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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Portland, Or. Eden End By J. Stella Kirby spent nine years running away; leaving home to find her freedom as an actress. Now she has decided that the only role left to play is the prodigal daughter returned, hoping to rediscover herself amongst the familiar surroundings of her childhood home, Eden End.

Priestley had a special tenderness for Eden End and for it he created some of his most fragile, gentle characters.

Apoteosis de don Pedro Calderón de la Barca (Teatro) (Spanish Edition)

The stocial Dr. Kirby, his younger son Wilfred, desperate to prove himself a man of the world, and Lillian, the daughter who stayed at home, are a sharply observed and instantly recognisable family, with all its dreams and disappointments. This collection of Edgar's shorter plays offers further examples of his versatility. Included are Blood Sports, five hilarious sketches on sporting subjects; Ball Boys, an unlikely match between Marx and tennis - and his most widely performed play; Baby Love, a powerful and moving account of a baby-snatcher; The National Theatre, 'Three Sisters' in a strip club; and The Midas Connection, an ironic look at gold dealing.

Edgar G. Ulmer: Detour on Poverty Row examines the full scope of the career of this often overlooked film auteur, with essays exploring individual films, groups of films such as his important work in film noir , repetitive themes appearing across the spectrum of his work, and a case study of three essays analyzing The Black Cat Rhodes Queen's U. Starting off with Ulmer's affiliation with the Producer's Releasing Corporation, these essays outline this director's contributions to film noir after being relegated to the world of B-movies.

Film students who are interested in noir and B-movies will appreciate the detail and analyses offered in this volume. Here we have two books. The first story is about a man who must face his past in his many women; a story filled with sex, violence, and philosophy. The second story is about a man who has every reason to give up on life, yet he arises once again from his sentence of death and destruction. The bizarre, tragic story of a daughter of high society, Edie Sedgwick, who became part of the Andy Warhol scene in the s, who was totally burned out when she died in at the age of This oral history by her friendsand companions proves a fitting legacy to her 'shooting star' trajectory of a fragile life cut short: the Basquiat of her generation.

Edison's Frankenstein By Frederick C.


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  5. Writing Essays: what you need to know;
  6. APOTEOSIS - Definition and synonyms of apoteosis in the Spanish dictionary.

Nearly every iconic film in the 20th century had one thing in common: Edith Head. With over films to her credit, Edith Head ruled the Costume Design departments at Paramount and Universal Studios for nearly six decades, garnering thirty-five Oscar nominations and winning eight - the most of any woman to date. Writer, photographer, and collector Jay Jorgensen brings together rare, never-before-seen sketches, fabric samples, costume tests, and behind-the-scenes photos from the Edith Head archives.

A must-have for any film buff or person interested in fashion. Edna Ferber's Hollywood By J. A Student Edition of Willy Russell's play, with introduction, commentary, notes on the text and questions for study. This edition contains the author's revised version of the play, produced in In a candid and personal account of his own life, the late author of the best-selling Sackett saga recalls his youth in North Dakota, his decision to leave school at fifteen, his worldwide odysseys, and his evolution as a writer.

A truly global look at practice-based film education. A shooting script for the film tells the story of Jenny, who is tired of teen life until she meets David, an older suitor who introduces her to urban nightlife and provides a new "education" that could prove to be her awakening or her undoing. Biography of the Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright by the longtime drama critic. Drawn from conversations with Albee; contains previously unpublished photographs and letters from and to Albee.

Notes on Sources, Selected Bibliography, Index. In , Edward Albee electrified the theater world with the American premiere of The Zoo Story, and followed it two years later with his extraordinary first Broadway play, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Proclaimed as the playwright of his generation, he went on to win three Pulitzer Prizes for his searing and innovative plays.

Mel Gussow, author, critic, and cultural writer for The New York Times, has known Albee and followed his career since its inception, and in this biography he creates a firsthand portrait of a complex genius. Edward Bond Letters, Volume IV, focuses on four significant areas of Edward Bond's work: education, imagination and the child; theatre-in-education; At the Inland Sea; language and imagery.

The letters represent a coruscating attack on our present society, as well as offering insights into how the situation might be improved. Bond's letters attack modern education, arguing that "children are being educated to sell themselves" and suggesting that social problems are caused by an oppression of the imagination. Many letters refer directly to a play - for instance Tuesday, which presents an assessment of the many difficulties faced by contemporary society.

The language and imagery of one of Bond's most recent plays, In the Company of Men, is animatedly discussed, and Bond reminds us in a final description that "the good image is always absent, because it is present in the mind. A profoundly moving new drama by Marie Clements, combined with a spectacular contemporary photo exhibit by Rita Leistner. English Men of Letters Series. Edward II. Edward R. Long before the era of the news anchor, the pundit, and the mini-cam, one man blazed a trail that thousands would follow. Edwards brings to life the great stories Murrow covered and brought into American living rooms for the first time--the rooftop reports of the London Blitz, bombing raids over Berlin, and the broadcast that helped bring down Senator Joe McCarthy--as well as the ups and downs of his career at CBS.

Edwards reveals how Murrow dramatically impacted public opinion and how the high standards he lived by influenced an entire generation of broadcasters. Includes LIVE radio broadcasts. A life of the most colorful and warmly-remembered nineteenth-century American actor - A flamboyant figure off the stage as well as on - A fascinating eccentric idolized from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia to St.

Louis, New Orleans, and San Francisco. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Presents a domestic drama depicting a mentally unbalanced woman's far-reaching effects on the lives of her two daughters. Effective TV Production gives a succinct but thorough overview of the production process. Whatever your role in television, this book outlines the main functions of your job, placing them in the context of all other operations and showing how they are interrelated.

The book shows how, within the often severe limitations of time and money, it is possible to originate interesting and competitive television programmes. It describes the essentials of good camerawork and relates them to considerations of audio, staging, lighting, make-up and wardrobe techniques and the way in which a production is developed in approach and style form the initial stages to the moment of shooting.

This edition is substantially revised to reflect developments in technology and contemporary production styles. Gerald Millerson'd books on television have long been acknowledged as among the best ever published. I mean fortunate, inas- much as they gave birth to a genuine national drama instead of a feeble imitation of antiquity. For it is only pedants who can consider him as the corrupter of the Spanish stage.

Let us turn our eyes towards Moliere. In his time the farces and improvised plays which delighted the crowd were even still less artistic than the plays wdiich delighted the Spanish public when Lope de Vega appeared. Yet Moliere created French comedy. Calderou fue el segundo corrupter del teatro.

Which Spanish Accent Is Sexiest? Celebrity Edition

On the first representation of Les Precieuses Ridicules, an old man in the pit, charmed with this novelty, cried out to Moliere, who was playing- Mascarille : ''Bravo, Moliere! Lope de Vega was not a Moliere. But he did that which lay in his power.


  • A Golden Trail of Murder.
  • Teatro Calderon Barca;
  • Mohawks: A Novel (complete).
  • He could not give a new direction to comedy ; but in following the route chalked out for him by predecessors he founded a national drama, and became the idol of the public. In truth those who had written before him had produced but miserable works in comparison with those which he so rapidly threw off. Even the great Cervantes was thrown into the shade.

    He yielded the throne to Lope, as in later times Scott yielded the throne to the impetuous Byron, who remained Sole Napoleon of the realms of rhyme.

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    Cervantes retired to lay up stores, and meditate the composition of the greatest romance ever written — the First Part of Don Quixote. It is curious, with our present knowledge and estimate of the two men, to think of Cervantes as inferior to Lope de Vega ; not simply inferior in popularity, but also in dramatic talent. A lurking doubt must present itself as to whether, if the plays were extant, we should not find in them evidences of a far higher genius than was ever manifested by the Spanish phoenix.

    But this is hasty surmise. So-would it be with the comedies of Cervantes, were they extant. TVe may admit, as incontestable, that Cervantes was a man of greater genius than Lope de Vega ; but it by no means follows that he had greater theatrical talent ; it by no means follows tliat his faculties were so early matured as to have enabled him to surpass his rival at that period. Many a genius has been "slow of growth.

    Oaks that flou- rish for a thousand years do not spring up into beauty like a reed. The excellence of Lope de Vega was not, like that of Cervantes, one demand- ing time for maturity, one demanding abundant materials difficult of mastery. To write plays of intrigue, such as his, he needed only a knowledge of manners and the elementary passions, with a quick perception of the requisites of the stage. With such food, a fanciful and ingenious intellect, stimulated by inexhaustible animal spirits, could produce master-pieces of this kind at an early age.

    To write Don Quixote other preparations were necessary. In a word, Cervantes needed a rich psychological experience ; not such knowledge as is written down in books, but such as is in action in the heads and hearts of men. A boy of twenty, with the requisite ability, could have written the best play by Lope de Vega ; the same boy could not even have understood Don Quixote in all that constitutes its surpassing excel- lence.

    It was not until his fiftieth year, after a life wherein meditation and action held equal sway, that Cervantes commenced his immortal work.

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    It was in his twelfth year that Lope wrote his first comedy ; it was in his twenty -sixth that he was pronounced the Spanish phcenix. There is no inconsistency then in supposing Cervantes inferior to the young Lope, and forced to yield him place. He was slowly growing while Lope was in full vigour. Nor would he have ever equalled Lope in theatrical excellence : his genius lay elsewhere.

    I assume this on the ground of his inferiority to Lope de Yega in those plays which he wrote after Lope had given him a model ; the plays I mean published by Bias Nazarre. The birds, however, had flown from their nest. I threw them, therefore, into the corner of a trunk, and condemned them to eternal obscurity. A bookseller then told me that he would have bought tiiem from me had he not been told by a celebrated author that much depend- ence might be placed upon my prose, but none upon my poetry.

    To say the truth, this information mortified me much. I said to myself: ' Certainly I am either changed, or the world, contrary to its custom, has become much wiser, for in past times I used to meet with praise. I found that they were not so bad but that they might pass from what this author called darkness into what others may perhaps term noonday. I was angry, and sold them to the book- seller, who has now printed them. They have paid me tolerably, and I have pocketed my money with pleasure, and without troubling myself about the opinions of the actors, I was willing to make them as excellent as I could ; and if, dear reader, thou findest anything good in them, I pray thee, when thou meetest anj- other calumniator, to tell him to amend his manners and not to judge so severely, since, after all, the plays contain not any incongru- ities or striking faults.

    The satire in Don Quixote is transparent ; in the comedies no one but Nazarre could suspect it. Besides, Cer- vantes tells us himself that he wrote the plays for representation, and tliinks them worthy of it. Had he meant them as satires he would have taken pains to forewarn the public ; the more so as they had been denied performance. In our days, Mhen a tragedy is refused at every theatre, the author publishes it witii a declaration that it is " meant for the closet.

    Some biogra pliers and critics declare them to have been unjust towards each other. Others declare them to have been mag- nanimously courteous. Both sides have texts to quote; but both are wrong. The truth is that although occasional jealousies may have been ex- cited, and harsh words have escaped during mo- ments of irritation, these two men were fully aware of each other's greatness. It is true that he implies that his better judgment occasionally yielded to the temptation of immediate profit, and that he sometimes sacrificed his permanent fame to fleeting popularity with the comedians and the public.

    The admirers, or rather the adorers of Lope, who had christened him the Phoenix of Spain, were very anxious to crush the reputation of Cervantes. With this view they excited rivals on whom they lavished extravagant praises ; they at one time decried novels and ro- mances, and at another extolled all those who wrote them, except the one who was most deserving of their praise.

    If the sonnet published by Pellicer in the Life prefixed to Don Quixote be genuine, Cervantes was at length provoked to attack more directly the formidable reputation of their idol. In this sonnet, which contains a sort of play upon words, by the omission of the last syllable of each, that cannot be translated, the works of Lope were somewhat severely handled ; a sonnet compiled in four languages from various authors is ridiculed ; the expediency of a sponge is suggested ; and he is above all advised not to pursue his Jerusalem Con- quistada, a work upon which he was then employed.

    Lope, who parodied the sonnet of Cervantes, re- jected his advice, and published that epic poem, in which his failure is generally acknowledged even by his most fervent admirers. Por el mundo va vendiendo especias, y azafran romi, y al fin en muladares parara. When in his Laurel de Apolo he comes to chronicle his serious opinion of Cervantes, he speaks magnifi- centlv of him, and touching-lv alludino; to the arm Cervantes lost at Lepanto, says : que una mano herida pudo dar a su dueno eterna vida.

    Distinguished bard, whom no one of our time Could pass or equal in his prose or rhyme. I need quote no more. Lope de Yega not only far outstripped his rivals in the excellence of his comedies, but also in their fertility. No writer ever approached him in rapidity. There lias been much exaggeration on this point ; and one would think that biographers had pledged themselves to make the marvellous incredible, so resolutely do they exaggerate.

    Lord Holland, who suspected the truth of some of the Spanish estimates, was not altogether free from an excess of credulity. He nevertheless asserts in one of his last poems, that " No es minima parte, aunque es exceso, De lo que estii por imprimir, lo impreso. Yet were we to give credit to such accounts, allowing him to begin his compositions at the age of thirteen, we must believe that upon an average he wrote more than nine hundred lines a day ; a fertility of imagination, and a celerity of pen, which, when we consider the occupations of his life as a soldier, a secretary, a master of a family, and a priest ; his acquirements in Latin, Italian, and Por- tuguese ; and his reputation for erudition ; become not only improbable, but absolutely, and, one may almost say, physically impossible.

    There does not now exist the fourth part of the works which he and his admirers mention ; yet enough remains to render him one of the most voluminous authors that ever put pen to paper. Such was his facility, that he informs us in his Eclogue to Claudio, that more than a hundred times he composed a play and pro- duced it on the stage in twenty-four hours.

    He wrote a comedy in two days, whicli it would not be very easy for the most expeditious amanuensis to copy out in the time. At Toledo he wrote fifteen acts in fifteen days, which make five comedies.

    Translation of «apoteosis» into 25 languages

    These he read at a private house, where Maestro Joseph de Valde- bieso was present and was witness of the whole ; but because this is variously related, I will mention what I mvself know from mv ov. Koque de Figueroa, the writer for the theatre at Madrid, was at such a loss for comedies that the doors of the theatre de la Cruz were shut ; but as it was in the Carnival, he was so anxious upon the subject that Lope and myself agreed to compose a joint comedy as fast as possible.

    The first act fell to Lope's lot, and the second to mine ; we despatched these in two days, and the third was to be divided into eight leaves each. As it was bad weather, I remained in his house tliat night ; and knowing tliat I could not equal him in the execu- tion, I had a fancy to beat him in tlie dispatch of the business : for this purpose I got up at two o'clock, and at eleven had completed my siiare of the work.

    I immediately went out to look for him, and found hira very deeply occupied with an orange-tree that Lad been frost-bitten in the night. He conquered and reduced under his jurisdiction every actor and author in the kingdom. He filled the world with plays written with purity, and the plot conducted with skill, in number so many that they exceed eighteen hundred sheets of paper ; and what is the most wonderful of all that can be said upon the subject, every one of them have I seen acted, or heard of their being so from those that had seen them ; and though there have been many who have attempted the same career, all their works together would not equal in quantity what this single man has composed.

    AVhat Lope himself says upon this subject will be most satis- factorily relatetl in his own words, though the passages are far from poetical. Having given a list in his prologue to the Pehgrino, written in , of three hundred and forty-three plays, in his Arte de hacer Comedias, published five years afterwards, he says : " Mas ninguno de todos llamar puedo Mas barbaro que yo, pues contra el arte Me atrevo a dar preceptos, y me dexo Llevar de la vulgar corriente, a donde Me llamen ignorante Italia y Francia.

    But what am I to do? Diras que es fingimiento Tanto papel cscrito, Tantas imitaciones, tantas flores Vestidos de rhetoricos colorcs. May it not rather be understood to say that Lope sent many of his MSS. If not, I really must suspect Lope's veracity, for, allowing that he composed verses as easily as another man would prose, it seems to me impossible that he should have written a play in the twenty-four hours. O Malicia I y aunque esto siento mas, menos condeno Algunas mias con el nombro ageno.

    That there must be some exaggeration all Mill be disposed to admit. It is but just however to observe, that though Lope is the most wonderful, he is not the only Spanish author the number of whose verses approaches to a miracle. It was not uncommon even for the nobility of Philip the Fourth's time to converse for some minutes in extempore poetry ; and in carelessness of metre, as Avell as in common-place images, the verses of that time often remind us of the improvisatori of Italy.

    He says Lope required no more than four-and-twenty hours to write a versified drama of three acts in redondillas, interspersed witli sonnets, tercets, and octaves. This is an amplification of what Lope de Vega has said of himself in the couplet quoted by Lord Holland, which I have before noticed. But I would here suggest that if the couplet is to be understood to say Lope actually wrote a play in the course of the four-and-twenty hours, this can only be credible on the supposition of the play being an interlude of one act, not a comedy of three.

    Be this as it may, Bouterwek has not the shadow of an authority for saying, " Lope sometimes wrote a play in the short space of three or four hours ; " this is a gratuitous bit of biographical exaggeration. This calculation is founded upon Lope's own indications. Pero si ahora el nuraero innnito De las fabulas comicas intento. Mil y quinientas fabulas admira. But fifteen hundred! It really takes one's breath away to hear of such achievements. If only as a prodigy of fecundity, this man ranks among the wonders of the world. Fifteen hundred plays, and all successful!

    They brought money to the treasury, competence to liim, and delight to all Spain. Lope was no prodigious " unactable unacted" boasting of a barren rapidity. His fertility was owing to his mastery over the materials furnished by an ardent imagination ; the rapidity of which some moderns boast is the mere torrent of words unobstructed by ideas.

    Lope's plays were acted, are acted still, and may still be read with pleasure. He was the idol of his nation. The nobility vied with each other in their expres- sions of admiration and friendship. Doctor of Theology, accompanying them by a flattering epistle. His career as a dramatist was a bright track of glory. The boys ran shouting after him ; and those whom old age pre- vented from keeping pace with the rest, stood and gazed on him in wonder as he passed.

    He was the incarnation of the national genius in its Oriental prodigality. He threw gleams of sunny mirth into tlie dark counte- nances of the holy Inquisitors. He even charmed the sombre spirit of Philip the Second. He taught the hidalgos a refinement in the ingenuity of in- trigue ; and roused the joyous boisterous mirth of the common people. I have seen an Italian singer obliged to obey the call, and appear before the curtain fifteen times at the con- clusion of an opera in which she had enchanted tlie audience ; and then the excited admirers, intoxi- cated with their own entiiusiasm, rushed out of the theatre, took the horses from her carriage, and, like exulting slaves, drew the enchantress to her home.

    These men were ready to fight a duel with any one who dared to question the singer's supremacy. So in Spain, the frantic admirers of Lope declared that Spongia, who had written a severe critique upon his works, deserved nothing short of death; and it is probable the critic would have met this fate had he not prudently retired to a foreign land. The Cardinal Barberini followed Idni with something little short of veneration. A fame so loud and spread so wide, no one has yet possessed. His name was an epithet of excellence : a Lope melon, a Lope cigar, a Lope horse, were perfect specimens.

    There must have been some- thing great in the man who was thus throned on the imaginations of his countrymen. Lope de Vega has survived two centuries of change, and still is acted, still is read. Amidst this noisy popularity Lope was not so happy as in those early days of struggle, m hen hope threw- a spring-like verdure over the future, and "when the present was irradiated by the sunny smiles of wife and child. The priceless treasures — Love and Hope — had been snatched from him.

    Glory could not compensate him for their loss. He was as active as ever ; rather more so ; fulfilled Ills religious duties, and solaced his leisure hours with the cultivation of his garden. This g-arden Juierticillo , if garden it could be called, having only a few feet of space, contained about a dozen plants, a vine, two trees, and a fountain rustically constructed out of a broken vase of earthenware.

    Towards one sees the graceful form of a young maiden gliding about the poet, like a guardian angel. Who was this Marcela? One knows not what to answer. Montalvan speaks of her with provoking reserve, which stimulates conjecture without satisfying it ; he calls her a near relation. Lope, in his dedica- tion to her of El remedio en la desdicha, calls her his daughter : whence the natural conclusion is that she was an ille2:itimate child.

    He loved her tenderly, and was proud of her beauty and talents. This he has done, in the epistle just quoted, where he describes the ceremony of her taking the veil. The following year his second, now only, son, Lope, left him, to join the Marquis de Santa Cruz, son of the valiant captain under whom Lope him- self had served during tlie campaign in Portugal. Al Lie. Franciso de Rioja. Obras, i. No vi en mi vida tan hermosa dama tal cara, tal cabello y gallarda But the bridegroom, though noble, was poor, and demanded a dowry. Lope, with the usual improvidence of poets, had spent easily the money he so easily earned, and was in no condition to bestow on his child a dowry.

    He did nothing remarkable then, and has since done less ; but he showed his zeal and his courage. He served your father with his pen. If it has not carried your father's name and praises from one end of the world to the other, it is the fault of his want of talent, not a deficiency of zeal. Lope has a daughjter, and he is old. The Muses have made him honoured, but not rich. Assist me : I am endeavouring to get my child a husband. Spare me, great Pliilip, a slight portion of your riches, and may you have more gold and diamonds than I have rhymes! The drama did not exclusively occupy his fruit- ful muse ; but the drama was after all the scene of liis great triumphs.

    As a poet he aspired no less to the approbation of the critics than to the applause of the crowd. His epics are, however, indifferent performances. Lord Holland says, " The Her mo- sura de Angelica is perliaps the best of liis heroic poems, though during his life the Corojia Tragica, his poem on Mary Queen of Scots, attracted more notice and secured him more praise. When Lope published it, the passions which religious dissension had excited throughout Europe had not subsided. The indiscriminate abuse of one sect was still sufficient to procure any work a favourable reception with the other ; and the Co- rona Tragica, the subject of which was fortunately chosen for such a purpose, was not deficient in that recommendation.

    Queen Elizabeth is a". He tells us also in the preface, that any author who censures his king and natural master is "a perfidious traitor, unworthy and incapable of all honours, civil or military. He finds nothing in the wisdom or activity of Charles Y.

    Philip II. Mas cinco lustres de una carcel fiera, Donde solo escuchaba el temeroso Ruido de las armas circunstantes Y el miedo de la muerte por instantes. La muei-te es menos pcna que esperarla ; Una vez quien la sufre la recibe ; Pero por mucho que en valor se extreme Muchas veces le passa quien la teme. Que aurora amanecio de luz vestida Que el alma no asaltasse el flaco muro En que sustento no perdi la vida? Que lugar para mi dexo seguro Naturaleza, sin ponerme luego Veiicno al labio, 6 a la torre fuego. What punishment in death can they devise For her who living only lives to groan, And see continual death before her eyes?

    What morning e'er arose on me with light. But on my health some sad disaster bred? Did fortune ever aid my war or flight, Or grant a refuge for my hapless head? Still at my life some fearful phantom aim'd, My draughts with poison drugg'd, my towers with treachery flamed. Julius desar, act 2, sc. Such burlesques are easy to write, but not easy to write well. Lope has hit the mock heroic tone to perfection. I have also read his iVeiv Art of xoriting Comedies, which is interestinor as re2:ards the state of the drama, but has no intrinsic merit.

    His Mimas Humanas deserve more attention than has been accorded to them, both for their intrinsic merit and their biographical allusions. Many of them are worth- less ; many simply ingenious ; but there are some fine touches of feeling and some gorgeous imager ', with a constant facility and mastery- of versification. This sonnet is interesting as displaying the affinity between the Latin and the southern languages, and as showins: also the diffierences.

    But in the vigour of his green old age he was again smitten by calamity. The precise nature of the evil Montalvan does not tell us ; he simply says that it was great enough to subdue the heart of the boldest. Lope, ever after, was steeped in gloom. On the 6th of August, , he dined with Montalvan and a friend. At dinner he said that but one hope was left him, — that of a speedy death. This was not long delayed. On Friday the 22nd of August he rose early, as usual, but more than usually depressed.

    He had the night before composed a sonnet on the death of a Portuguese gentleman ; and the thoughts of death, familiar to his mind as they had long been, now received another deeper tinge from the presentiment of his approaching end. He celebrated mass, and watered his little garden.

    In spite of his state of health, he would not relax from the severity of discipline, which imposed abstinence of meat ; and he even resumed flagellation. But he was taken ill, and was carried home and placed in bed. Medical aid was vain. On the Sunday evening he Mas given over, and demanded that the sacrament sliould be admiuL-tered. That sad ceremony completed, he sent for his daughter, whom he blessed ; and then, turning to his friends, bade them adieu with mild but earnest recommend- ations of peace and charity. To Montalvan he said, with touching earnestness, " True glory is in virtue.

    The morning saw his friends kneeling by his side, while the priest poured forth his pious exhortations. Lope listened with a deep sense of devotion, his eyes raised to heaven, his lips fastened to a small crucifix which he held in his hand. It was a solemn moment. In that dark chamber no voice was heard but the low voice of the priest ; sobs sometimes broke upon the ear in the solemn in- tervals of prayer.

    At last those who prayed silently heard a dying voice murmur the names of Jesus and of Mary. The poet ceased to breathe. The splendour of his funeral, which was conducted at the charge of the most munificent of his patrons, the Duke of Sesa ; the number and laufjuajze of the sermons on that occasion ; the competition of poets of all countries, in celebrating his genius and lamenting his loss ; are unparalleled in the annals of poetry, and perhaps THE SPANISH DEAMA.

    The illustrious nobles and artists of Madrid followed the bier, and surrounded his nephew and son-in-law with the marks of their attention. The windows were crowded with the curious. Marcela had entreated that the procession might pass before the convent of the Carmelites ; and it swerved from its path to grant her prayer. She wished to i ay a last homao;e to him who livinor had loved her with so touching an affection. Having made a pause at the convent door, the procession moved on to the church of Saint Sebastian, where mass was celebrated with the greatest solemnity.

    Three bishops officiated in their pontifical robes ; and in their sermons declared the great Lope to have been a saint in life, and as superior to the classic writers as Christianity was superior to Heathenism. The ceremony lasted nine days : a grand and imposing spectacle. The writings which have been selected from the prodigious quantity produced on that occasion, fill two large volumes.

    Every one was anxious to contribute his quota of homage to the deceased. And when the coffin was lowered into the tomb, a deep groan burst from the assembly, as if Spain had lost its brightest ornament. Lope left the society of cardinals and courtiers to write his ingenious plays. Cervantes wrote Don Quixote to relieve the weariness of his prison into which he was thrown for some paltry debt.

    The nation mourned for Lope, as for a darling child. Cervantes died and was buried privately, without any kind of distinction, and not even a tombstone marked the spot where his ashes reposed. Louis Viardot has rectified this "by showing that the new style was adopted earlier in Eng- land than in Spain ; consequently Shakspere survived Cer- vantes twelve days. He must be strangely perverse who does not at once admit that there must have been something very extraordinary in Lope de Vega, whose mere popularity is an evidence of prodigious talent. To see little merit in his works and many critics see none , is strangely to misconceive the nation that applauded them.

    The error arises from the appli- cation of a false standard. He would conclude this without looking at the works. The fact itself would be sufficient. Such has not been the conclusion generally drawn by foreigners. Because the popularity of Lope de Vega has waned, and most of his works have been forgotten, critics have assumed that the popularity was the mere riot of the day. And to some men popularity is always suspicious. Enjoy- ing none themselves, they are prone to suspect the validity of those attainments which command it. Observing many worthless writers becoming popular, they are apt to confound success with worthlessness.

    The distinction is this : the former gain tlie plaudits of the ignorant, the latter of the whole nation. His great contemporaries both at home and abroad lavished praise upon him. The man who was extolled by such poets as Cervantes and Marino, at the same time that he enraptured his whole nation, is the last person for whom foreign critics should affect contempt. He has been judged according to a standard he would have rejected ; and has naturally been found wanting.

    He has been termed an Improvisatore, on account of his rapidity. To conclude that his plays had no greater merit than those of the Improvisatori, was an easy process. Easy, but false. He has also been spoken of contemptuously as a slapdash writer whose sole merit is fecundity ; as if that, by the way, were so common a merit!

    But in spite of criti- cism Lope remains one of the most extraordinary writers in the annals of literature. To write much, and to write rapidly, are empty boasts. The world desires to know what you have done, and not how you did it.

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    But to MTite the enormous quantity that Lope de Vega wrote, is in itself a feat ; and to reach striking excellence in compositions so multiflirious is a feat still more amazing. Xo one supposes that Lope reached perfection in any one composition : it would be to suppose Nature violating her consistency. Lope sprang at once to the summit of theatriccd excellence. He fixed the taste of his country as Shakspere fixed ours ; and in spite of all changes in taste, and an occasional reaction by the imitators of the French classic school, he is still the standard of excellence.

    It has, hosvever, with foreign critics, been a hasty conclusion, that rapidity and fertility being in- compatible with revision and elaboration, therefore Lope's plays must necessarily be bad : things writ- ten for the dav and forg-otten on the morrow. Yet they have outlived that morrow ; they have out- lived two centuries ; and the memory of them will live as long as the Spanish lansfuage. The conclu- sion is false, because the premises were false.

    But the theatrical exposition of plot, incident and col- lision, which was Lope's object, demanded no such matured, nicely -balanced reflection and revision. Once give a man the talent for such exposition of a plot through sui-prising combinations, and one sees no reason why he should not write rapidly.

    Lope's works are of that kind which gain nothing by compression. He was fertile because not deep. Dramatic evolution of character, searching pene- tration into motives, subtle analysis of passions, were not his forte. Viewed in this light, the fertility of Lope de Vega is honourably appreciated. The comparative insignificance of each individual production renders fecundity a greater object. Our Shaksperian drama is a majestic oak whose roots strike deep down into their mother earth, whose branches stretch high and wide into the air, beneath whose shade thousands may retire from the world, to contemplate its workings at their ease.

    This oak is the grandest of trees : strength, beauty, usefulness, delight, variety, and grace, unite in it. It is of eternal substance. The gnarled, twisted branches are tipped with leaves of unexampled grace, and amidst those leaves are clustered acorns, every one of which would in its turn produce a forest. It is this "World within a "World — this prodigality of potential existence — which is Shakspere's endless charm.

    Not so the Spanish drama : it is a stem of clover, fragile, delicate, brilliant, but passing quickly away. QI oak ennobles a field, and testifies the energy of nature ; but the field must flush with myriad stems of clover, or it will be barren. Lope de Vega was prodigiously fertile, because prodigiously clever. There was no sluggishness in his brain, no hesitation in his pen. He knew pre- cisely what ought to be done, and did it.

    With a bold firm hand he dashed off his spirited outlines, certain of their effect. If he was no more than a sketcher, it must be owned tliat he was a great sk etcher. If to be a play-wright is no superhuman accomplishment, I must still think to be a Lopede Vega requires a mind so remarkable as to be with- out parallel.

    He had a memory richly stored, and has the air of inventing even in his recollections. He is a labourer who never fatigues himself, and whose works never seem laborious. Shakspere would have found few admirers there ; Moliere not very many more. The audience cared not for character, nor for weighty verses pregnant with wisdom. They wanted rapid and exciting stories of intrigue, plentifully adorned with rhetoric, jokes, and conceits. Mas la invencion, la gracia, y traza es propia a la ingeniosa fabula de Espana. No qual dicen sus emulas im propia scenas y actos suple la marana tan intricada y la soltura dc ella inimitable de ninguna estrana.

    Invention, interest, sprightly turns in plays, Say what they will, are Spain's peculiar praise ; Her's are the plots which strict attention seize, Full of intrigue, and yet disclosed with ease : Hence scenes and acts her fertile stage affords Unknown, unrivalled on the foreign boards. Lope's comedies are the ideal of this species. I do not think highly of the species, but I do think highly of his manner of treating it. I conceive therefore that Lope's success in Spain is sufficient proof of his having hit the Spanish taste ; and although he would never be estimated so highly with us, 1 also conceive that the study of his works would be very beneficial to our aspir- ing dramatists.

    And then look into anv one of the three hundred plays that have come down to us, or into any of the hundred selections from them. Read him without bias, and see how really excellent, of their kind, these rapid compositions are. If you go to him with critical spectacles dogmatically bestriding your nose, you will be ill-contented. If you expect to find a Shakspere, a Moliere, or a Schiller, you may save yourself the trouble. His unflagging animal spirits, playful irony, and careless gaiety, keep your mind in a constant smile, which gently curls about the lips.

    There are tragical scenes in his plays, and touches of real pathos, which go right to the qui- vering heart ; but they do not abound. Gaiety is the element in which he habitually lives ; and though the duels, murders, and violent collisions, which occur so often, may at first sight appear to contra- dict this opinion, yet a little familiarity with the plays soon detects that such things are little more than jests or common-places. We may notice also a graceful gallantry and address which is often visible beneath the atfecta- tions and frigid rhetoric of Lope's heroes. These heroes are often scamps, but sometimes real gentle- men, with a sense of the graceful and heroical.

    This is to be seen, however, only in the passages where the lovers are addressing other women than their mistresses, other men than the relations of their mistresses : for with these they are mostly in a state of rage, jealousy, or deceit, and exhibit themselves in their very worst colours. One thing must be borne in mind during perusal : viz. This scene we have all met in Moliere and in a hundred farces: the joke has become threadbare, and in the reading we are apt to forget that in Lope's time it was '' worn in the newest gloss. The young widow refuses all her suitors, and pre- tends to be exempt from love and vanity : her criada cunningly contrives to turn the conversa- tion in such a channel that the widow is induced to look at herself in the mirror : in the very act she is surprised by her uncle!

    She is incensed at be- ing caught ; but he, with a Lope banter, assures her that she is wise thus to ascertain the state of her toilet and her charms. Good as this unques- tionably is, and laughable as it will always be, yet in how many shapes have we not seen it on the stage? In spite of these, and other drawbacks. Lope de Vega is a very amusing writer. His plays bear the stamp of a gay and cultivated mind : they all seem written by a soldier and a gentleman.

    He seldom rises to wit ; but in light banter, and uproarious farce, he has few rivals, and in his own country we believe none. His glance was quick, but not deep ; he never sees into the heart of a thing ; and there- fore is rarely witty. But he is ironical, humorous, mirthful.

    Editions of Apoteosis de don Pedro Calderón de la Barca by José Zorrilla

    He cannot read character, nor penetrate motive ; but he is quick to catch superficial analo- gies, and excels in good-humoured banter. She, duly endowed with " sentiment," refuses to listen to such a proposition ; and defends her conduct by a reference to animals, who, she says, set human beings an example : The turtle-dove, when widowed, will not sing, Nor wed again, nor perch on the green boughs.

    Then pray where does she perch? On withered boughs : On thorns Tiberio. On thorns? Egad, you're right! The dove Affords a faithful illustration of your state. For certainly So restless are they and so fidgety Widows do sit on thorns I This gaiety sometimes overflows into exuberant feirce. AVe need go no further than this very play for proofs. The heroine is one of the most prepos- terously affected creatures ever put upon the stage. Her alfiectations are, however, as droll as extrava- gant.

    She is a Precieuse Ridicule ; but she is not without repartee. To Lope's gaiety, which is his first characteristic, we have to add a wonderful sweetness and fluency of versification, with considerable felicity of ex- pression, and an occasional touch of poetry in the higher sense. But look not there for the straightforward pathos of the Greeks, or the profound suggestive wisdom of Shakspere or Gothe. The contemporary focus on the Metamorphoses does not preclude the influence of other mythological texts, as we will see, although Ovid's text did enjoy an unprecedented fame and enduring influence well into the baroque era Kluge, Early 5.

    Additionally, the auto begins to move away from the older tradition of symbols read in isolation within a frame narrative and towards the construction of a cohesive allegorical whole based upon the Orpheus and Eurydice myth that portrays the underlying story as a "distorted version" Heiple of the Christian rendition of events. Barbara E. The auto begins when Aristeo, a demon who falls from grace, witnesses Orfeo effect creation through the mighty power of his song in accordance with the description given in Genesis.

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