If the goal is to attain balance between work and family, it seems important to make a cross-sectoral analysis to take into account the two dimensions of work and family balance that are family policy and labour market regulation, in research as well as in legislation. Comme le montrent les prochains paragraphes, les travaux en analyse de politiques publiques confortent cette affirmation. Dans cette province et ce pays, les gouvernements ont en effet agi modestement dans ce secteur de politique.
Ils ne constituent donc pas au premier chef des instruments de CTF. Les deux autres pays ne proposent pas comme telle une politique de CTF, mais les objectifs de CTF sont explicites dans les deux cas. Celui-ci varie selon le pays. Cette condition laisse donc une partie des parents sans prestation. He reminds us that in the beginning everything was a metaphor and that it would be silly to reduce everything to a pure meaning, fresh and pregnant. And still that is the strategy of the brilliant M. Claudel in his famous translations.
Il est midi. It is noon. Midi moins cinq. Five to twelve. In Argot , Il est midi can indeed mean: too late, nothing doing. Oridnary people prefer to say il est midi when they mean trop tard , or even impossible! Or they say moins cinq to say: cela a failli arriver. Imagine that these allusive metaphors and their like would all end up as good usage: that would be the end of all logical and direct expressions of facts and ideas; that would be the end of articulate language.
Even our mediocre writers have noticed that they do not think anymore, do not express themselves other than with images. This is a very grave symptom. Le sujet parlant. The speaking subject. And still we are speaking subjects. For the Quartermaster general, there are no people, just ration eaters, for a member of parliament there are only voting tickets; for the linguist there are only speaking subjects.
Michel was founded by St. Aubert, Bishop of Avranches, in , by order of the archangel Michael, who appeared to the bishop in a vision. Since the time this new order was established, its assemblies were always held at the Mount, until the reign of Louis XIV when they were transferred to the Chamber of Cordeliers in Paris. Note: L. Immensi tremor oceani. The tremor of the huge ocean. The Great Bear plunges with its lower part into the sea of steam like a chariot sunk in quicksand of which one only sees the shaft.
Note: See k. Les Bretons disaient:. A mis le Mont en Normandie. Les Normands ripostaient:. Before, it passed on the right. Thus Bretons and Normands have argued who own the rock containing the sanctuary and home of the Angel-Protector of France. The Bretons said:. Has put the Mont in Normandy. The Normands replied:. Saint Michel would not have gone there. A twisted iron escapes like a serpent from the ravine of a rock face, loses itself on the sand of the beach, crosses the ocean all the way to America. This has killed that. The transatlantic cable has replaced the archangel.
Let us not despise it. Tous les peintres qui viennent ici font mon portrait. Voulez-vous  que je pose pour vous? All the painters who come here have made my portrait. Do you want me to pose for you? But I am not a painter, unfortunately. Do want to walk around the Mont on the strand? Le Mont-Saint-Michel se profilait en noir sur ce fond blafard. The Mont-Saint-Michel stood out in black against this wan wallpaper. It lives in our passions, our strife, in our latent aspirations, our incomprehensible melancholies; it enters the very substance of our thought.
They have deep recollections and surprising awakenings. The soul of a nation is composed of everything that it has lived through in the course of the ages, and for which the sphinx of the future will supply the synthesis. The druids dedicated it to a solar deity and called it Tom Belen. Note: See n. Les marins qui affrontaient la mer venaient les consulter dans cette caverne.
On these rocks and environs, the druidesses celebrated their rites, their mysteries, their sacrifices. The sailors who ventured out onto the sea came and consulted them in their cavern. It is there that they gave their oracles, that they sold for gold their magic arrows in ash wood and with a copper point, decorated with falcon plumes, which were rumored to turn away thunder storms, and which the Gauls shot at the sky when thunder roared in the skies.
He adds that, for their political writings, they make use of Greek letters; but that they consider it a sacrilege to commit their secrets to writing, which seems to imply a secret doctrine. As to the circle of God, Ceugant , the ocean of infinity, it envelops and contains the three others, it supports it with its breath, penetrates it with its life. Each college had its own rules. The ones on the island of Seine , they were devoted to a perpetual virginity. At the mouth of the Poire, on the contrary, the priestesses of the Namnetes were married and visited their husbands furtively, when night had come, in light boats they sailed themselves].
Note: See a. At night they indulged in them on the island that is today called Tombelene. Note: See g. One only finds it systematically developed in ancient India , in Egypt , and probably also among the druids; for one can hardly take into account the crude notions of this idea observed among Greenlanders and several peoples of Africa and America.
The ideas of Pythagoras on this subject were alien to the Greeks and were no doubt borrowed from Egypt rather than from Gaul , which was then almost unknown to the Hellenes. With these she made runes and magic letters. Note: See VI. The Gaul seated on a rock felt with astonishment and dread that the world of shadows had already claimed this woman whom he had just now held in his warm and powerful arms.
Annoufen , the abyss, the dark from which all life comes; Kilk y Abred , where the souls go from body to body; Kilk y Gwynfyd , the radiant heaven where happiness reigns, where the soul recovers its primordial memory, where it finds again its Awen , its primitive genius. Immediately a deep sleep came over his limbs and thick shadows covered forever the eyes of the seer. But the superstitious respect for that family, exhausted by their crimes and debauchery, remained among the people.
Neustria and Austrasia fought with zeal over the semblances of royalty. The usurpating mayor had them lifted onto the shield to the acclamation of the Franks, then locked up in the city and reigned in their place. Almost all of them ended either killed or shamefully tonsured in the bottom of a convent.
He turned his face to the holy scriptures open on his knees. Immediately a hurricane passed over the book and turned all the pages. It remained open on the twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse. Franck finds the origin of this doctrine among the Persian magi. He had become thoughtful at the sight of these pirates of the North, who, on long boats called sea serpents, raided the coasts and entered the river deltas.
Note: See reproduction. There is a line from Zoroaster to l. Note: See e.
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In that of Odin, it was the bad that bested the good, and the universe would end in a frightful cataclysm, in which the two are sunk. The pirates landed to see if this rock could serve as a retreat. They entered in conversation with the religious, with the help of an interpreter whom they had with them and who knew almost all the languages of the continent. The descendant of the Vikings, the pirate Rollo, was one of those who helped to erect a basilica on the Mount with rich donations, and the large bell of the abbey, the one that was used in case of emergency, was called the Rollo bell.
She was a jewish convert, famous for her knowledge of medicine and necromancy. But the nun took his hand with compassion, and, after having studied the lines in his hand carefully, she predicted that he would be wise and happy and that nobody, in the kingdom of France , would be more esteemed.
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Note: See c - f. It is there that tradition has preserved his pensive and chaste face. The wise chroniclers have put so much precision in them, the pious annalists so much faith, that one thinks, in reading them, to be in the presence of historical events. Undoubtedly, from time to time, a anachronism appears; occasionally the ardent piety of the narrator surpassed the limits of permitted naivety; the improbability becomes obvious. No matter, the great breath of faith that enlivens the work, the deep love one feels for the abbey-fortress, centre of these cycle of legends, revive these scenes imagined with such an intensity that one believes they are real.
Note: Knock. A village in Co. And, understanding that the Lord had just performed a miracle for him alone, he was certain that God had allowed this wonder at the praying of the Archangel Saint Michel, whose voices he had, alas, all too often refused to hear! For months, before sunrise, they would meet, each day, on the Mont-Belenus. Note: See c. He had no trouble recognising that this individual belonged to one of the gangs, more or less honest, who came to the monasteries, often collected there lots of alms, telling extraordinary and edifying tales of which they pretended they had been the hero.
They called themselves, generally, miraculised, affirming that they had healed from the most serious and most cruel illnesses, thanks to the intercession of saints that were particularly honoured in the monastery that they were visiting. Favourite country. The monk will lead you to a great stone block.
Then the good prior will declare, without a smile, that this is a trace of the Devil chased away by the Archangel. The latter forced the former to hide in Brittany , his favourite land , claims the chronicler at the time, who was undoubtedly Norman. If you tell the prior that the print is not that of a hoofed foot, he will say that after all it might have been the foot of the Archangel. It came to pass at the time when abbot Hildebert II was head of the monastery of Mont-Saint-Michel, a pilgrim from Italy took, out of devotion no doubt, but secretly, a little stone of the rock on which Saint Michel wanted men to build him a sanctuary.
St Michel. Because Drogon was not always sufficiently careful when taking care of the church. He blew too forcefully on the candles; he moved the candelabras and the sacred vessels with exaggerated zeal on the marble of the altars; he mounted with too great an effort, the hanging lamps on the vault of the Holy Place.
Too quickly he dusts the balustrades, the stalls and the confessionals; and a more grevious fault, the Abbot and the Benedictines have noticed that he hardly bows when he passes before the altar of Saint Michel in the Nave.
That is why Drogon has been spoken to severely by the abbot. Then he took it by the arm and brought it before the altar to shame him before the pilgrims who prayed always and who had not turned their heads at the sound of the blow. Drogon passed before the statue without bowing. He immediately received, from an invisible hand, a formidable blow that resounded in the church and that threw him on the floor, where he stayed, for a few minutes, unconscious; in the meantime Nicolas prayed to the Archangel with all his soul, because the child had understood that something extraordinary was going to happen.
When Drogon got up, still stunned, the three pilgrims had gone, while all the doors were firmly closed! The unhappy sexton, half dead with fear, immediately went to the abbot and told him all that had happened. Pourquoi cette clameur? He lifts an armed hand. Why this clamour? Proverbes et dictons Avel, holl avel! We must die. Note: Bards, vates and eubages were the three classes of druids.
Dictionnaire II. The Druids, also known under the names of Bards, Eubages, Vacies, Saronides, Samothees or Simnothees, were distinguished by means of three major orders. At the end of the course on had to take an exam, which consisted in reciting several thousands of verses, in the form of either principles, or answers to questions]. Dictionnaire IV.
It was considered as a way of honoring their memory to preserve their skulls, trim them with gold or silver and to use it as a cup to drink. Dictionnaire Il [M. A serpent, no doubt vomited from the earth, laid waste to the entire island. It was a horrible beast, more than a hundred feet long; its body was thicker than the mightiest oak in the forest of Limerick, its scales had a sinister reflection, from a purplish green to a clear red, giving the monster an invulnerable cuirass.
On its head, bristling with a double pointed horn, its bloodfilled eyes appeared above a maw the jaws of which were fortified with triple rows of fangs and teeth; the tongue, pointed as a javelin, gave off a poisonous fluid. Sometimes the monster lay in tortuous rings, it lay on the ground and slithered forward in abrupt jumps; sometimes it moved straight as an arrow and rapid as lightening.
Neither the basalt rocks, the flanks of which are steep as walls, nor the wildest rivers, nor the branches of the sea where the waves toss with fury can stop its frightful advance. The serpent only left ruins in its wake; the fields over which its body had passed, as he devoured horses and cows, instantly became waste and the grasses of the fields were burned. The water of the rivers where it drank began to stink and fetid ooze spreading unknown diseases came out of the forests where it had rested at night.
For a while it had eaten animals, but after a few weeks it began to make a meal of people; at night it would roam near the villages, catching in its maw the benighted; the women who were washing, children coming back from school, all of them had been eaten in the hundreds. Nobody dared to leave the house, and in rich as well as poor cities, the Irish were stunned and they commanded their souls to God. What crime had the island committed for God to send them such a scourge? He ordered him, without delay, to bring the weapons that that had served him to kill the serpent to the sanctuary that he had chosen on earth.
But, before the bishop had the time to ask the chief of the celestial armies for the name of the sanctuary that pleased above all others, Saint Michael disappeared. Note: See h and b. The heart was really the most popular ex-voto. There was generally a little cross on the top or a flame, surrounded by a crown of thorns, inlaid with flowers or initials; often, they were hollow; they opened then like a watch and inside you could place a piece of vellum on which one could write the object of a wish asked or fulfilled.
Note: Ex voto. An offering made in pursuance of a vow. This expression or better this comparison has intrigued the folklore specialists for a long time; finally one of them, slightly more intelligent, told his colleagues that the protestants did not render to the saints the veneration that was their due. And that explained the surname!
Rame dans la rame
I remember, in any case, being told that in Mont-Saint-Michel and the neighbouring coast, the roosters laid the eggs. All the roosters of the land were terrified: they were all chicken. It is true: folklore specialists have an answer for everything. For the profane among us, the cockle is no more than a humble mollusk, formed by two symmetrical valves.
They are everywhere in the estuaries of the little Breton and Normand rivers, in the delta of the Vilaine, in the cove of Fresnaye, under cape Frehel and, especially, in the bay of Mont-Saint-Michel. Ferre noctuam Athenas. Note: Cardium edule. Latin name of the common cockle. Carry an owl to Athens. Toussenel, alone, in his The Soul of the Animals , could have told us the reason for their change of address; they choose banks of sand of a different nature; there is the slate bank, when the sand is light blue; the cockles that one catches there taste like mud; they are much better in the white or reddish grouet , which means in bed of pure sand.
Pisciferos amnes, multo salmone feraces. One has even said that the salmon were so common that the farm servants of the river shores stipulated in their contracts that they could only eat salmon twice a week. This is a legend that one can also hear in England. Streams well-stocked with fish, abundant in salmon. Why was the name Omar changed into that of Homar and even of Homard? Were the good religious scribes thinking of the excellent crustaceans, with their sharp and long pincers, that live so abundantly in the bay of Saint-Malo?
Il fallait les faire casquer comme on dit de nos jours. Mais comment? It had come to the due attention of the intendant of the Generality of Caen that the barracks of the guards of the Grande Porte and their cisterns were dirty. Everybody agreed on the need for repairs, but nobody wanted to start them; the builders, after having been made aware of the plans and the funds, refused to cooperate and then … nobody wanted to pay.
No more water; it had to be brought in by barrel or cask, from Rive, more than a half a league away. The people of the Mont did not have a red cent in their municipal coffers; the Royal Treasury was just as dry as the cisterns. Only the monks were rich, or at least, the unlucky ones were thought to be rich: a terrible and dangerous reputation! They had to cough up, as we would say now.
But how? Consolez-vous, madame. Cela se reproduit encore maintenant. Thief, someone has taken my purse! They were under surveillance of the police: this is why the bohemians were supposed to declare a change of address or of residence, when they went from one place to another.
A recent law now obliges the nomads, even when they are French citizens, to have their identity cards checked by the mayor and the gendarmes. Naturally, scum and thieves sneaked among the Egyptians, scum and thieves; the complaints of their victims were frequent enough; one sometimes caught these robbers, but it was difficult to find the purses that had been stolen and when they were found on the pavement of the street, they were empty. That still happens today. The pilgrims also complained of the goglus. These were not other than pisteurs , the unbearable pisteurs of today.
Our current etymologists find, in the word goglu , the Celtic root gog which implies a sense of fraud or deception. However that may be, already in , Thomas Le Roy writes about the crimes of these bad people. He shows how the archdeacon of the Mont blamed several burhers of the town for giving shelter to these gogglues, who brought them pilgrims, and thus also the freedom to stay wherever they wanted. See n. In pre-revolutionary France , a police force under the command of the Marshals of France. This deliberation was never emptied , as they say in the palace. Since there was no escaping being eaten, they preferred to be eaten with a Benedictine sauce rather with a royal one; and who will say they were wrong?
Was Hugo looking for his hat or did he do like the beautiful girls who half-complain when they have thrown their hats above the mills [i. Cette roche superbe. Et sentant sur sa croupe! Elle vous caressa par un muet accueil,. Elle ne le dit pas: je vous le dis pour elle. Strange case! You will find it in manuscript of the Library at the Arsenal in Paris , volume IX, folios Conrart ends his long epistle with this awful tirade:.
This superb rock. Your beautiful feet have touched it like one touches the grass,. It bends before its invincible pride,. And feeling on its croup! She caresses you with a dumb welcome,. Then, when she sees of your departure the cruel hour,. In her concavities!! She does not tell you: I tell you for her. In the course of the centuries, she was given sisters and, thanks to the generosity of the kings of France, the princes of the Church and devout pilgrims, the Mont-Saint-Michel carillon was one of the best in the world; unfortunately the fire from the skies would destroy the tower and the bells were melted down.
Among the bells there is one still today with a special mission, to give guidance to poor people lost in the fog? It is called for that reason the bell of the mists. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, she cracked. It was a sort of penitence. One day the lord of that place, who had lots of sins of infidelity weighing on him, clang to the cord that he feverishly rang for such a long time that the bell cracked.
The religious thought it was a pity; their laments reached to the other side of the Rhine to the abbot who owned the living; he was a German. Tombelaine was, it seems, in prehistory the seat of a college of druidesses, of small virtue, if we are to believe the prudish chroniclers of Mont-Saint-Michel.
His corpse was found, a few days later, in Colombel, in Saint-Broladre. Note: Unit ends with what appear to be three ditto signs. Kinane Saint Patrick If the Prophet Jeremias was sanctified, as he was, in his mother's womb, because his heavenly mission was to announce to the world the mysteries and revelations of the  Almighty; if St. Kinane St. Patrick Pious Reflection. My soul! Patrick Nations were converted, and at the touch of persecution have lost the faith; to-day, after centuries of unparalleled suffering and trials, Erin professes the same holy faith which St.
Patrick, nigh fifteen hundred years ago, preached to the Kings at Tara; she professes the same faith as pure and holy as it fell from the divine lips of Jesus Christ Himself. Under God, thanks to the prayers of our glorious Apostle, St. Patrick St. Joseph , pray for me, and obtain for me the grace of a happy death. Note: Although cancelled with d above, this unit was not transferred to the draft. Patrick, who was called Socket, was a Briton by birth [ Note: Succoth. The Jewish feast of tents or tabernacles.
Martin of Tours, was born in Pannonia , Modern Hungary. Patrick the mother of St. Francis of Assisium [ Patrick [describes journey through desert]. Patrick Palladius, entering the land of the Scots [ We agree with those writers, who hold that St.
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Patrick was born in the year ; taken captive in , in his sixteenth years of his age; returned to his native country in ; and after 38 years spent in study, prayer, penance, and the science of the Saints, under the greatest masters in Christendom, was Consecrated bishop in in the sixtieth year of his age. Langan and many learned writers assign for the date of our Saint's birth, and his consecration in , in the 45th year of his age. Patrick [Patrick] was Consecrated bishop in in the sixtieth year of his age. Not found in Kinane St. As a five year old saw it, through the distant fog of the great bay, through the trees of the Garden of Plants in Avranches, where the college boys would frolic; Tiphaine Raguenel, the astrologer of the Mont-Saint-Michel, could have told me, if I had asked for horoscope of her divination arts, that the name of the archangel would often come out of my pen, because I was born on 29 September, the feastday of the Prince of the Heavenly Host; but I am neither so presumptuous nor so superstitious, so I had better explain why I so much like the historical works on the Mont-Saint-Michel.
For three hundred years, Avranches, where I was born, has been the most active and fecund michelian workshop of all of Normandy. On the presses of its first printer was printed a little manual for the Pilgrim to the Mont, work of Father Feu-Ardent, a Franciscan all aflame with love for mount Tumbe; it was also in the attics of the Central School in this city, just a few steps from the famous school where tradition claims that Anselm and Lanfranc taught, that were hidden, after the pillage of the abbey by the revolutionaries, those famous manuscripts, pride and glory of the City of Books.
It was their penultimate rest; they lost a few of their leaves that were torn out to have beautiful pictures; or they were sold as vellum. In the end, they were deposited in the library of the city and more or less methodically ordered on shelves close to a gutter, the most humid place in the room.
For the last fifteen years they have been occupying a less dangerous and more dignified place. Qui contre la grand mer est rive,. Some of the privileged could descend by way of the posterns of the Merveille, but, if one wanted to go up from the shore, it was necessary to scale a steep and wild slope,. That is a shore against the great sea,. You had to climb over the ruins of the stairs that used to go from the fountain of Saint-Aubert, with the conic trunnion, all the way to the low gate of the Montgommeries; you were obliged to push aside the thick brush at the same spot where the 98 Huguenots were buried, killed on the night of 28 and 29 September Our Saint turning towards the four points of the heavens blessed the plains, and the snow disappeared […] The Druid now brought darkness over the plains; but was unable to remove it.
Patrick prayed to the Lord, and immediately a bright sun dispelled the darkness—second victory over the enemy. Patrick They wondered at the appearance of the clerics, and imagined they were fir-sidhe, or phantoms. They questioned Patrick, 'Whence are you, and whither sic have you come? Is it from the sidhe? Are you gods? Is it under the earth, or on the earth, or in the seas, or in the streams, or in hills, or in valleys? Has He sons or daughters? Has He gold and silver? Is there a profusion of every good in His kingdom. Tell us plainly how we shall see Him, and how He is to be loved, and how He is to be found.
Is He young or old, or is He ever-living? Is He beautiful, or have many fostered His son, or is His daughter handsome, and dear to men of the world? Patrick, full of the Holy Spirit, responded: 'Our God is the God of all, the God of heaven and earth, the God of the seas and the rivers, the God of the sun and the moon, and of all the other planets;  the God of the high hills and the low valleys; God over heaven, in heaven, and under heaven ; and He has a mansion— i.
He inspireth all things, He quickeneth all things, He enkindleth all things; He giveth light to the sun and to the moon. He created fountains in the dry land, and placed dry islands in the sea, and stars to minister to the greater lights. He hath a Son co-eternal and co-equal with Himself; and the Son is not younger than the Father, nor is the Father older than the Son. And the Holy Ghost are not divided. I desire moreover to unite you to the Son of the heavenly King, for ye are daughters of an earthly king.
Teach us duly that we may see the Lord face to face —teach us, and we will do as you will say to us. Patrick said, 'Do you believe that through baptism the sin of your mother and your father shall be put away from you? And  Patrick said to them,' You cannot see Christ except that you first taste death, and unless you receive the body of Christ, and His blood. This beautiful passage delineates the faith and zeal of our Saint, as well as the grace and unction attached to his preaching, while on the other hand, it unfolds the beautiful simplicity of the youthful princesses, and the wondrous effect of God's efficacious grace upon their hearts and souls.
Patrick Whilst our Saint preached and baptized at Cashel, the prince Aengus stood by his side; and the sharp point of the crozier […] pierced his foot from which the blood flowed most copiously; the fervent convert bore the pain in silence; and when St. His saying is so good that with those Gratzachams his cauldron shall be brought back to him. Note: See 21 9 a.
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Patrick God sometimes gives to his great Servants while on earth, a foretaste of the joys of heaven. Hence, we are not surprised that extraordinary, heavenly signs and prodigies are recorded to have taken place at the death of our Saint. On the 17th of March, in the year , at the age of , amid the sweet songs of the Angels, and a supernatural light from heaven, St. Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland, breathed forth his pure soul into the hands of his Creator.
Note: FW Patrick [St Patrick at Lerins] the night he usually divided into three parts. During the first part he recited a hundred Psalms, making at the same time two hundred genuflections. This entry was later used at FW Note: Not found in Kinane St. Compare the citations at c and g for example. See also 36 a.
One of the first pages of this history was written on the gross canvas of the Bayeux Tapestry. This is the fragment in which we see Harold and William, both of them passing the sanctuary of the Archangel, before warring against Conan, duke of Brittany. The Mont appears, on the canvas of queen Mathilda, massive and already colossal with Romanesque arcades.
It is no longer the culmen contemplationis of the ancient chronicles, we can imagine the fortress. We feel that, caught between hammer and anvil, between Brittany and a Normandy where a duchy will grow into a kingdom, it will undergo countless attacks, receive but also give hard blows. Ce registre a disparu. One of the great monastic builders of the Mont , he shares with Robert the glory of being also its great librarian.
He bought numerous volumes and in order to classify the hundred of property titles of the monastery in orderly and methodical fashion, he created himself a register that was called Quanandrier or Rented Paper, with another book that was called the White book because of the colour of its cover and in which he had transcribed all the originals of the donations to the abbey. The latter register has disappeared. He is the architect of the Cartulary. The Cartulary is situated in the North-West conrner of the Merveille: it consists of the three small rooms on top of each other: the first alone is vaulted; the cloister, in its western part, leads unto the second floor of this rather small room.
At the moment the cartulary that tourists do not have access to, forms a museum at the top floor where some objects are assembled that were discovered during the repair works. Note: Muniment room is one of the senses of the French word chartrier cartulary. It can also designate the contents of this room, i. The first I opened turned out to be ancient manuscripts on vellum, of a careful writing and more or less well conserved; some of them had gold and illuminated initials; in a few others this gold had aroused the greed of the idle or of children: it had been cut out by means of a pair of scissors.
The ordinary writing had tempted nobody and it had suffered no other wounds than those of time. We passed several hours in repairing them and to make an inventory and we found the precious Cartulary which we had feared lost. Note: Cog. To falsify or feign; to flatter; to wheedle. Fiat in Domino!
Let it be in the Lord. Perhaps short for Fiat in nomine Domini. Let it be, in the name of the Lord. Fiat, Fiat in Domino. Note: See 53 o. New gods of another origin, social gods, we could say, have taken the most important role. The reason may be that, no more than those of ancient Latium , the gods of Gaul had a clearly defined personality. They were conceived as vague spirits, abstract powers of physical phenomena, more or less conventional geniuses of social groups. They had neither face nor body. The brenn who pillaged Delphi laughed a lot, it seems, at the idea that men of marble or bronze could represent the gods of the Greeks.
Neither did he understand that one could imagine being able to lock up divinity in the cella of a temple. In its very vagueness, the conception that the Gauls had of their gods was vaster vaster and more grandiose than the imagination of the Greeks. Le feu consume le tout. It is there that they decided the common business of the land. After these meetings, general or local, the judge became priest again. For the health of the city or the nation he made solemn sacrifices.
Immense wicker mannequins were filled with live men, preferably criminals, but when they did not have any, innocent people. The fire killed them all. It was in the oak woods that they had their sanctuaries and they did not do their sacred rites without oak leaves. They believed that the appearance of the mistletoe reveals the presence of the god of the tree on which it grows. When they found it on an oak, they cut it with great ceremonies. They chose the sixth day of the moon because they believed that on that day the star possesses all its vigour and it has not completed half of its journey.
Under the sacred tree they prepare a banquet and a sacrifice; they bring two white steers whose horns have not yet carried a yoke. A priest in a white robe climbs the tree: with a golden sickle he cuts it and the mistletoe is caught in a white sheet. The druids then kill the victims while asking the god that the mistletoe may bring happiness to all to whom he has given it. Also they confided the education of their children to the druids, even of those not destined to become priests.
In each city and maybe also in centers away from the cities, the druids led real scholastic establishments. They are the masters who shape the youth of Gaul. The education they give consists of the learning by heart by the pupils of a great number of verses. Aengus divides the Irish Saints into three classes. The first class, extending from the year to , begins with St. Patrick, and numbers Saints, all bishops and founders of Churches.
Patrick; one Mass; one mode of celebration; one tonsure from ear to ear. The second class, extending from the year to , counts Saints. The third class, extending from the year to , numbers Saints, comprising bishops, priests, and laymen. Patrick [St Aengus] wrote five books on the Saints of Ireland [ In the whole island, sometimes there were only a few bishops, and they concealed in their hiding-places ; the priests, who succeeded to land in Ireland from the Continent, travelled through the country in disguise, preparing the dying, encouraging the living, and not unfrequently sealing their faith in their blood; our Cathedrals were converted into Protestant conventicles, and no church or chapel left through the land.
Patrick 4: Approbations Owing to continuous absence from home for a lengthened period, I could not acknowledge your kind letter and thank you for your gift earlier. In danger from the sea. Many of them were sick or crippled; that is why, in a quite large circle around Mont-Saint-Michel , hospitals, leproseries and poor houses had been erected. These hospitals, usually administered by clerics, could not shelter all who asked for help.
The deplorable hygienic conditions in which the pilgrims live, contaminated the land. Leprosy especially ravaged the land and the leper houses where the unfortunates were treated, for better or worse, were always full. Note: It. Note: See j. Les bords de celle ouverture sont un peu amincis, lisses au dehors comme au-dedans.
Footnote  The head of saint Aubert is preserved still at the basilica of Saint-Gervais in Avranches. Tradition has it that the archangel saint Michael, while appearing to saint Aubert, put his finger in the skull of the the bishop who did listen to his commands. This curious relic shows us that the bone of the skull and of the face are still attached. The rims of the opening are a bit thinner, smooth outside as inside. Nothing in the periphery of the opening, neither in the length of the bone, shows the action of an instrument, the application of something biting or corrosive.
Everything is mooth as if this opening had been made without violence and a long time befor the death of the subject. We can neither assume that this opening was the result of the application of a trephine of which it does not show the form. This miraculous water was sold in bottles to the pilgrims. Je les ai vus bien souvent passer en troupes. Blatter, For the most part these were children of 13 years old. They sang canticles to Saint Michael and before them went a flag with an image of the archangel. I have often seen them pass in groups.
These strange movements have been carefully analysed by different authors from beyond the Rhine. Janssen found in these episodes the old habit of the Germans to run across the world, the currendi libido? Currendi libido. Desire to run. The ideal lasts only for a time. Archives du Calvados , mai ; Certificats. Archives du Calvados , May ; Certificates. Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu Parmi ces poissons, mulets, bars, plies, soles, esturgeons, maquereaux, etc. It has been claimed but we have not been able to find definite proof of the fact that before salmon was so common in the country that domestics in the farms on the Normandy coast forced on their masters when they applied for a position the condition not to have them eat salmon more than three times a week.
Huynes, destroyed the church: all the bells were molten; the roods of the sleeping quarters and the other dwellings were burned and the coals, which fell on the town, did not leave a single house intact. It seemed impossible to rebuild such a magnificent monastery, burnt five times already, and that it was a clear sign that God did not like such splendid buildings. It carries the arms of the abbey and that of the Benedictines of the Congregation of Saint-Maur. Fleming St Patrick viii: The fifth Life, written by Probus, an Irish monk who died in Meyence in the year , is considered to be an amended version of St.
Fleming St Patrick Probus states that St. Patrick, after he fled from Ireland , landed at Bordeaux Brotgalum. Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu Its tonnage was no more than 50; Kyde had also chartered a whaler of 31 tonnage; these two ships had 13 armed men and 56 archers and sailors. One was called The Trinity; she had been brought from Orwell England by Gautier Dubois; its weight wqs 80, it took 29 sailors in defense and in crew. Wichelsea had armed Le George and maybe The Trinity too, with 20 men captain included.
Granville had armed a vessel that belonged to Damours le Bouffi; it had a tonnage of 15, with 17 sailors and soldiers on board. Note : Perhaps inspired by the Homeric list of ships of the English fleet on page , on their way to fight the French in , from which the above quotation is taken. But see l. Maclovii pardis dat vulnera cancer in vadis. Il contient, en effet. The paragraph ends like this:. Au total une garnison de. Every armed man was accompanied by a page and a courtier; two archers had one servant. So when at a certain date it is claimed that 20 armed men were at Tombelaine, that means the following:.
A total garrison of … men. Knox and the Reformation. Note: Knoxite. Presumably a follower of John Knox c. The orthographic shift of the names its frequent when it involves the transcription of foreign names. These prisoners were men of renown. Norman Lesley was, we know, one of the most distinguished champions of the Scottish Reformation.
In Lesley, at the head of a small group of fifteen men, butchered cardinal Beaton at the castle of Saint Andrew and locked himself in the fortress he had just taken with Knox, the great Scottish reformer. Note: Pelham or Adventures of a Gentleman. Novel by Bulwer Lytton, published See VI. Four years before the Stapleton was jailed, there entered in the prison of the mount, the gazetteer Victor de la Castagne, better known under the name of Dubourg, originally from Espalion.
The prisoner died voluntarily of hunger on 26 August He had arrived on the Mont in September ; he was detained for a little less than a year and not thirty as some authors have claimed. He was held on the Mont for several years. He was a writer, less famous for his work than for his bad luck. It is true that it was baptized Free Mount and later Villefranche. From to it can be said that The superior administration was plagued by complaints of all kinds. The doctors were ignorant, the chaplain was treated as a monster in soutane, the director was barbaric tyrant and a uniformed Nero.
Especially the chaplain was vilified. He is known as a greedy man, without faith, bad, false; he is dirty as a comb and uglier than the ugliest of monkeys. He is the one who thought up the iron bars that have turned our cells into iron cages. Note: See o and h. They were no more than latrines or else mass graves. We understand that the besieged could not throw beyond the ramparts the bodies of those who had died inside the Mont , monks or soldiers.
They were made to disappear in hidden holes that the political passions had transformed into abominable in pace! Note: See l - n. A book or table in which the places of the heavenly bodies and other astronomical matters are tabulated in advance for each day of a certain period; an astronomical almanac see OED. Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu Dans ce manuscrit, chaque mois commence par un vers? Il indique les jours funestes de chaque mois. It indicates the unlucky days of each month. Orphreys: gold embroidery, or any rich embroidery.
To this day tourists, admiring and credulous people, are shown a very beautiful tower, called the Guet Tower. But historical truth does not agree for the excellent reason that the Guet Tower was built under Robert Jolivet, between and It is enough to look at the tower once to recognize the building methods of the fifteenth century. But Tiphaine died in Dinan in , i. In any case, to us the date seems very questionable. His name was Geoffroy of Servon, a name based, undoubtedly, on a small parish at approximately three leagues from Mont Saint-Michel which had as its lords the noble lineage of the Foulques Paynel.
Note: In VI. Note: See h. The girls from Landerneau. Who smells like thyme and white roses? The girls of Lesneven]. Not found in Myrdhinn. Myrdhinn : Prophetiae desiderantur. Note: This is the single occurrence of the word in the book. Prophetiae desiderantur. Prophets are wanted. Myrdhinn trois hommes vraiment saints cherchent Merlin pour le convertir [ He is seated on a black horse, his coat is black, his hair is black, his face is black and he is black all over.
Merlin recognised Colombanus, the great doctor of the Irish church ]. Fleming St Patrick St. Patrick in the year moved onward to a place called Druim-Sailech, or the Field of Sallows, but afterwards called Armagh , on account of its eminence. Il accourut. Feeling that she was close to the end, although her fortieth spring had not yet blossomed, she called Geoffroy de Servon to her side.
He came. Six hours was enough to go from the Mont to Dinan. He consoled her with pious words and these evoked, one can be sure, quite a few memories of Mont Saint-Michel; then the abbot gave lady Duguesclin the last sacraments and the rather mystical soul of the fairy lady escaped from her gentle body and flew away into eternity through the ethereal spaces in which the worlds rotate. Two days later, Geoffroy officiated pontifically at the church of Saint-Saviour in Dinan and his voice trembled, surely from emotion, when he gave the last blessing; in the end the convoy went, slowly, towards the convent of the Jacobins and the coffin disappeared soon in the dark caves of the chapel.
When he had discarded his priestly vestments, the good abbot certainly lavished consolations on the unfortunate constable. These were undoubtedly eloquent and persuasive: a few months later Duguesclin married Jeanne de Laval. Note: See 20 c. Duguesclin married his second wife, Jeanne de Laval, in Ils en furent pour leurs frais. The monks wanted from the bishop the privilege of being able to hear confession of everybody who came to them; they started negotiations with the bishop of Avranches for that purpose and it was during these that they offered him this beautiful fish. It was in vain.
So they made a pun on his name: they called him Rodomont. Married to Isabeau de la Tiral who was, after his death, dame of Ducey, he had four boys and four girls. He wsa beheaded in , but the sentence of villenage against his children was never executed. His elder son, Gabriel II, married to Suzanne de Boucquetot with whom he had five sons and a daughter, was a terrible enemy of the Mont. We know that he failed to take the abbey-fortresse by guile on the night of 29 and 30 August Any person who was vindictive, unjust, impious or cruel, was immediately likened by the people to Montgommery, so much that one ceased to distinguish between the members of the family.
No difference was made between Jacques and the two Gabriels. The legend represented him as ceasely roaming the Normandy coast, from Coutances to Pontorson. Not a single castle that he did not visit every month; he tried to spend counterfeit money in Tombelaine; at night he traveled with a horse shod backwards to confuse those who attempted to follow him, he arrested pilgrims who were late; having become the devil himself, as soon as he was on horseback, he martyred poor priests whom he forced to say sacrilegious masses in his parishes of Chasseguay, Cormeray and de Ducey.
Rien pour les autres, tout pour lui. Note: Cyrographum. Note : L. Litis divisio. The division of a legal argument. See reproduction: there is a zigzagging line between the two words, representing the perforation between the cheque and the stub. It carries thus in itself the proof its mendacity. These frauds are not rare; mostly they derive from an excessive love on the part of the monks for their monastery; the older the abbey or the priory, the greater its glory; so the forgers wanted to help the descendants of the donors to regain the goods that had been given by their ancestors.
Finally in Hampshire he held from the king one hide and the tithing for the manor of Basinguestoches, today Basingtoke. Note: Hide. Old English measure of land, the equivalent of acres, variously defined as sufficient to support a family, or as much as could be ploughed in one year. Pigeon had wanted to place the old Hotel des Monnaies. At the bottom of the hole, carved into the granite, one found two or three metal ingots. The sign this was the name of any object of metal, jewel, figure or medal was worn attached to a beret. Most of the images were molten in slate or Munich stone molds.
See h. Note: Breton. The mouth of a river. It is used in geography to designate a narrow valley invaded by the sea. The Normans themselves, so proud to have on their marine land the expression was coined by the troubadour Wace the eighth wonder of the world, have long realized that the bay belongs more to the Bretons than to their own province.
Note: Gauger, gouger. Dublin slang. A cadger, a chancer, a scoundrel. Today no more smugglers with sacks that contain more subterfuge and malice than salt, powder or tobacco. What do you have there? Du dernier bien. One says euphemistically that a man is du dernier bien with a woman to express the fact that he is her lover. It is generally believed that this is the identical bell of the Saint to which allusion is made in the ancient Irish records. Boulogne-sur-Mer St. Fiacc states that the Apostle of Ireland was born at Nemthur—Nemthur, as all commentators agree, is not the name of a town, but of a tower.
From the days of Julius Caesar, Portus Ictius, or the harbour of Boulogne , was the port from which the Roman troops sailed to Britain , and the harbour to which they steered on their return. The very fact that King Niall made use of this harbour when he raided Armorica in the twenty-seventh year of his reign, makes it likely that he sailed into the same harbour when first invading that country [ Note: See p , c , e.