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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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King Alfonso X developed a court culture that encouraged cosmopolitan learning. Alfonso had many works previously written in Arabic and Latin translated into vernacular Castilian in his court. Alfonso "turned to the vernacular for the kind of intellectual commitments that formerly were inconceivable outside Latin. This translation of Arabic and Classic documents into vernacular encouraged the development of Spanish sciences, literature, and philosophy.

From the beginning of his reign, Alfonso employed Jewish, Christian and Muslim scholars at his court, primarily for the purpose of translating books from Arabic and Hebrew into Latin and Castilian, although he always insisted in supervising personally the translations.

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This group of scholars formed his royal scriptorium , continuing the tradition of the twelfth-century Escuela de Traductores de Toledo Toledo School of Translators. Their final output promoted Castilian as a learning language both in science and literature, and established the foundations of the new Spanish language.

The very first translation, commissioned by his brother, Fernando de la Cerda—who had extensive experience, both diplomatic and military, among the Muslims of southern Iberia and north Africa—was a Castilian version of the animal fable Kalila wa-Dimna , [9] a book that belongs to the genre of wisdom literature labeled Mirrors for Princes : stories and sayings meant to instruct the monarch in proper and effective governance.


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The primary intellectual work of these scholars centered on astronomy and astrology. The early period of Alfonso's reign saw the translation of selected works of magic Lapidario , Picatrix , Libro de las formas et las ymagenes all translated by a Jewish scholar named Yehuda ben Moshe Yhuda Mosca, in the Old Spanish source texts. These were all highly ornate manuscripts only the Lapidario survives in its entirety containing what was believed to be secret knowledge on the magical properties of stones and talismans. In addition to these books of astral magic, Alfonso ordered the translation of well-known Arabic astrological compendia, including the Libro de las cruzes and Libro conplido en los iudizios de las estrellas.

The first of these was, ironically, translated from Latin it was used among the Visigoths , into Arabic , and then back into Castilian and Latin. As an intellectual he gained considerable scientific fame based on his encouragement of astronomy , which included astrology at the time and the Ptolemaic cosmology as known to him through the Arabs. He surrounded himself with mostly Jewish translators who rendered Arabic scientific texts into Castilian at Toledo. His fame extends to the preparation of the Alfonsine tables , based on calculations of al-Zarqali, "Arzachel".

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Alexander Bogdanov maintained that these tables formed the basis for Copernicus 's development of a heliocentric understanding in astronomy. One famous, but apocryphal, quote attributed to him upon his hearing an explanation of the extremely complicated mathematics required to demonstrate Ptolemy 's theory of astronomy was "If the Lord Almighty had consulted me before embarking on creation thus, I should have recommended something simpler.

Secretary of State, — used it as the basis for the title and epigraph of his memoir Present at the Creation. This chronicle sought to establish a general history and drew from older chronicles, folklore and Arabic sources. Alfonso's court compiled in Castilian a work titled General Estoria.

This work was an attempt at a world history that drew from many sources and included translations from the Vulgate Old Testament mixed with myths and histories from the classical world, mostly Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Alfonso also had the Libro de ajedrez, dados, y tablas "Libro de los Juegos" The Book of Games translated into Castilian from Arabic and added illustrations with the goal of perfecting the work. Alfonso X commissioned or co-authored numerous works of music during his reign. These works included Cantigas d'escarnio e maldicer and the vast compilation Cantigas de Santa Maria "Songs to the Virgin Mary" , which was written in Galician-Portuguese and figures among the most important of his works.

The Cantigas form one of the largest collections of vernacular monophonic songs to survive from the Middle Ages.

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They consist of poems with musical notation. The poems are for the most part on miracles attributed to the Virgin Mary. Violante was ten years old at the time of her marriage to Alfonso; she produced no children for several years and it was feared that she was barren. Alfonso almost had their marriage annulled, but they went on to have eleven children:. Alfonso X also had several illegitimate children. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cathedral of Seville. Main article: Literature of Alfonso X.

Burns, Robert I. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Bogdanov's Tektology: Book! Hull: Centre for Systems Studies. Encyclopedia Britannica. Although Musser Golladay is not the first to assert that is the finish date of the Libro de Juegos , the a quo information compiled in her dissertation consolidates the range of research concerning the initiation and completion dates of the Libro de Juegos. Daily life depicted in the Cantigas de Santa Maria. Cash, Annette Grant, —. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. Castilian House of Ivrea.

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Cooking for Congregants — July 11, Jul 11 am — am. Do you enjoy cooking? Participate in this mitzvah led by congregant and former restaurant owner Gail Laghi, and congregant and chef Sari Swig. Together, up to four volunteers make meals for congregants in need. All … Continued. Germany Close Up founder, Dr. Dagmar Pruin to speak at our One Shabbat Service pm. Please join us as we welcome Dr.

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Join Dr. Torah Study Library Jul 13 am — am. Shabbat Morning Service Chapel Jul 13 am — pm. Single and Ready to Mingle at Dolores — July 13, pm. Spend an afternoon in sunny Dolores Park with other singles in the young adult community at Congregation Emanu-El.