New York: HarperSanFrancisco, According to Zechariah , in the messianic era, Sukkot will become a universal festival, and all nations will make pilgrimages annually to Jerusalem to celebrate the feast there. Zechariah — Rabbi Tanhum son of Rabbi Hannilai taught that Leviticus 21 was one of two sections in the Torah along with Numbers 19, on the Red Cow that Moses gave us in writing that are both pure, dealing with the law of purity.
But then the Gemara stated that the correct interpretation was that the language meant to warn adults to avoid contaminating the children through their own contact. Babylonian Talmud Yevamot a. Leviticus Rabbah Babylonian Talmud Yevamot 22b. The Mishnah interpreted Leviticus to teach that both acting and retired High Priests had to marry a virgin and were forbidden to marry a widow. And the Mishnah interpreted Leviticus —6 to teach that both could not defile themselves for the dead bodies of their relatives, could not let their hair grow wild in mourning, and could not rend their clothes as other Jews did in mourning.
Mishnah Horayot ; Babylonian Talmud Horayot 11b. The Mishnah taught that while an ordinary priest in mourning rent his garments from above, a High Priest rent his garments from below. And the Mishnah taught that on the day of a close relative's death, the High Priest could still offer sacrifices but could not eat of the sacrificial meat, while under those circumstances an ordinary priest could neither offer sacrifices nor eat sacrificial meat.
Mishnah Horayot ; Babylonian Talmud Horayot 12b. Rabbi Hiyya bar Abba cited Leviticus to support the proposition that a Kohen should be called up first to read the law, for the verse taught to give Kohanim precedence in every matter of sanctity. And a Baraita was taught in the school of Rabbi Ishmael that Leviticus meant that Jews should give Kohanim precedence in every matter of sanctity, including speaking first at every assembly, saying grace first, and choosing his portion first when an item was to be divided.
Babylonian Talmud Gittin 59b. The Mishnah recognized the status of the Kohanim over Levites, Levites over Israelites, and Israelites over those born from forbidden relationships , but only when they were equal in all other respects. The Mishnah taught that a learned child of forbidden parents took precedence over an ignorant High Priest.
Sukkot: Feast of Tabernacles
Mishnah Horayot ; Babylonian Talmud Horayot 13a. The Gemara interpreted the law of the Kohen's adulterous daughter in Leviticus in Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 50a—52a. Rabbi said that a priest with a blemish within the meaning of Leviticus who officiated at services in the Sanctuary was liable to death at the hands of Heaven, but the Sages maintained that he was merely prohibited.
Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 83a. The Mishnah taught that a priest whose hands were deformed should not lift up his hands to say the priestly blessing , and Rabbi Judah said that a priest whose hands were discolored should not lift up his hands, because it would cause the congregation to look at him during this blessing when they should not.
Mishnah Megillah ; Babylonian Talmud Megillah 24b. A Baraita stated that deformities on the face, hands, or feet were disqualifying for saying the priestly blessing. Rabbi Joshua ben Levi said that a Kohen with spotted hands should not say the blessing. A Baraita taught that one whose hands were curved inwards or bent sideways should not say the blessing. And Rav Huna said that a man whose eyes ran should not say the blessing. But the Gemara noted that such a Kohen in Rav Huna's neighborhood used to say the priestly blessing and apparently even Rav Huna did not object, because the townspeople had become accustomed to the Kohen.
And the Gemara cited a Baraita that taught that a man whose eyes ran should not lift up his hands, but he was permitted to do so if the townspeople were accustomed to him. Rabbi Johanan said that a man blind in one eye should not lift up his hands. But the Gemara noted that there was one in Rabbi Johanan's neighborhood who used to lift up his hands, as the townspeople were accustomed to him. And the Gemara cited a Baraita that taught that a man blind in one eye should not lift up his hands, but if the townspeople were accustomed to him, he was permitted.
Rabbi Judah said that a man whose hands were discolored should not lift up his hands, but the Gemara cited a Baraita that taught that if most of the men of the town follow the same hand-discoloring occupation, it was permitted. Babylonian Talmud Megillah 24b.
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Rav Ashi deduced from Leviticus that arrogance constitutes a blemish. Babylonian Talmud Megillah 29a. The Mishnah reported that when a priest performed the service while unclean in violation of Leviticus , his brother priests did not charge him before the bet din , but the young priests took him out of the Temple court and split his skull with clubs.
Mishnah Sanhedrin ; Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 81b. Babylonian Talmud Bekhorot 33b—34a.
Babylonian Talmud Chagigah 14b. The Gemara interpreted what constitutes profanation of God's Name within the meaning of Leviticus Rab said that it would profane God's Name if a Torah scholar took meat from a butcher without paying promptly. Abaye said that this would profane God's Name only in a place where vendors did not have a custom of going out to collect payment from their customers. Rabbi Johanan said that it would profane God's Name if a Torah scholar walked six feet without either contemplating Torah or wearing tefillin.
Isaac of the School of Rabbi Jannai said that it would profane God's Name if one's bad reputation caused colleagues to become ashamed. Rav Nahman bar Isaac said that an example of this would be where people called on God to forgive so-and-so. So that if people see that those who study Torah and Mishnah are honest in business and speak pleasantly, then they will accord honor to the Name of God. But if people see that those who study Torah and Mishnah are dishonest in business and discourteous, then they will associate their shortcomings with their being Torah scholars.
Babylonian Talmud Yoma 86a. Just as Numbers , which refers to a congregation, implies a number of at least ten, so Leviticus implies at least ten. Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 21b. Tractate Beitzah in the Mishnah, Tosefta , Jerusalem Talmud , and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws common to all of the Festivals in Exodus —27, 43—49; —10; ; —23; Leviticus 16; —43; Numbers —14; —; and Deuteronomy —17; — Tractate Pesachim in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of the Passover in Exodus —27, 43—49; —10; ; Leviticus —8; Numbers —14; —25; and Deuteronomy —8.
Tractate Peah in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Jerusalem Talmud interpreted the laws of the harvest of the corner of the field and gleanings to be given to the poor in Leviticus —10 and , and Deuteronomy — Rabbi Eliezer taught that one who cultivates land in which one can plant a quarter kav of seed is obligated to give a corner to the poor. Rabbi Joshua said land that yields two seah of grain. Rabbi Tarfon said land of at least six handbreadths by six handbreadths.
Rabbi Judah ben Betera said land that requires two strokes of a sickle to harvest, and the law is as he spoke. Rabbi Akiba said that one who cultivates land of any size is obligated to give a corner to the poor and the first fruits. Mishnah Peah The Mishnah taught that the poor could enter a field to collect three times a day — in the morning, at midday, and in the afternoon. Rabban Gamliel taught that they said this only so that landowners should not reduce the number of times that the poor could enter.
Rabbi Akiba taught that they said this only so that landowners should not increase the number of times that the poor had to enter. The landowners of Beit Namer used to harvest along a rope and allowed the poor to collect a corner from every row. All known manuscripts — some sixty-eight in total 6 — are written on parchment or paper. The oldest extant manuscripts are from the eleventh or 12 th century, with the oldest dated one was written in ; most were written in the 13 th th centuries, though several from Yemen date to the 16 th or 17 th centuries.
The last of these were produced after the printing press was introduced, but they were not copied from printed editions and therefore still witness the Talmudic text of earlier times. The manuscripts and manuscripts fragments were written in many different places. Conventionally, their geographic distribution is assigned to the following categories:. Below is a map illustrating the geo-cultural distribution of the different Hebrew codicological characteristics as books and paleographical characteristics of writing types. Click map to enlarge. The precise breakdown is as follows:.
Noticeably, nearly all these surviving manuscripts are European or North African, while a few are Yemenite in provenance. None contain complete tractates copied in the Orient, i. The availability of Genizah fragments, or remnants of manuscripts, has greatly contributed to textual scholarship of the Talmud.
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The complete manuscripts that have survived were produced at the earliest cases the 12 th century, and in most the thirteenth or later, while a number of the Genizah fragments are older. Although a precise date is unavailable for most fragments, some are known to have been created as early as the time of the Geonim, during the tenth and possibly even the 9 th century, long before the first of the Rishonim.
Likewise, while most of the complete manuscripts were written in Ashkenazi lands, the documents from the Cairo Genizah come from Babylonian, Persia, the Land of Israel, Egypt, the coastal cities of Lebanon and Syria, and North Africa. Surprisingly, however, the Genizah also contains fragments from the other regions, including Ashkenaz. With the founding of the printing press in the 15 th century, the production of the Talmud became standardized.
- Kündigungsschutzgesetz KSchG (Deutschland) (German Edition).
- Soncino Talmud.
- Seder Moed, Used.
- From Manger to Manhood.
- La Rose, le renne et la violette (French Edition)!
The earliest tractates were printed in Spain and Portugal, with the oldest in , before the expulsion and forced migration of their Jews. Around the same time, the Soncinos, a family of printers in Italy and later Istanbul began printing selected tractates, beginning in Italy became a center for Talmud publication when an entire set was printed in Venice during the years — All editions produced since —including the classic Vilna edition of —, which remains in use to this day 10 —are based on the incomparable Venice edition. These editions contain changes of various types, including printing errors and many purposeful corrections and emendations.
Although generally speaking manuscripts contain the same Talmud, there are differences, large and small, between them, and virtually no manuscripts are identical. The existence of many textual variants is familiar to us from the study of other classical Jewish works, such as the liturgical traditions of the various prayer books that exist: Ashkenaz, Sepharad, Edot ha-Mizrach, Yemen, and so on and so forth.
What gave rise to the discrepancies among the manuscripts and how are we to conceive of the relationship between these manuscripts and variants and the formation of the Talmud? As a rule, there are no unequivocal answers to these questions. Still, by cataloging differences in the manuscripts we have much to learn about how the talmudic text before us came to be. It is important to distinguish between scribal errors and scribal corrections. The Talmud was copied by professional scribes and students in a centuries-long process.
One manuscript was copied from another sometimes more than one , and mistakes, known as scribal errors, crept in during copying. Sometimes copyists read the text incorrectly, while on other occasions, they accidentally omitted entire words, phrases, and whole lines. Thus, one class of variants derives from scribal errors. They would study a passage, analyze it, and intentionally emend it. Textual scholars of Talmudic literature try to arrive at the best version of the talmudic text — to the extent that such a thing is possible.
This task has the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the Talmud. In many cases, reconstructing a more original text contributes to our ability to comprehend both the content of the Talmud and its flow.