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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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While waiting to learn his fate, either his successful appeal or execution of his death sentence, Meursault meets with a chaplain, but rejects his proffered opportunity of turning to God. Meursault says that God is a waste of his time. Although the chaplain persists in trying to lead Meursault from his atheism or, perhaps more precisely, his apatheism , Meursault finally accosts him in a rage. He has an outburst about his frustrations and the absurdity of the human condition, and his personal anguish without respite at the meaninglessness of his freedom, existence and responsibility.

He expresses anger about others, saying that they have no right to judge him for his actions or for who he is, that no one has the right to judge another. Meursault however has grasped the universe's indifference towards humankind, and prepares for his execution. At night in his cell, he finds a final happiness in his indifference towards the world and the lack of meaning he sees in everyone and everything. His final assertion is that a large, hateful crowd at his execution will end his loneliness and bring everything to a consummate end.

Meursault's indifference to his mother's death demonstrates some emotional detachment from his environment. Other instances are shown. Meursault is also a truthful person, speaking his mind without regard for others. He is estranged from society due to his indifference. As Meursault nears the time for his execution, he feels a kinship with his mother, thinking she, too, embraced a meaningless universe. Her brother and friends try to take revenge. He brings Meursault into the conflict, and the latter kills the brother. Raymond and Meursault seem to develop a bond, and he testifies for Meursault during his trial.

Marie Cardona was a typist in the same workplace as Meursault. A day after he attends his mother's funeral, she meets him at a public beach, and they begin a relationship. Marie, like Meursault, enjoys sex. She represents the enjoyable life Meursault wants, and he misses her while in jail. Masson is the owner of the beach house where Raymond takes Marie and Meursault.

Masson is a carefree person who likes to live his life and be happy. Salamano is an old man who routinely walks his dog. He abuses it but is still attached to it. When he loses his dog, he is distressed and asks Meursault for advice. The Arabs include Raymond's mistress, her brother and assumed friends. None of the Arabs in The Stranger are named, reflecting the distance between the French colonists and native people. The Arab the brother of the mistress of Raymond is a man shot and killed by Meursault on a beach in Algiers. On the surface, L'Etranger gives the appearance of being an extremely simple though carefully planned and written book.

In reality, it is a dense and rich creation, full of undiscovered meanings and formal qualities. It would take a book at least the length of the novel to make a complete analysis of meaning and form and the correspondences of meaning and form, in L'Etranger. Terry Otten has studied in detail the relationship between Meursault and his mother. This postcolonialist response to The Stranger counters Camus' version, elements from the perspective of the brother of the unnamed Arab victim naming him and presenting him as a real person who was mourned and other protagonists.

Daoud explores their subsequent lives following the withdrawal of French authorities and most pied-noirs from Algeria after the conclusion of the Algerian War of Independence in Some scenes and passages the murder, the conversation with the chaplain should also be revised. The manuscript was then read by editors Jean Paulhan and Raymond Queneau. Gerhard Heller , a German editor, translator and lieutenant in the Wehrmacht working for the Censorship Bureau offered to help. The book was eventually published in June — 4, copies of it were printed. Gilbert's choice of title, The Stranger , was changed by Hamish Hamilton to The Outsider , because they considered it "more striking and appropriate" and because Maria Kuncewiczowa 's Polish novel Cudzoziemka had recently been published in London as The Stranger.

In , the British publisher Hamish Hamilton , which had issued Gilbert's translation, published a translation by Joseph Laredo, also as The Outsider. Penguin Books bought this version in for a paperback edition. When the young man returned to the painter's studio, he proposed to illustrate Ovid's Metamorphoses, which the artist accepted The Americans wanted to publish 'the most beautiful magazine in the world' and provided the necessary funds so that the publisher can unleash his imagination and realize his dream. The Verve magazine will be published in French and English versions, both printed in France.

His technique is still used today in the facsimile editions of medieval books. The quality of reproduction of Draeger in the 30s has not even been surpassed today. To do this, he looks for the best possible lithographer to convince the artists to come with him and cooperate in the lithographs of interpretation or even make original lithographs for the magazine. The leap from photogravure to lithography is fundamental for painters: But in the lithograph in painter chooses and directly touches the color that is going to be applied by a merely mechanical procedure.

While a painter can never accept a photogravure reproduction as his own, they could, and did recognize lithographs as their own original work. With your procedure that is not photography, and all the better, you have made a Braque! There is a qualitative leap between photography and lithography, and the latter can be designated as an own work by the artist. He had the best lithography workshop in France, extensive relations with the editors and was well known to the artists for having made for them or with them the posters of the National Museums and their exhibitions in various galleries.

For Verve he will print hundreds of original and interpretation lithographs 26 in runs of several thousand copies if we count the French and English editions, both printed in Paris. It was a splendid letter of introduction for Braque, Picasso and other great masters, and it was undoubtedly this association that allowed him to make the next qualitative leap: Matisse pays special attention to this work, instructing publisher and printer not to touch the collages, that he sends pressed between two glasses, 'supplicating' —a word unknown in the vocabulary of the proud Matisse— them that if a 24 Mourlot , p.

This explains for example that Picasso let co-sign many of his works to his chromist Henri Deschamps or that Chagall did the same with Charles Sorlier, also employed by Mourlot. Picasso appears therefore represented by the photo of his partner and will not do any work for Verve until eleven years later, that is, until much later than he began to collaborate with Mourlot. And this despite the friendship that united him with the publisher.

The number of Verve of April , Couleur de Picasso is entirely dedicated to him. The employees of Mourlot, coauthors of artistic feats so admired and who are ultimately responsible for the success of their employer, were a separate race among the printers. They knew that they worked in the best lithographic printing company in the country and tended to remain faithful to their boss Fernand.

Some because they felt safer there and earned a little more than in the printing presses of the competition, although they were still workers' salaries of a time when they earned very little. Others, more educated or more savvy, knew how to take advantage of the perks that working in the printing press could provide them and even get other jobs after hours. Henri Deschamps was the favorite chromist of Georges Braque, the one who had executed the first lithograph of interpretation for the painter in and made all of the book Braque le Patron between and Braque supervised the work day by day and made several original lithographs for the work, but he did not see it finished, since he died months before it was put together in He went straight for them and filled them with flattery, so that they loved him more than Braque.

But he did not get it. With his great stature, air and elegant dress and his gentle condescension, Braque seduced better than the easy-going Picasso, always willing to make jokes to be nice. An anecdote illustrates the opportunities provided by the work in the Mourlot workshop. Sorlier recounts that at the beginning of working in the printing press, Picasso gave his admired pressier Gaston Tutin a dedicated and signed proof of each plate he printed. But Tutin did not appreciate this gift at all, because in spite of working thoroughly to satisfy the painter in all his technical desires, he did not stop considering what Picasso did as 'stupidities' without any value.

On one occasion he told Sorlier: You have to be credulous to think that these things are expensive. These are things that are said, and you may believe them, but they do not cheat me. Of course they do not cheat me Consistent with this opinion, the printer broke into pieces the lithographs dedicated by Picasso again and again, until in the end he got Picasso to stop giving them, offering him instead bottles of port wine, what the stamper interpreted as a sign that Picasso was becoming less scratchy. If he had kept the tests that the painter man dedicated to him, most of which were not published commercially and can only be admired now in one lucky museum, Tutin would have become a millionaire.

The smokescreen of Kahnweiler's cold theory Among the reasons that could impel Picasso to 'go back' to lithography, we can suppose that one is that the technique provides the painter with an opportunity. The critic Kurt Leonhardrecalls an aspect of Picasso's personality: That could have driven him to dedicate himself to lithography.

This procedure allowed him to preserve every stage of the creative work, as he did in some way asking DoraMaar to photograph each stage of his work in Guernica. The Spaniard had also pointed out to Zervos that "it would be interesting to fix the evolution of a painting on film". The problem is that in oil painting, and leaving aside the preparatory studies in another medium or size, each stage of the creative work is buried in the final work. However, in lithography it is possible to record each phase of the painter's work, because he can print, as Picasso often did, 'state proofs' of each modification made to the lithographic stone or zinc plate.

After each change, the stone or plate remain irremediably changed, but the state proofs preserve what was each previous stage. In the case of Picasso, the lithographic technique allows him to keep samples of each step of his work. If we look at the number of impressions he will make of his lithographs, we realize that there is a clear contradiction, at least from the commercial point of view.

In a natural way, we should suppose that the object of the painter's work is, through a series of stages, to produce a final work that will be commercialized by Kahnweiler. Well, if we take for example the case of his famous 'decomposition of the bull' that he realizes shortly after settling in Mourlot's workshop, we will observe that of the eleven states that Mourlot registers later we will see that he actually did some more , only one, the last, was published commercially, but from the artistic point of view they are all independent works and have a similar value.

In short, the fruit of the entire process will be only one edition of fifty numbered and signed copies of the final state, which is actually the least elaborate of the entire series. But Picasso ordered to print —to take them home— 18 artist proofs from each of the states. In total, the final commercial product of the six long weeks in which the painter focuses on this project between Wednesday, December 5, and Thursday, January 17, is only 50 prints. But there is still a by-product that the painter remains, without sharing it with the Galerie Louise: In any case, it seems clear that the successive states are not only stages in the way of obtaining the final result, but works worthy of being appreciated independently, even if they are part of a whole.

It seems clear that Picasso's objective in making this series is not to produce the commercial lithograph known as the eleventh state, but the very exercise of the production of the series. The painter has fun, he challenges himself and the lithographic technique and his compensation for so much effort is not the last state and the money that its marketing will provide, but the own path traveled and what it produces: It is also useful to illustrate what the lithographic technique offers to the painter the work Les deux femmes nues, in which Picasso worked between November 10, and February 12, That is, he started it a month before the decomposition of the bull and finished a month after ending that series.

Observing each one of the states 30 we have before us an impressive sample of the creative process of the painter, and of which there would be no trace if it were a painting. The last state is of a nature completely different from the first few states and it could be said that these are more beautiful. And again, the final state is printed at 50 numbered and signed copies.

Against that, 19 artist proofs of each intermediate state have been produced, this is more than lithographs that Picasso keeps and that, in one way or another, will end up in museums or in the market. In addition, as Jean Adhemar recalls, above all other graphic techniques etching, aquatint, drypoint, linoleum , lithography offers Picasso the broadest field of action and the greatest creative possibilities.

The lithographic stone offers the supreme suppleness to combine lines and colors, designs or impressions of colors or shapes. Even if you use zinc plates instead of stones, as Picasso is often forced to do when he left Paris for the Cote d'Azur, the plates can be treated with lithographic ink or even be 'bitten' by the acid, in the manner of etching. The painter can even use transfer or report paper, which also offers unique possibilities and which Picasso often uses. All lithographs in which the date pre- written by the painter is read from left to right have been made using transfer paper.

The other dates, as in etchings, have been naturally 'turned' only once when printed and can not therefore be read naturally, while with the transfer paper they are turned twice, the first time going from the transfer paper to the stone and the second from the stone to the paper, which returns the left-right sense that Picasso originally used. Another reason that could theoretically have prompted the painter to make lithographs, as he had previously done etchings, is to 'popularize art.

The critic and collector Castor Seibel remembers that he acquired his first lithographs of Braque in , when he was only 24 years old, and studied and worked at the same time. The price was so reasonable that he could afford it with just a few extra hours in his work But despite the fact that Picasso declared in to art critic Anatole Jakovsky that he was dissatisfied with the limited number that was printed of his lithographs and that he was soon to execute prints with a larger print run that would be sold at an affordable price to reach an audience that could never buy his paintings 32, his exclusive contract with Kahnweiler prevented that desire from being realized.

None of the lithographs marketed by his dealer were printed to more than 50 numbered and signed copies. The person who decided which plates should be printed or not was Picasso himself, without Kahnweiler being able to influence the decision. The Andalusian simply gave the order to print the 50 copies. Once printed, Mourlot took them to Picasso to be signed and then they were delivered to Kahnweiler, who then paid painter and printer the agreed amounts. In this sense there is no doubt that it was Picasso himself who deliberately decided the limitation on the number of lithographic works that came out onto the market.

But Kahnweiler or his successor and stepdaughter Louise Zette Leiris —single Louise Godon, married in to ethnologist and poet Michel Leiris, a friend of Picasso's since his youth— did the same with his graphic work as with his paintings: But this probably did not displease Picasso at all, that like every painter preferred that his works sell expensive, independently of what he charged for them. Only the lithographs of Picasso made around the French Communist Party, notably for the newspaper Le Patriote of Nice, with the theme of the dove of peace or others, came to have a wide dissemination and were sold at 'democratic' prices , although they ended up mostly in the hands of dealers.

It could be said that Picasso uses the lithographic technique to satisfy four main objectives. In the first place it is, as we have seen, to explore a means of expression that will allow him to make some of his masterpieces, with the additional advantage of being able to follow and 'preserve' the stages that lead to the final work.

Second, this technique provides him with regular income. It is not that the painter makes lithographs to earn money that he did not obtain from paintings, but rather that his investment of time and effort in lithography, which is often —as we will see later— is very considerable, is compensated with a regular and adequate remuneration. And this is achieved because Kahnweiler always has clients for the graphic work of Picasso, including at times when it is very frequent. These two aspects constitute what the technique contributes to Picasso, artistically and economically.

But the painter also uses it to fulfill other altruistic objectives. On the one hand, he uses lithography, in the same way he has used etching before, to contribute to books of friends, especially poets, such as Reverdy or Cocteau, greatly facilitating their sale and popularity. The friendship with the intellectuals has been a constant of Picasso both in Spain and especially since he 33 Mourlot , p.

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Apart from the fascination produced by the overflowing verb of writers, especially the French, given his limited command of this language. To Picasso, aspiring bard who admires this ability as an art as powerful as painting, poets provide not only the spiritual nourishment that allows him to learn and advance, but also essential contacts to be present in the French art scene. During the first half of the 20th century, poets are the intellectual vanguard of France, and their social leadership is unquestionable.

And since liberation, in , communist intellectuals dominate the French cultural scene, and Picasso is very close to them. Fourth, the lithographic technique is the most used by the painter to offer his solidarity to the causes that matter to him, mostly linked to his militancy in the French Communist Party.

Some of these initiatives undoubtedly had as final recipient of the funds the Spanish exile. In addition, lithography is just another form of engraving, and we know that Picasso uses this artistic technique to relax, to overcome the stress caused by painting. The person who was his secretary in his last years gives us evidence of that when he tells us that when the painter dedicated his time to making prints he remained accessible and in a good mood, he talked with who passes by his side and accepted willingly to interrupt his work to attend to whatever they ask, whether to receive a visit or give instructions on how to react to a phone call.

However, when he paints he is another man, he remains locked in himself, does not accept any interruption and is not in the mood to chat. In those moments, his secretary must act as an 'invisible man' until the painter has solved the artistic puzzle that occupies his mind None of the numerous studies on the painter, not even those dedicated especially to his graphic work, explain the circumstances or the reasons that prompted Picasso to explore the lithographic technique. Perhaps the specialists considered that the interest to know the details of the reason of the sudden impulse of Picasso to come to the Rue Chabrol was purely anecdotal, without any academic interest.

They saw no reason to dig further into the matter given its lack of transcendence. However, two elements suggest that the interest in knowing the profound reasons that drive the painter to develop a lithographic career and the circumstances in which this occurs goes beyond the simple anecdote. The first is the intensity of Picasso's effort in his new technique. In fact, the painter turned literally from November 2, into lithographic production. The second element that justifies the search is the precursor character of Picasso in the matter.

For Carsten-Peter Warncke, the intensity of Picasso's lithographic effort must be found in the playful pleasure that the technique offers the painter. The most widespread explanation of the reason behind the installation of Picasso in Rue Chabrol is provided by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, very close to Picasso, and that apart from the painter or Mourlot, would appear as the right person to give it to the extent that he had an exclusive contract to market all his graphic work.

The winter of was very cold in Paris, and the coal reserves had not been reconstituted. The private residences had no heating and Picasso's studio was frozen. The lithographic press of Mourlot, as an industrial building, had a share of coal. The photographer had indeed indicated in his book Conversations avec Picasso when asked about how Picasso began to make lithographs, that at that time it was cold in his apartment and he preferred to work in a heated studio.

It was for that purely material reason that he devoted himself to lithography Interestingly, Leonhard attributes the beginning of the linoleum career of the painter to the difficulty and delays of transporting lithographic stones from the workshop of Mourlot to Cannes, also following here Brassai He forgets that this difficulty, alleviated by the work with zinc plates and report paper, did not prevent the painter from continuing to work with Mourlot, or to make for example the lithographs of Le Chant des Morts.

Thus, Bernd Rau, in his book Pablo Picasso graphic work, states: As we will see, this is not true at all. The cold theory is just a fabulation of Kahnweiler. And it is easy to prove it, since a simple query to the weather yearbooks shows that when Picasso decides to go to Mourlot, it is not cold in Paris. The meteorological records show that was the warmest year since the beginning of the meteorological data collection in , with temperatures above the average, as pointed out by the portal Meteo- Paris.

In fact, we have the minimum temperatures of Paris day by day. The next day, when the first interview between the printer and the painter takes place, the minimum temperature is 7. During the war he advocated a civil truce that would spare the civilians, which was rejected by both sides, who regarded it as foolish.

Behind the scenes, he began to work for imprisoned Algerians who faced the death penalty. When he spoke to students at the University of Stockholm , he defended his apparent inactivity in the Algerian question; he stated that he was worried about what might happen to his mother, who still lived in Algeria. This led to further ostracism by French left-wing intellectuals.

At the time of his death, Camus was working on an incomplete novel with a strong biographical component titled The First Man.


The publication of this book in has sparked a widespread reconsideration of Camus' allegedly unrepentant colonialism in the work of figures such as David Carroll in the English-speaking world. As one of the forefathers of existentialism, Camus focused most of his philosophy around existential questions.

The absurdity of life and its inevitable ending death is highlighted in the very famous opening of the novel The Stranger Or maybe yesterday; I can't be sure. He believed that the absurd — life being void of meaning, or man's inability to know that meaning if it were to exist — was something that man should embrace. He argued that this crisis of self could cause a man to commit "philosophical suicide"; choosing to believe in external sources that give life false meaning.

He argued that religion was the main culprit. If a man chose to believe in religion — that the meaning of life was to ascend to heaven, or some similar afterlife, that he committed philosophical suicide by trying to escape the absurd. Many writers have addressed the Absurd, each with his or her own interpretation of what the Absurd is and what comprises its importance. For example, Sartre recognizes the absurdity of individual experience, while Kierkegaard explains that the absurdity of certain religious truths prevents us from reaching God rationally.


Camus regretted the continued reference to himself as a "philosopher of the absurd". To distinguish his ideas, scholars sometimes refer to the Paradox of the Absurd, when referring to "Camus' Absurd". His early thoughts appeared in his first collection of essays, L'Envers et l'endroit Betwixt and Between in Absurd themes were expressed with more sophistication in his second collection of essays, Noces Nuptials , in In these essays Camus reflects on the experience of the Absurd. He also wrote a play about Caligula , a Roman Emperor, pursuing an absurd logic. The play was not performed until The turning point in Camus's attitude to the Absurd occurs in a collection of four letters to an anonymous German friend, written between July and July Camus presents the reader with dualisms such as happiness and sadness, dark and light, life and death, etc.

He emphasizes the fact that happiness is fleeting and that the human condition is one of mortality; for Camus, this is cause for a greater appreciation for life and happiness. In Le Mythe , dualism becomes a paradox: While we can live with a dualism I can accept periods of unhappiness, because I know I will also experience happiness to come , we cannot live with the paradox I think my life is of great importance, but I also think it is meaningless.

In Le Mythe , Camus investigates our experience of the Absurd and asks how we live with it.

Our life must have meaning for us to value it. If we accept that life has no meaning and therefore no value, should we kill ourselves? In Le Mythe , Camus suggests that 'creation of meaning' would entail a logical leap or a kind of philosophical suicide in order to find psychological comfort. Creation of meaning is not a viable alternative but a logical leap and an evasion of the problem. He gives examples of how others would seem to make this kind of leap. The alternative option, namely suicide, would entail another kind of leap, where one attempts to kill absurdity by destroying one of its terms the human being.

Camus points out, however, that there is no more meaning in death than there is in life, and that it simply evades the problem yet again. Camus concludes that we must instead "entertain" both death and the absurd, while never agreeing to their terms. Caligula ends up admitting his absurd logic was wrong and is killed by an assassination he has deliberately brought about. However, while Camus possibly suggests that Caligula's absurd reasoning is wrong, the play's anti-hero does get the last word, as the author similarly exalts Meursault's final moments. Camus made a significant contribution to a viewpoint of the Absurd, and always rejected nihilism as a valid response.

If nothing had any meaning, you would be right. But there is something that still has a meaning. Camus's understanding of the Absurd promotes public debate; his various offerings entice us to think about the Absurd and offer our own contribution. Concepts such as cooperation, joint effort and solidarity are of key importance to Camus, though they are most likely sources of "relative" versus "absolute" meaning. In The Rebel , Camus identifies rebellion or rather, the values indicated by rebellion as a basis for human solidarity.

When he rebels, a man identifies himself with other men and so surpasses himself, and from this point of view human solidarity is metaphysical. But for the moment we are only talking of the kind of solidarity that is born in chains.