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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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The tall windows under the Rose Window show the four major prophets of the Hebrew Bible Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel as gigantic figures, and the four New Testament evangelists Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John as ordinary-size people sitting on their shoulders. The evangelists, though smaller, "see more" than the huge prophets since they saw the Messiah about whom the prophets spoke.

The phrase also appears in the works of the Jewish tosaphist Isaiah di Trani c. Should Joshua the son of Nun endorse a mistaken position, I would reject it out of hand, I do not hesitate to express my opinion, regarding such matters in accordance with the modicum of intelligence allotted to me. I was never arrogant claiming "My Wisdom served me well".

Standing on the shoulders of giants

Instead I applied to myself the parable of the philosophers. For I heard the following from the philosophers, The wisest of the philosophers was asked: "We admit that our predecessors were wiser than we.

Isaac Newton

At the same time we criticize their comments, often rejecting them and claiming that the truth rests with us. How is this possible? Surely a giant for his eyes are situated at a higher level than those of the dwarf. But if the dwarf is placed on the shoulders of the giant who sees further?

So too we are dwarfs astride the shoulders of giants. We master their wisdom and move beyond it. Due to their wisdom we grow wise and are able to say all that we say, but not because we are greater than they. Diego de Estella took up the quote in the 16th century; by the 17th century it had become commonplace.


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I say with Didacus Stella, a dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may see farther than a giant himself. Later editors of Burton misattributed the quote to Lucan ; in their hands Burton's attribution Didacus Stella, in luc 10, tom. No reference or allusion to the quote is found there. Later in the 17th century, George Herbert , in his Jacula Prudentum , wrote "A dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two. What Des-Cartes [ sic ] did was a good step. If I have seen further it is by standing on the sholders [ sic ] of Giants.

This has recently been interpreted by a few writers as a sarcastic remark directed at Hooke's appearance. However, at this time Hooke and Newton were on good terms and had exchanged many letters in tones of mutual regard.

Isaac Newton - Wikiquote

Only later, when Robert Hooke criticized some of Newton's ideas regarding optics , was Newton so offended that he withdrew from public debate. The two men remained enemies until Hooke's death.


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Samuel Taylor Coleridge , in The Friend , wrote:. Against this notion, Friedrich Nietzsche argues that a dwarf the academic scholar brings even the most sublime heights down to his level of understanding.

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In the section of Thus Spoke Zarathustra entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle", Zarathustra climbs to great heights with a dwarf on his shoulders to show him his greatest thought. Once there however, the dwarf fails to understand the profundity of the vision and Zarathustra reproaches him for "making things too easy on [him]self.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Oasis album, see Standing on the Shoulder of Giants. Google Books. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved August 15, Newton didn't originate it though. The 12th century theologian and author John of Salisbury used a version of the phrase in a treatise on logic called Metalogicon , written in Latin in Translations of this difficult book are quite variable but the gist of what Salisbury said is:. We see more, and things that are more distant, than they did, not because our sight is superior or because we are taller than they, but because they raise us up, and by their great stature add to ours.

The phrase may even pre-date John of Salisbury, who was known to have adapted and refined the work of others. Home Search Phrase Dictionary Standing on the shoulders of giants.