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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Kertzer, David I. New Perspectives on Anthropological and Social Demography. Kessler, John. Edited by Oded Lipschits and Manfred Oeming. Kreitzer, Mark R. Lamoreaux, Jason T. Lau, Peter H. BZAW Berlin: de Gruyter, Lemche, Niels Peter. Translated by E. Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, Levinson, Joshua. Lieu, Judith M. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Lieu, Judith. Linville, James Richard. Longenecker, Bruce W. Lowe, Malcolm. Luomanen, Petri. MacDonald, Margaret Y.

Malina, Bruce. Edited by Philip F. London: Routledge, Marcus, Joel. Marohl, Matthew J. Princeton Theological Monograph Series Eugene, Ore: Pickwick, Mason, Steve. Matthews, Victor H. Mendels, Doron. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha Supplement Series Meyer, Ben F. Sanders, eds. Moxnes, Halvor. Publications of the Finnish Exegetical Society Helsinki: Finnish Exegetical Society, Newsom, Carol A.

Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah Nguyen, V. Henry T. Perkins, Pheme. The New Testament in Context. Harrisburg, Pa: Trinity International, Riches, John K. Studies of the New Testament and Its World. Roitto, Rikard. Winona Lake, Ind. Romanucci-Ross, Lola and A. De Vos eds. Ethnic Identity: Creation, Conflict, and Accomodation. New York: AltaMira, Runesson, Anders. Some Critical Remarks on Terminology and Theology. Schiffman, Lawrence H. Who Was a Jew? Hoboken, N. J: Ktav, Schmidt, Francis.

The Biblical Seminar Segal, Alan F. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, Skarsaune, Oskar and Reidar Hvalvik, eds. Smith, Anthony D. Smith, Daniel L. Edited by P. Spence, Stephen. Interdisciplinary Studies in Ancient Culture and Religion 5. Stanley, Christopher D. Stanton, Graham N. Edited by Graham N.

Stanton and Guy G. Swancutt, Diana M. Taylor, Miriam S. Studia post-biblica Taylor, N. Edited by Stanley Porter. Pauline Studies 2. When was the last time, he asks, that anyone was forced to have a civil discussion with someone who thought differently? The Israeli Redneck has finished speaking. Stand with Israelites are streaming out, laughing and raving about what they just heard.

Two of our tour guides walk past us. O ur daily itinerary is now established. The Sea of Galilee sloshes unseen beneath a layer of fog. As a couple are telling us about how, in the middle of the night, they sneaked down here and went swimming, the sky suddenly clears and what cinematographers call God rays blast erumpent through parting clouds. The awaited boats finally pull up to the hotel dock.

Most of our boats have apostolic names; the boat Trisha and I board is called Matthew. Rows of white plastic chairs line the deck. These sailors their website is jesusboats. Dozens of people are singing along as Tiberias disappears behind us. Others are doing the mellow rocking-out thing sometimes seen in evangelical megachurches: eyes shut, swaying to the music, a single hand raised as though to wash some celestial window. One person is crying, then two, then ten.

The people on one boat are taking pictures of the people who are taking pictures of them on the other boat. The mood of peaceful singing and swaying from five minutes ago is gone. We relax in our seats. Then all the Matthew boat guys begin to raise the American flag.

A loudspeaker is right next to us, so I hear static first, followed by a drumroll. Hearing the two songs side by side is instructive. One anthem, militaristic and silly, emerged from a single battle in a war whose origins only a professional historian could explain. The other, harrowing and heartbroken, emerged from exile. It might be the least triumphalist national anthem on earth.

Almost everyone is crying by the end. May this bond endure forever. According to the common evangelical interpretation, fighters from a five-nation confederacy including one army on horseback will attack Israel, ushering in the End Times. But let them come. It never works. We disembark on the other side of the sea. David leads us to the Mount of Beatitudes.

All of this. According to local lore, this is the spot where that meal took place. Unfortunately, the shoreline remains thick with haze. Several people, needing no prompting, remove their shoes and socks, roll up their pants to reveal knobbly old-person knees, and wade into the foggy water.

In the sea, everyone looks big and childlike. We end our day at the Jordan River, which is frankly not much of a river. Trisha and I find our way to a large observation deck that looks down onto a popular baptismal site. Nearby is a bulletin-board hall of fame, on which we see photos of various post-baptism celebrities in drenched white T-shirts: Oliver North, Whitney Houston, Mike Huckabee. As we walk along the deck, a group baptism is getting under way below us. The baptizees, all in white gowns, silently descend a stairway. One after another, each person is dunked.

Standing by me on the viewing platform is an older man from my tour, shaking his head. This is the type of conservative I could very much see myself becoming one day, if I ever became a conservative. He chuckles. Think it worked. That night we have dinner in our new hotel in Jerusalem.

Afterward, on the way to our room, Trisha and I run into our guide, David.


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We stop. It turns out that, only ten minutes ago, a Genesis Tours representative took David aside and told him that everyone on Bus Five got together, voted, and cast him out as our guide. Not one of them has heard of any secret vote to ditch David. Together we confront the nearest Genesis Tours lackey, who is sitting behind the official Genesis Tours information station in the hotel lobby.

Another Genesis Tours representative is spotted trying to tiptoe past us in the lobby; we fall upon her like locusts. We all turn to find Roger, a large, courtly Southerner. All I know of Roger is that he believes he can prove that the Gospels were originally written in Aramaic rather than Greek. He always sits up front on Bus Five, near David, and asks by far the most questions of anyone in our cohort. The face of this hitherto kind, gentle man is now trembling with anger.

Roger demands a full and immediate refund. The next morning, at breakfast, a bunch of us decide that more conspiring will only hurt David and his chances of future employment. The guide community in Israel is small; the more we complain, the more likely it is that news of this incident will spread, potentially tarring David as a problematic tour leader.

As we eat scrambled eggs and sip apple juice, we laugh in recollection of our anger the night before and congratulate ourselves on our newfound emotional maturity. Then Roger sidles up to our table. I invite Roger to sit. To give up. Am I correct in that understanding? Again, no offense. To stand with Israel. Is this why conservatives so often win and liberals so often lose? Roger is a man who still believes the world can and must be bent to his will. Take over. We all head out to Bus Five, with Roger leading the way.

Bus Five has two doors; we quickly set up a loyalty checkpoint at both. As the remaining Bus Fivers board, they will be interrogated. If they admit that they objected to David, they will be encouraged either to renounce their disapproval or to find a seat on another bus.

Unfortunately, our plan quickly breaks down in its particulars. No, they say. They never complained. A snooty rich woman upon whom fancy scarves and sunglasses are exhibited daily approaches the bus with her rigorously silent husband.


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  6. She and her husband stare at Roger while sweat drips down his face. Our revolution began with amity and optimism, but now it feels misshapen with anger and resentment. I realize that if someone tries to push past Roger to get on Bus Five, I am prepared to restrain that person, using force if I have to.

    A petition is drawn up and signed by twenty of us, thirty of us, and soon forty of us, despite there being only forty-six passengers on Bus Five. I smack my forehead and point out that if our petition is going to be taken seriously, we need it to be legitimate. But no one from Genesis Tours has come out to speak with us. I take Roger aside, praising his leadership. Roger shakes my hand and gives me his blessing. I rush off to the hotel lobby and find several Genesis Tours representatives speaking excitedly into their cell phones. A company emissary returns with me to Bus Five and listens as Roger enumerates our demands.

    The emissary runs a hand across his bald head, makes a few agitated calls, and promptly disappears. Several of us have begun to argue about strategy. Others are upset that we will probably not get to see all the scheduled sites today. Roger, for some reason, heads off to the hotel.

    With Roger gone, I feel lost and dispirited. I wonder if I ever really believed in the movement so much as I did in the man. Ten minutes later, he reappears, his hands stuffed glumly in his pockets. We cheer. We applaud. Roger falls into the arms of another Bus Fiver and says through tears that he can barely talk.

    Fifteen minutes later, a red-eyed David boards Bus Five wearing his official tour-guide headset. He is greeted with a series of ovations. In a lull between rounds of applause, David tells us he slept only two hours the night before. Maybe he just wanted to go home? I weep every time, never knowing whom I pity more: those who died, or those who did not. I weep, too, pondering the apathy that allowed a regime and its quislings to murder 6 million Jews. Clearly a great number of Europeans did not much care whether the Jews were exterminated; Theodor Herzl recognized as much in France four decades before the Holocaust began, and there modern Zionism begins.

    I picture myself in Germany, in , with Trisha, sitting in our kitchen while we feed our daughter. We hear scuffling next door in the apartment of our Jewish neighbors. So what do I do? Thousands of its citizens can recall an entire continent colluding to rid itself of even the most assimilated and accomplished Jews. Looking at more displays within the Hall of Remembrance, however, you can also begin to see how this commonality breaks down. Israel has violated international law, sure, but not like this.

    It was simultaneously connected via roads with Acco or Ptolemais and with Caesarea Maritima and the Syrian hinterland to the east, integral for communication and exchange of merchandise pp. Yet, there were cultural differences, as well as mutual antagonism between the regions west of the Galilean Lake and the Transjordan cities, as demonstrated by burial customs and historical sources. After the supposed conquest of Gadara by the Hasmoneans and the increase in Jewish settlement, most of the Gadarenes were reluctant to live under Jewish rule. The local Jewish population also appears to have participated in the Jewish Revolt that had led to a pogrom against Gadara's Jewish community pp.

    Overall the picture is one of conflict and symbiosis. On the one hand, there was communication, exchange and cultural contact with the Galilee. Cultural contact with Galilee is evidenced by the presence of pottery from Kfar Hananiah and the presence of Galilean bowls. Weber also discusses the hot springs that were frequented by local Jews in nearby Emmatha, which also had a synagogue sponsored by Jews from the Galilee pp.

    On the other hand, there is evidence of conflict and warfare such as a burnt temple of Zeus, probably destroyed by Jews at the early stage of the revolt and a hastily built imperial rampart. There are also Flavian Gates at Gadara and Tiberias, which appear to mark the starting points of a road that linked the two cities pp.

    Weber also discusses an underground monumental tomb that was extended over a basilica in the early Byzantine period. Something similar was found in Capernaum and demonstrates a close familiarity with Roman funeral practices pp. The article, which is beautifully illustrated with various drawings, photos, plans and elevations, gives readers insight into the interaction between Galilee and neighbouring cities, especially those with a Judean minority.

    To summarise, the majority of the articles in this volume testify of a 'Jewish' or rather Judean Galilee in the 1st century. Those who argue to the contrary will have to demonstrate otherwise in a convincing fashion. Nevertheless, it was a region that had cultural, economic, social, political and religious contact with surrounding areas and was thoroughly integrated into the realities of the Roman Empire.

    Interregional contact and trade occurred freely, whilst resistance, even conflict, occurred due to the proximity of 'the Other' that threatened the cultural and religio-political sensitivities of the Galileans. This is typical of ethnic groups that allow for interethnic contact on certain matters, whilst resisting such contact on matters that were critical for group identity cf.

    Harland ; Esler The Galileans were evidently also a people that had strong attachments to their Judean identity, as evidenced by their enhanced musical culture, conservative epigraphic habit, participation in the revolt and the following of cultural practices also found in Judea. Of course, the conservative nature of Galileans raises the question whether the 'openness to Gentiles' in the Jesus movement really originated in Galilee as Freyne suggests.

    Other matters that need investigation are as follows: how and when did the region fall under Hasmonean control and what was the nature of the local population at the time? Were Galilean peasants experiencing harsh economic conditions through debt and taxation, or did the rule of Antipas allow for economic participation to flourish? The author declares that he has no financial or personal relationship s which may have inappropriately influenced him in writing this article.

    Arav, R. Chancey, M. Cromhout, M. Matrix: The Bible in Mediterranean Context 2. Duling, D. Elliott, J. Esler, P. Fenton, S. Fiensy, D. Freyne, S. Geertz, C. Geertz ed. Hanson, K. Harland, P. Hengel, M. Horsley, R. Jacobson, D. Malina, B. Stewart eds. Mason, S. McVann, M. Malina eds.

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    Neusner, J. Oakman, D. Matrix: The Bible in Mediterrannean Context. Oppenheimer, A. Overman, J. Pilch, J. Porter, S. Evans eds. Reed, J. Meyers ed. Richardson, P. Scott, G. Spivak, G. Chrisman eds. Stegemann, E. Strange, J. Cole eds. Zangenberg, J. WUNT Correspondence: Markus Cromhout Email: cromhm unisa. Received: 07 Dec. The Authors. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

    Note: This article was re-published with the corrected affiliation of the author. What Freyne describes as 'native religious conservatism' is somewhat anachronistic. In antiquity it is better described as an ethnic conservatism. On the anachronistic description of 'Jews' that practiced a 'religion' called 'Judaism', see Pilch , Esler , Mason and Cromhout , Religion also did not exist as an independent area of life but was embedded in the realms of politics and kinship Malina See also Freyne , A position recently advanced by Horsley , , cf.

    The passage from Josephus refers to war being made against the Itureans by Aristobulus I, and Horsley suggests that part of the territory acquired by the Hasmoneans was a part of Galilee. Subsequently, Horsley argues, the Galileans as descendents of Northern Israelites were subjected to the laws of the Judeans. Reed argues that the evidence does not support Iturean settlements in Upper Galilee and were limited to the Hermon Range, the Lebanon Range and the northern Golan. It is therefore doubtful that Josephus is describing events that occurred in Galilee. Chancey , suggests that, at this stage, the Galilean population was a mixture of Itureans, Phoenicians and 'Jews', but also that Galilee was sparsely populated before the Hasmoneans took control of the region.

    According to ethnicity theory, 'primordialism' refers to strong psychological and emotional attachments by social actors to aspects of their ethnic identity cf. See also footnote 3 above. In ethnicity theory, this is known as 'situationalism'. See footnote It is commonly recognised that Aramaic was the common language of Judeans, including Galileans, but also that a strong level of bilingualism the use of Aramaic and Greek existed. The use of Hebrew was not widespread cf. Hengel ; Porter ; Horsley Elsewhere Chancey , argued against the idea of many Gentiles being present in Galilee in the 1st century CE.

    Euergetism refers to the practice of city elites making donations for various purposes of public benefaction e. Primordialism and instrumentalism as part of the reconstructionist approach were often portrayed as being mutually exclusive. Primordialism looks at the strong emotional attachments to ethnic identity by social actors themselves, who experience their identity as 'fixed', 'sacred', or 'involuntary'.

    Constructionist approached understands ethnicity as socially re constructed and as fluid and freely chosen Cromhout Fenton remarks that it is 'perfectly possible to have a conception of ethnic identity which allows us to see them Ethnicity theory normally acknowledges kinship relations, myths of common ancestry and a connection to a homeland as key ethnic features Duling ; Esler Strictly speaking, instrumentalism sees an ethnic group's self-construction as rational, self-interested and consciously mobilised in an attempt to further its own political-economic agenda.

    That is, ethnic identity functions as a sort of 'interest group'. Variant approaches are known as 'circumstantial' and 'situational'. The 'circumstantial' approach sees ethnic identity as important in some contexts but not in others. Although the identity remains constant, whether it matters or not is determined by circumstances.

    The 'situational' perspective explains that identity is expressed in different ways as the social situations of the individual change.

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    This is especially relevant where social actors possess more than one ethnic identity cf. The question is whether Judeans themselves an emic perspective would see their use of Greek names of whatever variety as ethnic hybridity. Language was not a critical identity marker for Judeans in the 1st century CE, so the use of Greek in various forms e. We must insist that 'Jewish' is anachronistic, and the correct translation 'Judean' is an ethnic category that encompasses all aspects of Judean identity.

    See also footnote 1 above. Contrast the view of Reed , that the archeological remains in Galilean domestic or private space are the same as that in Judea. He mentions limestone vessels, stepped pools, secondary burial practices and bone profiles that lack pork. Chancey also indicates that the archeological profile of Galilee is in glaring contrast to the surrounding regions where there is abundant evidence for gentile populations.

    Reed also points out that the vast majority of stratigraphically excavated sites from the Roman-Byzantine Period have their earliest recoverable strata dated to the Late Hellenistic and Early Roman periods, that is, the 1st century BCE and 1st century CE. This, of course, is also true of Sepphoris.

    Josephus' report of the Great Revolt is indicative that tense urban-rural relations existed in Galilee cf. Reed ; Horsley , yet the exact reasons are not clear. Was it for socioeconomic, cultural or political reasons, or a combination of these? Cromhout , On the existence of the synagogue in Capernaum at the time of Jesus, see also Strange and Shanks and Chancey The archaeological evidence for synagogue buildings in 1st century CE Palestine is meager. There is the Theodotus inscription that clearly points to the existence of a synagogue in Jerusalem.

    Otherwise, the following sites have been identified as having synagogue buildings, although some are disputed: Masada, Herodium, Caesarea, Jericho; and relevant to Galilee: Gamla in the Golan close by , Capernaum, Chorazin and Migdal Magdala cf.

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    Horsley , who suggest that Galileans were subject to pay tribute to three layers of rulers: the Jerusalem temple, Herodians and Romans. Others who have questioned a severe economic situation in Galilee are Richardson who notes that rural towns and villages increased in number and size at this period. Freyne also argues that the level of oppression in Galilee was not the same as in Judea.

    Bernett does not discuss the possible existence of an Augusteum that Herod the Great built in Omrit in far northern Galilee cf. Josephus states, however, that none of the temples dedicated to Augustus also constructed in Ceasarea and Sebaste was built in Judean territory Ant. See also Stegemann and Stegemann , who suggest that the Zealots were a group of radical priests who wanted to restore the purity of the temple in Jerusalem.

    As Geertz , points out, primordial sentiments flourish in contexts of political suffocation and where there is a sense of political dismemberment. Human beings generally refuse to submit to another system in order not to submit to degradation. It is to refuse to be made out as a lesser order of being, as irrelevant, powerless and simple minded. Similar arguments are advanced by Reed and Chancey This begs the question whether there was any form of developed leadership over Galilean 'Jews' after the Bar Kokhba period.

    According to Oppenheimer , the tours of Rabban Gamaliel of Yavneh towards the end of the 1st century established the authority of the rabbinic leadership institutions over the Jewish population in Palestine. Apart from Yavneh, other major centres included Lod or Lydda and Joppa. Around CE, Sepphoris and Tiberias rose to prominence for the sages.

    Horsley , , however, questions whether the rabbis had any substantial influence or leadership roles at this period. Irrespective of whether the rabbis had influence or not, we must assume that many priests joined their ranks. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Article. English pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation. Access statistics. Cited by Google Similars in Google.

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    Introduction This review article summarises and delivers comment on Religion, ethnicity and identity in Ancient Galilee: A region in transition, edited by Zangenberg, Attridge and Martin and published by Mohr Siebeck in What is evidenced is a native religious conservatism that was shared by all peoples of the East, including the Jews, 1 at least in early encounters with Hellenisation, yet this did not preclude wider contact and interaction in everyday affairs p. For Freyne, the Maccabean campaigns were informed by the following Jewish ideological perspectives: 1 concern for 'the land not conquered', that is, not occupied according to Jos , leading to hostility towards the nations roundabout; 2 the failure of various tribes to destroy Canaanite cities in their allotted territories Judges 1 ; and 3 the destruction of the pagan shrines within the land according to the Deuteronomic legislation 2 Kgs Timothy L.

    Marquis 'Re-presenting Galilean identity: Josephus's use of 1 Maccabees and the term ioudaios' pp. Silvia Cappelletti 'Non-Jewish authors on Galilee' pp. Mark A. Chancey 'The epigraphic habit of Hellenistic and Roman Galilee' pp. The latter term, coined by MacMullen: encompasses such issues as the types of inscriptions engraved; the languages chosen for various types; the events, facts, and ideas recorded epigraphically; the functions served by inscriptions; the places chosen for the erection of inscriptions; chronological variations in the frequency of inscriptions; the parties that commissioned and created inscriptions; and the parties reflected by and recorded in inscriptions.

    For each of these, Aviam gives a brief overview which he then compares with borders as attested in Jewish textual sources, namely, the 'Baraita of the Boundaries of Eretz-Israel', the Mishnah m. Aviam argues that there is: a complete overlap between the two groups of data - archaeology and history Quite early in his chapter, he argues that the presence of: Jewish ethnic markers [stone vessels, miqva'ot, lack of pork bones, secondary burial - M. They served as a food supply for cities on the coast like Tyre and Sidon and had direct road connections: Even under the Hasmoneans the region remained under Tyrian control, since Hasmonean rule extended only to Lake Huleh and not further north.

    Carl Savage 'Supporting evidence for a first-century Bethsaida' pp. In the 1st century, it: appears to be less wealthy, less orientated to the Phoenician coast and more orientated to the west and south - the Jewish Galilee - than the earlier Hellenistic period settlement. The authors suggest that: the basilica was built right on top of the Herodian palace or its ruins; this is indicated by a fine but clear layer of ash potentially pointing to the destruction of Herod Antipas's residence during the First Revolt against the Romans.

    Anders Runesson 'Architecture, conflict, and identity formation: Jews and Christians in Capernaum from the first to the sixth century' pp. At the same time 5th century , several restrictions were placed on the Jews by the politically empowered Christians who represented colonial power: The limestone synagogue, then, may have been constructed - in accordance with the laws of the 5 th c. Of special concern are copper coins, since a: sudden demand for copper coinage, resulting in heavy minting, is likely to be an indicator of a rise in urbanization, implying specialized labor, a decline of self-sufficiency, and heavier monetization p.

    The coins of Antipas: are best described as modest, carefully adjusted, and slightly insignificant Marcus Sigismund 'Small change? Monika Bernett 'Roman imperial cult in the Galilee: Structures, functions, and dynamics' pp.