research questions, the results have to be interpreted with some care. While the whole survey included a robust sample size of inhabitants of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region, the research questions on the four recreation areas were using subsamples for the individual recreation areas.

The findings on the correlation between different criteria of the recreation areas were only based on four recreation areas in the southern Hamburg Metropolitan Region. Therefore, we regard the results that preferences for recreation areas are different from the actual use as a hypothesis, which has to be validated by further case studies. The limitations of the methodology in this case study and the specific conditions of the survey have to be considered when generalizing the results. While Hamburg residents have many opportunities for their outdoor recreation within the city and several popular recreation areas in the immediate vicinity, the situation might be different in other cities.

Therefore, it would be interesting to compare the results with other cities that have different endowment with green spaces within and outside of the city.

CIVILand – Results

The size of the city might also influence the relation of outdoor recreation within and outside of the city. While residents of large cities are expected to be more reliant on inner city recreation areas, residents of smaller cities might put an even stronger emphasis on recreation outside of the city.

The number and quality of recreation areas might therefore influence the importance of outdoor recreation within and outside of the city. In metropolitan areas, it seems to be very important to provide outdoor recreation opportunities both within the city e. Although urban dwellers recreate more often within the city, recreation outside of the city has a high symbolic value.

Outdoor recreation outside of the city is even more important for older people, while younger people have a stronger focus to recreate inside the city. As a higher preference for certain recreation areas did not automatically lead to higher frequency of use, there might be landscapes which are highly valued, but not used often.

Thus, landscape changes in areas that are not used by many recreationists might as well provoke public protest. Hamburg residents use recreation areas like the Harburg Hills relatively frequently, although they were not the preferred landscape for the survey participants. For all recreational landscapes the actual appearance of the landscape is perceived as significantly more important for recreation than their accessibility and their endowment with service facilities.

If a city has accessible and high value recreation areas in their surroundings, urban dwellers will appreciate this. Naturalness is by far the most important characteristic of recreation areas outside of the city. Concerning naturalness as perceived by people, it does not seem to be important to provide really natural areas without agricultural or silvicultural use, but areas that are green and not impaired by infrastructure and buildings.

The survey was supported by Janika Schemmel and Gerrit Schulz. Martha Graf helped to answer statistical questions and proofread the manuscript. Finally, we would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers and the editor whose comments greatly improved the manuscript.


AgroForNet will develop regional value creation networks for the sustainable and efficient production and supply of dendromass from agriculture, forestry, and the open landscape. More information on AgroForNet is available on the German-language website www. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Oct Christopher A. Lepczyk, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Mar 18; Accepted Aug This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.

Abstract In the wake of urbanisation processes and the constitution of metropolitan regions, the role of the city's rural surroundings is receiving more attention from researchers and planners as rural areas offer various cultural ecosystem services for the urban population. Introduction Rural and natural areas in or near metropolitan regions fulfil various functions for the urban population and offer ecosystem services. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Location of the recreation areas in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region. Research Design and Methods Ethics statement The survey was carried out in accordance with legal requirements and was reviewed and approved by the Institute of Environmental Planning and its executive director.

Questionnaire The questionnaire consisted of three parts with closed questions Appendix S1. Survey The study was designed as a quantitative face-to-face survey and was conducted by five researchers and students of the Leibniz University of Hannover. Results Sample characteristics The sample was representative for Hamburg's population in terms of the socio-demographic variables age and gender, while it was not representative for education and residential district [26].

Relevance of outdoor recreation Outdoor recreation both within and outside of Hamburg's city limits were very important for the residents. Figure 2. Mean Importance and standard deviation of outdoor recreation within and outside of Hamburg. Respondents assessed on a scale from 1 not important to 5 very important. Figure 3. Knowledge, use and preference of recreation areas The four recreation areas differed in the share of people who know and who have visited them.

Figure 4. Figure 5. Most important criteria for recreation areas.

The Journal of Institute of Landscape Ecology of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Figure 6. Mean assessment and standard deviation of criteria across all preferred recreation areas. Respondents assessed on a scale from 1 very low to 5 very high. Assessment of criteria among recreation areas Most of the criteria were assessed significantly different among the individual recreation areas diversity, uniqueness, accessibility, food services and information services , while others were assessed similarly naturalness and place attachment; Fig.

Figure 7. Assessment of criteria among recreation areas. Socio-demographic aspects of outdoor recreation The only social factor which showed a fundamental influence on outdoor recreation was age. Discussion Overall, outdoor recreation was very important for urban dwellers. Conclusions In metropolitan areas, it seems to be very important to provide outdoor recreation opportunities both within the city e.

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  • Supporting Information Appendix S1 Questionnaire. PDF Click here for additional data file. Data Availability The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. References 1. Kumar P The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity. Ecological and economic foundations.

    New York: Routledge. Konzept, Methoden und Fallbeispiele Ecosystem services. Concept, methods and case studies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Spektrum. Planning nature-based activities in urban areas. Natur und Landschaft 82 1 : 6— Land Use Policy 33 0 : —