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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Convergent validity is suggested by the finding that participants who posted messages on Internet forums several times per day reported more social support than those who posted less frequently. However, the instrumental tangible support items did not load significantly on the instrumental support factor, suggesting that instrumental support is not relevant to the social support exchanged among participants in these communities. The authors conclude that the online, modified Weight Management Support Inventory, without items for instrumental support, is an appropriate instrument for measuring social support for weight loss among members of Internet weight loss communities.

Study 1 manipulated information about Food and Drug Administration FDA approval in the context of a dietary supplement designed to improve immune system functioning. Study 2 tested the effect of an educational intervention designed to improve knowledge about the DSHEA. Results of Study 1 highlighted deficits in consumer knowledge about FDA regulation of dietary supplements.

Results also showed that information about FDA approval failed to have a statistically significant effect on beliefs about safety or effectiveness of the dietary supplement. Results of Study 2 showed that participants who were educated about the regulation of dietary supplements under the DSHEA rated dietary supplements as less safe and less effective than did participants in the control condition.

The authors discuss the implications for consumers in the United States and for public policy. Although much research has investigated behavioral predictors of exercise, little work has explored message characteristics most persuasive in the exercise context. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to test a message strategy drawing on previous work in health behavior theory combined with persuasion theories exemplification theory and prospect theory to encourage positive exercise attitudes, control beliefs, and intentions.

The authors report the results of a controlled experiment testing messages using gain or loss frames and narrative or statistical evidence. Results indicate that gain-framed messages are significantly more successful in promoting positive exercise variables and are perceived as more effective than are loss-framed or control messages. The authors discuss the implications of the results for future research. To analyze data from participants, the authors constructed multi-sample structural equation models.

In the first path, relevance was associated with trust. Trust was associated with recall, and greater recall predicted FVC. In the second path, relevance was associated with dose recall, and more recall predicted FVC. Thus, the authors found that key information processes mediated the relationship between a health communication intervention and FVC.

Further research should investigate ways to enhance relevance, trust, and recall during the delivery of interventions. However, no work has assessed whether photographic portrayals of obese people that accompany news stories affect attitudes. In the present study, the authors used a randomized experimental design to test whether viewing photographic portrayals of an obese person in a stereotypical or unflattering way versus a nonstereotypical or flattering portrayal could increase negative attitudes about obesity, even when the content of an accompanying news story is neutral.

The authors randomly assigned adult participants to read a neutral news story about the prevalence of obesity that was paired with 1 of 4 photographic portrayals of an obese adult or no photograph. The authors subsequently assessed attitudes toward obese people using the Fat Phobia Scale. Results indicated that participants who viewed the negative photographs expressed more negative attitudes toward obese people than did those who viewed the positive photographs.

Implications of these findings for the media are discussed, with emphasis on increasing awareness of weight bias in health communication and journalistic news reporting. Two strategies i. They compared this profile with actual risk statistics. The images in the magazines are considerably younger, more female, and more White than what is indicated by U.

Few individuals show obvious signs of cancer treatment e. Most images feature healthier looking people, some actively engaged in construction work, bicycling, and yoga. This article describes the process of conducting formative research on a popular social networking site, MySpace, in an effort to involve youth of color in design of programmatic content and formats for an Internet intervention.

We discovered that asynchronous focus groups worked well to engage hard-to-reach populations. The synchronous groups allowed maximum participation and easy transcription for analysis. The authors found that using a social networking site to conduct formative research was useful to guide the development of a social networking intervention for youth of color.

Researchers need to be flexible in adapting their research methods and interventions to the context of online social networking sites to most effectively engage hardto-reach populations. The analysis shows that a la carte pricing decreases consumer surplus and product quality even when it reduces the average product price. An increase in advertising rates decreases product price, but it also reduces product quality and could make consumers worse off. These findings have important policy implications for media markets where regulators are considering imposition of a la carte pricing.

This article focuses on similarities and differences between success factors when selling fiction books sequentially in hardcover and paperback form. Using a large dataset gathered in cooperation with a leading German market research institute, this work estimates a seemingly unrelated regression model and finds that key marketing considerations — such as popular authors stars , special genres, publisher strengths, and book cover designs — have different and sometimes conflicting influences on sales of the same book title depending on the edition format. One treatment of the experiment in the virtual world SL was conducted and the results compared to the First Life FL control treatment, which was conducted on a university campus.

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In SL, significantly lower investment levels were found, but significantly higher average returns were found than in the FL treatment or in the literature. It is conjectured that the disparity between trusting and trustworthy behavior is a sign that the social structure in SL is still evolving. It seems plausible that the trustors in a young and developing society cautiously test the extent of trustworthiness, whereas the trustees strategically invest in levels of trustworthiness that are higher than in settled societies to build up a trustworthy environment.

It is submitted that such unwieldy, draconian and disproportionate gagging orders are legally hazardous. The life of the super-injunction in media law looks bleak in the light of judicial and parliamentary criticism and the jurisprudence on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. This article submits, however, that legislative intervention may not be necessary. The discussion covers responsible publication on matters of public interest; honest comment; the multiple publication rule; the ability of corporations to sue; a requirement that the claimant prove substantial harm; changes to the law on qualified privilege; and the question of publication outside the jurisdiction.

The article also briefly considers what has been omitted from the Bill and whether, overall, its introduction would serve the public interest. The national broadband network is a complex undertaking technically and commercially, but it also raises significant policy and regulatory challenges. The Government has already commenced legislative reform of existing telecommunications and competition regulation, but, in other areas, especially media regulation, policy discussion has been almost completely absent. This note explains the structure of the national broadband network and the regulatory steps already underway, and suggest also some other areas where significant policy and regulatory challenges will emerge.

Feelings reflect an appraisal of everyday events or media products that shape our experience of pleasure and interest which are complementary. Pleasure can result from the meaningful interpretation of a program or from positive associations that it evokes. Interest in a program can result from intellectual engagement and a search for meaning or simply to alleviate boredom. According to a reactive model of media involvement, a person selects stimuli which modulate feelings of pleasure or excitement.

This affective covariation process is superficial in the sense that there is no need for deep processing in order to determine the value of the stimulus. Emotions are more closely tied to the self and the meaning of social situations. Emotion can be related to a reflective model of aesthetic involvement whereby a person interprets the work in terms of relevant aesthetic knowledge and personal life experiences.

This search for underlying layers of meaning leads to deeper aesthetic engagement and emotional elaboration. The main point here is that processes related to the experience of feelings and emotions run concurrently. Feelings reflect more global responses to events involving characters and plots. Morality no doubt influences and to a certain extent governs our emotional responses to media, with the stories we chose to consume, the characters we love and hate, the rationale behind those feelings, the emotions that we experience on their behalf, and the pleasure and meaning comes as a result.

Specifically, as media consumers, we experience emotional reactions to characters liking , to their plights anticipatory emotions , and to their ultimate outcomes enjoyment and appreciation. Each of these emotional reactions are regulated by morality: character liking by moral judgments about the behaviors and motivations of characters, anticipatory emotions by sense of expected justice restoration, and enjoyment by the moral evaluation of the actual outcome portrayed in relation to the expected outcome. These processes and relationships are discussed in light of recent work on moral intuition, moral emotions, and moral disengagement.

On a normative level, Raney seems to favor appreciation-based media entertainment over pleasure-based entertainment, because he presumes the latter one to result from more automatic, archaic and, overall, less desirable moral activity among users. While agreeing to most of his arguments about the moral mechanisms underlying pleasure-based entertainment, it departs from his normative position. The present article argues that pleasure-based entertainment may fulfill a psychologically functional role: it may allow people to effectively recreate and to restore exhausted resources. To those ends, the first section provides a conceptualization of appreciation in which we outline how we are using the term and how it is distinct from questions of emotional valence.

The second section discusses the types of entertainment portrayals and depictions that we believe are most likely to elicit feelings of appreciation. In the final section we consider the affective and cognitive components of appreciation, arguing that mixed-affective responses rather than bi-polar conceptualizations of affective valence better capture the experience of appreciation and its accompanying feelings states such as inspiration, awe, and tenderness.

These refer to more systematic links of appreciation to the psychology of mixed emotions, to positive psychology, and to the psychology of death and dying — in particular, to terror management theory.


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Several options of moral ambiguity arising from the narrative structure of a story are sketched. Then, the link between processing moral content and positive media experiences such as enjoyment and appreciation is considered. Finally, issues of effects, especially on the long-term, are raised and implications for empirical questions are discussed. Starting from a background of well-established theories that have been proposed and elaborated mainly by Zillmann and his collaborators since the s, a new two-factor model of entertainment is introduced. Newspaper Coverage od Nanotechnologies. Supreme Court Freedom of Expression Opinions.

Heft 3. Kinder und Jugendliche scheinen den Gefahren aus dem Internet schutzlos ausgeliefert zu sein. Insbesondere die neuen sozialen Netzwerke sind kaum mehr kontrollierbar. Eine Privatisierung des Internet lehnt er ab.

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Justizpressesprecher sind aber nicht nur, wie jeder Pressesprecher, in ihrer Sachkenntnis im Bereich public relations gefordert. Diese decken allerdings nicht alle Fragestellungen ab.

Both have generally been found to be underrepresented and misrepresented in mainstream news coverage. Results indicate that female mentions were more likely to appear when protesters supported the status quo and when protesters were treated more favorably in coverage. Overall, however, the focus on men as sources over women as sources remained quite apparent.

Implications for news treatment of women in protest coverage are discussed. Past research on parasocial breakups and uses and gratifications theory was used to predict emotional and behavioral reactions. Questionnaire results revealed that participants with stronger parasocial relationships experienced greater distress — even after controlling for the number of favorite programs that went off the air. Moreover, those with greater television affinity reported greater distress when their favorite show was disrupted, although television viewing motives also played a role in this process.

Finally, when their favorite shows were no longer airing new episodes, viewers primarily replaced television viewing time with other media exposure rather than increasing nonmedia activities such as social interaction. However, a number of these activities varied by gender. Although this shift has been incorporated into the more broad social inclusion agenda, the social consequences of the digital divide have not yet received adequate attention. Recognizing that political knowledge is a critical social resource associated with power and inclusion, this study empirically examines the relationship between the digital divide and the knowledge gap.

Based on the American National Election Studies panel data, this research found that, supporting the shift of the academic agenda, socioeconomic status is more closely associated with the informational use of the Internet than with access to the Internet. In addition, socioeconomic status is more strongly related to the informational use of the Internet than with that of the traditional media, particularly newspapers and television. More importantly, the differential use of the Internet is associated with a greater knowledge gap than that of the traditional media.

These findings suggest that the digital divide, which can be better defined as inequalities in the meaningful use of information and communication technologies, matters more than its traditional counterpart. A key initiative born out of this movement was the so-called Blue Book, a high-water mark for FCC progressive activism that mandated social responsibility obligations for broadcasters in return for their use of the public airwaves.

Ultimately, red-baiting tactics defeated the policy initiatives outlined in the Blue Book and the media reform movement was largely contained. The following analysis draws from archival materials to illuminate the resulting arrangement for US broadcasters. Media literacy, information literacy and digital literacy are the three most prevailing concepts that focus on a critical approach towards media messages.

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This article gives an overview of the nature of these literacies, which show both similarities to and differences from each other. The various contexts of their functioning are outlined and additional literacies are mentioned. Especial attention is given to the question of the blurring line between media consumers and producers. Moral capital benefits of family engagement are particularly salient for male politicians, whose relationship to family generally invokes responsibility and strength.

Is family engagement a moral capital resource for female politicians, whose stereotypical associations with family invoke dependency and support? This manuscript examines the fictional television series Commander in Chief, the first to seriously engage the issue of a female US president, juxtaposing her political life with her domestic life as a working wife and mother. Application is made to actual female politicians in the United States.

In particular, children in North America are increasingly experiencing the effects of consumer culture at unprecedented levels of involvement. It becomes necessary, therefore, to examine the impact of consumerism in order to assess identity formation and development in youth. Young people are receiving an endless barrage of material messages encouraging purchasing behavior and consumption that impacts the self-image. Capurro, Rafael: Homo Digitalis.

Heidelberg: Springer VS In: Agora Das philosophische Wirtschaftsmagazin. Capurro, Rafael: Digitization as an ethical challenge. Berlin: de Gruyter Nissenbaum, Helen: Privacy in Context. Technology, Policy, and the Integrity of Social Life. Stanford Entrepreneurship, Democratic Action and the Cultivation of Solidarity. MIT Integrity: Wort- und Begriffsgeschichte. One may speak of the integrity of a wilderness region or an ecosystem, a computerized database, a defense system, a work of art, and so on.

When it is applied to objects, integrity refers to the wholeness, intactness or purity of a thing — meanings that are sometimes carried over when it is applied to people. A wilderness region has integrity when it has not been corrupted by development or by the side-effects of development, when it remains intact as wilderness. A database maintains its integrity as long as it remains uncorrupted by error; a defense system as long as not breached.

A musical work might be said to have integrity when its musical structure has a certain completeness that is not intruded by uncoordinated, unrelated usical ideas; that is, when it possesses a kind of musical wholeness, intactness and purity. Integiry is also attributed to various parts or aspects of a person's life. We speak of attributes such as professional, intellectual and artistic integrity.

However, the most philosophically important sense of the term 'integrity' relates to general character. Philosophers have been particularly concerned to understand wht it is for a person to exhibit integrity throughout life. What is it to be a person of integrity? Ordinary discourse about integrity involves two fundamental intuitions: first, that integrity is primarily a formal relation one has to oneself, or between parts or aspects of one's self; and second, that integrity is connected in an important way of acting morally, in other words, there are some substantive or normative constraints on what it is to act with integrity.

Societies and political structures can be both inimical and favorable to the development of integrity, sometimes both at once. Oxford English Dictionarry, 2nd.

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The condition of having no part or element taken away or wanting; undivided or unbroken state; material wholeness, completeness, entirety. The condition of not being marred or violated; unimpaired or uncorrupted condition; original perfect state; soundness. In moral sensse. Unimpaired moral state; freedom from moral corruption; innocense, sinlessness. Soundness of moral principle; the character of uncorrupted virtue, esp. Original : Aristotle. Aristotle's Metaphysics, ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Zur Bedeutung dieser Unterscheidung vgl. Heidegger, Platon: Sophistes, Frankfurt a.

Privacy is in question as regards how and with what amount of informed consent such individual data are collected and personality profiles are generated, stored, sold, made accessible to government agencies etc. Privacy is itself a necessary condition of autonomy since only when a private realm is guaranteed, and felt and known to be safe and free from external observation and intervention, one can engage in truly free processes of deliberation and decision making. Political freedom is at stake when government agencies practice data retention to profile citizens under the prospect of more security or more efficient regulation.

In this regard, Big Data throws up not only ethical but epistemological and philosophical questions as well — to name just a few: What is data, ontologically? What is the relation between data, information, knowledge and theory, and how does one lead to the other? Those are claims that deserve thorough epistemological examination and critique. Buschauer outlines three perspectives on the nexus between data and vision s.


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  5. Drawing on more recent studies, she discusses how such an approach allows to address social and ethical implications of present data technologies and practices in a more differentiated way. In her contribution Jessica Heesen aims to explain, on one side, how a normative concept of the public sphere could be infiltrated by Big Data. Furthermore, she discusses how, on the other side, participative processes and common wealth can profit from a thorough use of Big Data analysis. Heesen introduces two important concepts: the numerical public as a public that is constituted by machine-communication and total politicisation as a loss of negative freedom of expression.