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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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But dredging by Southeast Asian nations is scant compared with the Chinese effort. In April, China for the first time deployed antiship and antiaircraft missiles on Mischief, Subi and Fiery Cross, American military officials said. The following month, a long-range bomber landed on Woody Island, another contested South China Sea islet. Mattis said, explaining the snub. In addition to the routine surveillance flyovers, Mr. The last such operation by the United States was in May, when two American warships sailed near the Paracels, another contested South China Sea archipelago.

Beijing was irate. The United States says that it does not take any side in territorial disputes in the South China Sea. The case was brought by the Philippines after Scarborough Shoal was commandeered by China in , following a tense blockade. The landmark ruling, however, has had no practical effect. He declared China his new best friend and dismissed the United States as a has-been power. But last month, Mr. Duterte took Beijing to task when a recording aired on the BBC from another P-8A Poseidon mission over the South China Sea demonstrated that Chinese dispatchers were taking a far more aggressive tone with Philippine aircraft than with American ones.

Duterte said. Perceptions of power — and Chinese reactions to these projections — have led some analysts to criticize President Barack Obama as having been too timid in countering China over what Adm.

Part 1: Congressman Sherman Discusses the Harmful US-China Trade Relationship

Harry B. Harris Jr. Critics, for instance, have faulted the previous administration for not conducting more frequent freedom of navigation patrols. Chief among these moments, Mr. Vuving said. With most of the Spratly military bases nearing completion by the end of the year, according to Pentagon assessments, the next question is whether — or more likely when — China will begin building on Scarborough. From the American reconnaissance plane, Scarborough looked like a perfect diving retreat, a lazy triangle of reef sheltering turquoise waters.

Investigating the Chinese Threat: Military and Economic Aggression | U.S.-CHINA

But Chinese Coast Guard vessels could be seen circling the shoal, and Philippine fishermen have complained about being prevented from accessing their traditional waters. Hong Kong. Gulf of Tonkin. Paracel Islands.

Investigating the Chinese Threat

Scarborough Shoal. South China Sea. Spratly Islands. Subi Reef. Mischief Reef. Fiery Cross Reef. In addition, U. Fourth, the Department of Justice has pursued a number of high-level indictments against Chinese companies for theft of intellectual property. The Commerce Department subsequently put Fujian Jinhua on a list of entities that cannot purchase components, software, and technology goods from U.

In January , the Justice Department unsealed indictments claiming that Huawei stole technology from T-Mobile and that Huawei had a formal policy of awarding bonuses to employees who stole confidential information from competitors. The Trump administration has also responded to the return of Chinese hackers after the brief downturn in activities in the wake of a September agreement between President Xi and President Obama in which both sides pledged not to become involved in cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property for competitive advantage.

In November , then Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced a China initiative to identify priority Chinese trade theft cases, pool FBI and Department of Justice resources to combat Chinese economic espionage and evaluate whether additional legislative and administrative authorities would be required to protect U. Finally, in December the United States, in coordination with Canada and the United Kingdom, indicted two Chinese citizens for hacking more than forty-five technology companies in at least one dozen U. Chinese analysts are clear about the goals and motivations of U.

We must learn to adapt. In April , the United States announced a seven-year ban on American firms from selling parts and software to ZTE after the company violated an agreement that was reached when it was caught illegally shipping U. In the face of U. At the same meeting, Chinese lawmakers passed a new foreign investment law that is intended to stop the forced transfer of technology from foreign companies. There are, however, serious questions about enforcement of the law, and there is, in any case, no evidence that Chinese policy makers have abandoned deeply held beliefs about the need for technological self-reliance.

China will continue to promote advances in semiconductors with huge investments in new fabs and technology. Local governments have ramped up investment projects and the central government has designated a number of companies as national champions in manufacturing and chip design.

China has the most fab projects in the world, with thirty new facilities or lines either in construction or in the planning stages.

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This new business will develop artificial intelligence chips for cloud computing and Internet-connected devices. Huawei also announced that it has built its own operating systems for smartphones and laptops in case it is unable to use Google or Microsoft software in the case of another round of U. Second, Chinese technology companies will make efforts to protect their supply chains from U. Huawei boosted purchases of capacitors, integrated circuits, flash memory and camera-related parts from Japanese suppliers, stockpiling components in case of a potential ban on U. The company also spoke with Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co.

Third, Chinese firms and investors are diversifying and looking for new technology-investment opportunities beyond U.

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S regulations. Fourth, Chinese diplomatic efforts are likely to stress the global benefits of Chinese scientific and technological development and the threats to trade and security emanating from the United States. We need to respect the independent choices of model technology management and of public policies made by countries, and their rights to participate as equals in the global technological governance system. Chinese diplomacy is also likely to echo the public relations campaign that Huawei has mounted in the face of U.

Explaining why Washington was trying to block the company, Guo argued that Huawei equipment was more difficult for the National Security Agency NSA to hack because the agency maintained cooperative relations with U. Since Chinese firms were unlikely to cooperate if U. Fifth, Chinese hackers will continue their campaign of cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property. Chinese hackers may have reinstated their cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property for two reasons.