Each subsequent sun was created by the personal sacrifice of at least one of the gods, and a key element of the story, like that of all Aztec culture, is that sacrifice is required to begin renewal. The rich and proud god Tecuciztecatl "Lord of the Snails" hesitated and during that hesitation, the humble and poor Nanahuatzin "the Pimply or Scabby One" leaped into the flames and became the new sun. Tecuciztecatl jumped in after him and became a second sun.
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The gods realized that two suns would overwhelm the world, so they threw a rabbit at Tecuciztecal, and it became the moon—that is why you can still see the rabbit in the moon today. The two celestial bodies were set in motion by Ehecatl, the god of the wind, who fiercely and violently blew the sun into motion. The Fifth Sun called 4-Movement is ruled by Tonatiuh , the sun god.
This fifth sun is characterized by the sign Ollin, which means movement. According to Aztec beliefs, this indicated that this world would come to an end through earthquakes, and all the people will be eaten by sky monsters.
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Failure to do this would cause the end of their world and the disappearance of the sun from the sky. A version of this myth is recorded on the famous Aztec Calendar Stone , a colossal stone sculpture whose images referred to one version of this creation tale linked to Aztec history. At the end of each year cycle, the Aztec priests carried out the New Fire ceremony, or "binding of the years. The Aztec people would clean their houses, discarding all household idols, cooking pots, clothing, and mats.
During the last five days, fires were extinguished, and the people climbed on their roofs to await the fate of the world.
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On the last day of the calendar cycle, the priests would climb the Star Mountain, today known in Spanish as Cerro de la Estrella, and watch the rise of the Pleiades to ensure it followed its normal path. A fire drill was placed on the heart of a sacrificial victim: if the fire could not be lit, the myth said, the sun would be destroyed forever. The successful fire was then brought to Tenochtitlan to relight hearths throughout the city. According to the Spanish chronicler Bernardo Sahagun, the New Fire ceremony was conducted every 52 years in villages throughout the Aztec world.
Updated by K. Kris Hirst. Share Flipboard Email. Nicoletta Maestri is a Ph. The first god to sacrifice himself was Tezcatlipoca , who leaped into the fire and started the First Sun , called "4 Tiger". Some men went into the cold, northern waters that evening and they faced a horrifying ordeal. Despite saluting their gallant foes, the German battleships did not stop to pick up survivors.
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The British, on the other hand, unaware that the three ships had been lost until the following day, even continued to radio orders to them until the Germans announced the sinkings. Hour after hour men waited in the water and in open rafts as their shipmates slipped away around them. When Norwegian vessels finally found them nearly three days later, only 40 remained alive. The death toll of 1, exceeded any of the other great British naval disasters of the war.
One of the Royal Navy's precious few large aircraft carriers had been sunk, along with two destroyers and, with the Battle of Britain in the offing, two RAF fighter squadrons. The Admiralty Board of Enquiry was held within days of the 34 available survivors returning to Britain, its findings then sealed until Controversy began almost immediately, with questions first being asked in Parliament on the July 31st, culminating in a debate on November 7th.
Richard Stokes, a noted critic of the government, was prime mover, asking just how and why such an epic disaster could have occurred and who bore responsibility. Inevitably, given wartime exigencies, no answers were forthcoming from the Admiralty. The war moved on and the issue went quiet for some years until in , after further probing from Stokes, a brief official account was released.
It described a ship travelling independently due to shortage of fuel on a normally safe route that had simply run out of luck and been caught in the wrong place at the wrong time.
First to contradict this was no less a personage than Winston Churchill, who wrote in his account of the war that the fuel explanation was 'not convincing'. Nonetheless, the official story held for the next 30 years through the publication of the official histories. Yet it would be the Navy's official historian, Captain Stephen Roskill, who in finally lifted the lid on the controversy in an explosive article for the Sunday Times.
Hamilton then judged the weather brilliantly to take the British GP at Silverstone as the battle which raged so tantalizingly in between two old friends — who raced each other as youngsters — swung back and forth. Numero Uno is back, Ferrari is back! An aggressive 2nd corner move on Rosberg won the race for Hamilton in Japan, and he took Russia too when the German ran into throttle problems.
Then, another aggressive overtake at the difficult 1st corner in Austin set the scene for arguably the best race of the season. Both drivers struggled to generate tire temp in the greasy early conditions, when Ricciardo and Daniel Kvyat like Ricciardo promoted to Red Bull from Toro Rosso were at their most dangerous. But, as the tarmac dried out Rosberg had the advantage — until he made a mistake and slid off course far enough to enable Hamilton to pounce. That dramatic success won the Englishman a 3rd World Championship, achieving the childhood dream of emulating his idol, Ayrton Senna.
S adly, it was almost impossible to track how many rule changes had come and gone in Formula One over recent seasons. Refueling and traction control in and out. Wing and nose sizes big and small, high and low. Brake bias only manually adjusted, but then electronic-assisted rear braking systems allowed. Suddenly tires degrade faster, other seasons graining is not an issue.
By , the F1 series suffered from a persistent form of OCD about change. Everything must always be different. A nother unsatisfying aspect of was the increased and frequently gratuitous use by stewards of drive-through, time and grid-position penalties for ministerial infractions.
A new procedure, dubbed the Virtual Safety Car VSC , was introduced to allow temporary, safety-required speed limits without bunching up the entire race field. A revived Mexican Grand Prix was held for the first time since at an updated Autodromo Hermanos Rodriguez , featuring a gorgeous and intimate new stadium section. And despite loss of the venerable German GP after a venue could not be agreed upon — leaving the country without an F1 race after 59 years — a fresh driving star burst into the Formula One circus.
The Dutchman answered the critics and went on to provide fans with some of the most exciting racing moves of the season. It is embarrassing, very embarrassing…. GP2 engine, GP2.
Lotus was finally allowed to leave with its cars, and started the following race in Italy, but would not appear in Formula One again. Grand Prix in Austin. At the end of his 8th season in Formula One, the win finally set Hamilton on path to becoming one of the great Formula One champions, a status earned only by taking the title once and then going back to repeat it again.
But thereafter in , the victories belonged to Rosberg.
Nico converted the final three poles of the season into three impressive triumphs — seven straight when coupled with his splendid start to T hank goodness for rivalries between teammates, because Mercedes continued its superlative streak in Despite a 21 Grand Prix season — the longest in history — entry of Haas , the first American F1 team in three decades, addition of a new Azerbaijan GP, and the promotion of young sensation Max Verstappen from Toro Rosso to Red Bull, the third cycle of Formula One under hybrid power was memorable for little else than a seesaw dogfight between Hamilton and Rosberg at Mercedes.
Rosberg dedicated his being to reaching the pinnacle of motorsport. S taring at a huge point deficit, Lewis Hamilton fought back. Spain saw one of the dramatic highlights of the season, when the duo took their aggression to the next level and collided on track, retiring both Mercedes W07s. A similar string of GPs taken by Hamilton in Austria, Canada, Monaco and Germany shifted the balance back; by the August break, Lewis had narrowed the deficit to 19 points.
At this point, most observers were writing off Rosberg. F errari had a forgettable season, struggling for pace. Stewardship was inconsistent and intrusive, for instance slapping Valtteri Bottas with two points on his license a 3rd would have resulted in a place grid penalty for a first-lap racing accident, i. It was enough to turn off even passionate Grand Prix aficionados, though impressive first-time victories by Verstappen in Spain, the youngest ever winner, and Ricciardo in Malaysia were refreshing.
T he last four GPs of the season all ended up for Mercedes, with Hamilton on top from Rosberg each time. Nico arrived at Abu Dhabi in late November nursing a point lead. He needed at least to make the podium if Hamilton won from pole position. Lewis never led by much and, in the closing laps, intentionally slowed after denying he would do so before the race to allow other drivers to catch and pass Rosberg, despite repeated instructions from the team not to risk losing the race to Vettel, who used pit strategy to bring himself into P3 and was gaining quickly. The tactic failed, as Rosberg held off the other German to finish 2nd by 0.
That was enough. End of story. But that story is largely belied by the numbers. Lewis suffered two DNFs, Nico one. Each placed both 5th and 7th in races the other man won; and Rosberg actually had more non-podium classifications. Both made serious first-lap errors — including that wheel-to-wheel shunt in Spain which put both men out — that cost podiums, but Hamilton more often wasted excellent qualifying performances with poor race starts.
T he harping on Rosberg also ignores that F1 has always been a mechanical sport. Lucky or not, the driver who wins the most, and is the most consistent finisher, gets the F1 title. The one who has the most points is a worthy World Champion for me. Y et another new rules package introduced for generated wider, heavier and grippy F1 cars and tires — considerably faster as well even with their small hybrid power units.
The machines looked meaner, were lower and more powerful, and cornered very quickly, producing reams additional downforce. Drivers professed to love them and circuit lap records fell through the season.