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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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The Ukraine, Finland, Estonia and the rest of Latvia were transformed into independent states under German protection. Bessarabia was to go to Romania and the Ottomans took the Armenian areas in the Caucasus. All Bolshevik propaganda in the ceded areas was to cease a provision which the Bolshevik regime soon found ways round. Russia lost huge areas of prime agricultural land, eighty per cent of her coal mines and half her other industries. A follow-up agreement in August committed the country to pay six billion marks in reparations. Trotsky could not face the humiliation of signing the treaty and had a subordinate sign for the regime.

There was turmoil in Russia. Brest-Litovsk had a role in provoking the civil war between the Whites and the Reds. So did the fact that the Left Socialist Revolutionaries withdrew from the government and left it entirely in the hands of the Bolsheviks, and some of them took the White side in the civil war. Meanwhile the Allied powers intervened.

There was also always the possibility of the Germans deciding to renounce the treaty and resume their invasion of Russia. Fortunately for the Russian regime, the Allied Powers won the war later in the year and the treaty was abrogated, which at least saved Russia from some of the worst consequences, though Poland, the Baltic states and Finland were not recovered in the peace settlement at Versailles in In the earlier period it was was spelt in various ways, including coolabah , coolobar , and coolybah.

It is term for any of several eucalypts, especially the blue-leaved Eucalyptus microtheca found across central and northern Australia, a fibrous-barked tree yielding a durable timber and occurring in seasonally flooded areas. Coolibah is first recorded in the s.

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Bad, unpleasant or unsatisfactory: Things were crook on the land in the seventies. Crook means bad in a general sense, and also in more specific senses too: unwell or injured a crook knee , and dishonest or illegal he was accused of crook dealings. All senses are recorded from the s. Pratt Wolaroi's Cup : Most stables.. Clune Roaming Round the Darling : My cobber, here, used to sing in opera. He's a pretty crook singer, but he'll sing for you.

Used to indicate the need for a rest in order to settle down, solve a problem, etc. The phrase now often with some variations was originally the title of a a revue at the Phillip Street Theatre in Sydney Not anymore. A native-born Australian. These terms are now obsolete. These were called currency. An unfashionable person; a person lacking style or character; a socially awkward adolescent, a 'nerd'.

These senses of dag derive from an earlier Australian sense of dag meaning 'a "character", someone eccentric but entertainingly so'. Ultimately all these senses of dag are probably derived from the British dialect especially in children's speech sense of dag meaning a 'feat of skill', 'a daring feat among boys', and the phrase to have a dag at meaning 'to have a shot at'. Dag referring to an unfashionable person etc. Never ever wear a striped suit, a striped shirt and a striped tie together - just dreadful You look like a real dag.

Hurry up, get a move on. When a daggy sheep runs, the dried dags knock together to make a rattling sound. The word dag originally daglock was a British dialect word that was borrowed into mainstream Australian English in the s. Thorne Battler : C'mon Mum, rattle yer dags - the old girls are hungry! To pull down or remove the trousers from a person as a joke or punishment. Dak derives from another Australian term daks meaning 'a pair of trousers'. The term is first recorded from the early s but is probably much older than that.

For a more detailed discussion of dak see our Word of the Month article from July His family didn't know about it until he was dacked during a game this year.


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A simple kind of bread, traditionally unleavened and baked in the ashes of an outdoor fire. Because it was the most common form of bread for bush workers in the nineteenth century, to earn your damper means to be worth your pay. Bisley Stillways : We made damper out of flour and water, squeezed it around green sticks to cook over the coals.

A commemorative ceremony held at dawn on Anzac Day.


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Anzac Day, April 25, is a national public holiday in Australia commemorating all those who have served and died in war. While commemorative services have been held on April 25 since , the term dawn service is not recorded until the s. The didgeridoo is a wind instrument that was originally found only in Arnhem Land in northern Australia. It is a long, wooden, tubular instrument that produces a low-pitched, resonant sound with complex, rhythmic patterns but little tonal variation.

In popular understanding many Australians probably believe that this is an Aboriginal word. Subsequent research has cast doubt on this etymology, and in the following statement was made in Australian Aboriginal Words in English : 'Although it has been suggested that this must be a borrowing from an Australian language it is not one. The name probably evolved from white people's ad hoc imitation of the sound of the instrument'. This argument is supported by two of the earliest pieces of evidence for the term:. It produces but one sound - 'didjerry, didjerry, didjerry -' and so on ad infinitum.

First recorded in this sense It came to France when the sandgropers gave up digging on the goldfields of W. They include a major who planned an 'unprecedented operation' to capture a rogue Afghan sergeant who murdered three Australian diggers. Reliable; genuine; honest; true. This word is a shortening of fair dinkum which comes from British dialect. The adjective is first recorded in Australia from the s. For a more detailed discussion of dinkum see the article 'The Story of Dinkum' on our blog.

The starting point is to make the debate more dinkum.

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The phrase was first recorded in This may give a clue to the source of the phrase. If you are done like a dinner , you are completely and efficiently demolished. Bride Letters from Victorian Pioneers : The horse swam for a quarter of a mile down the river with the cart after him.. To inform upon someone ; to incriminate someone. The word is probably related to British dialect dob meaning 'to put down an article heavily or clumsily; to throw down', and 'to throw stones etc.

Dob is first recorded in the s. For a more detailed discussion of this term see the article 'The Story of Dob' on our blog. Bisley Stillways : He used to sell single cigarettes to kids, and although it was common knowledge, he had never been busted and no one ever dobbed on him. This example illustrates the way the origins of words and phrases can be lost with changes in technology.

The expression has several variants including fed up to dolly's wax , and its meaning does not always denote being 'full' with food. First recorded in the early 20th century. And I am fed up to dolly's wax with them. In a preferential system of voting a vote recorded by allocating preferences according to the order in which candidates' names appear on the ballot paper; such votes viewed collectively. First recorded in the early midth century.

In South Australia this vote - the 'donkey vote' - will go to the Anti-Communists. A parliamentary question asked of a Minister by a member of the party in government to give the Minister the opportunity to deliver a prepared reply. It comes from Dorothy Dix , the pen-name of Elizabeth Gilmer , an American journalist who wrote a famous personal advice column which was syndicated in Australia.

Her column came to seem a little too contrived, as if she was writing the questions as well as the answers. For a discussion about the use of Dorothy Dixer in rhyming slang see the article 'Dorothies and Michelles' in our Ozwords newsletter. One of those came from Mr Hutchin, and there were cries of 'Dorothy Dix' when he asked it When a Minister is anxious to make some information available, or to answer some outside criticism, he will often get a private member to ask a question on the subject.

And it was not her husky voice or hair or makeup that stopped traffic, but the rows and rows of pearls.. In traditional Aboriginal belief a collection of events beyond living memory that shaped the physical, spiritual, and moral world; the era in which these occurred; an Aboriginal person's consciousness of the enduring nature of the era.

The term also takes the form dreaming. Dreamtime is a translation of alcheringa - a word from the Arrernte Aboriginal language of the Alice Springs region in central Australia. Attenborough Quest Under Capricorn : Although the Dreamtime was in the past, it is also co-existent with the present, and a man, by performing the rituals, can become one with his 'dreaming' and experience eternity.

It is to seek this mystical union that the men enact the ceremonies. A fool, a simpleton, an idiot. There is also a bird called a drongo. The spangled drongo is found in northern and eastern Australia, as well as in the islands to the north of Australia, and further north to India and China. It is called a drongo because that is the name of a bird from the same family in northern Madagascar.

The spangled drongo is not a stupid bird. It is not a galah. One book describes it thus: 'The spangled drongo catches insects in the air, chasing them in aerobatic flight'. There is one odd story about the drongo, however: unlike most migratory birds, it appears to migrate to colder regions in winter. Some have suggested that this is the origin of the association of 'stupidity' with the term drongo.

But this seems most unlikely. So what is the true story? There was an Australian racehorse called Drongo during the early s. It seems likely that he was named after the bird called the 'drongo'. He often came very close to winning major races, but in 37 starts he never won a race. In a writer in the Melbourne Argus comments: 'Drongo is sure to be a very hard horse to beat. He is improving with every run'. But he never did win. Soon after the horse's retirement it seems that racegoers started to apply the term to horses that were having similarly unlucky careers.

In the s it was applied to recruits in the Royal Australian Air Force. It has become part of general Australian slang. Buzz Kennedy, writing in The Australian newspaper in , defines a drongo thus:. A drongo is a simpleton but a complicated one: he is a simpleton [of the] sort who not only falls over his feet but does so at Government House; who asks his future mother-in-law to pass-the-magic-word salt the first time the girl asks him home In an emergency he runs heroically in the wrong direction.

If he were Superman he would get locked in the telephone box.

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He never wins. So he is a drongo. The origin of the term was revived at Flemington in when a Drongo Handicap was held. Only apprentice jockeys were allowed to ride. The horses entered were not allowed to have won a race in the previous twelve months. Goode Through the Farm Gate : I can't believe my drongo of a father is asking such ridiculous questions. A jocular name for an imaginary animal similar in appearance to a koala, with very sharp jaws and teeth, that is said to devour tourists etc. The term is often associated with the fooling of gullible international tourists, and has accordingly been used this way in television advertisements.

There are suggestions that the term drop bear emerged in the Second World War period see quotation below but the first record is from the s. Keesing Lily on a Dustbin : The 'drop bears' are creatures of a tall story - they were invented during World War II for the benefit of gullible American servicemen. It is alleged that 'drop bears' are a dangerous kind of koala and that they drop out of trees on the heads and shoulders of bush walkers and hug them to death.

Colbert The Ranch : The other Harry has got a head like a drover's dog and always wears a hat. Courtenay: We'd heard Nancy say he'd come back like a drover's dog all prick and ribs. Look out - female approaching! A warning cry from a male as a signal to other men that a woman is approaching a traditionally all-male environment. It is a reminder that the men should modify their language and behaviour to avoid giving offence. It was first used in shearing sheds, but is now heard in other places, especially in a pub.

While the first written evidence comes from the early s the phrase probably goes back several decades earlier. Fatty Vautin and Peter Sterling reportedly held angry meetings with their producer declaring they would not speak to Wilson if she was hired. A toilet. The dunny was originally any outside toilet. In cities and towns the pan-type dunny was emptied by the dunny man , who came round regularly with his dunny cart.

Dunny can now be used for any toilet. First recorded in the s but dunnekin is attested in Australian sources from the s. To subject a person to a torrent of words; to talk at great length to; to harangue. While not a physical beating of the ears, most people can sympathise with a person who has sustained a long taking to an ear-bashing by a boring or obnoxious windbag an earbasher. The verb is first recorded from the s, and possibly comes from Australian military slang of the Second World War period.

Most Australians are surprised to discover that this is an Australian term. First recorded from the s. The ALP contains many influential spokesmen who advocate disengagement of governments from existing agricultural assistance measures..

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The act or process of picking up litter; a group of people doing this; the act or process of searching an area of ground for something. This term developed out of an earlier verbal form recorded in the s , emu-bob , meaning 'to pick up pieces of timber, roots, etc. By the s the verb had developed a more specific sense: 'to pick up litter'. By the s the verbal form had developed into the noun. A portable insulated container in which food and drink are kept cool.

A common sight at barbecues, beaches, parks, and camping grounds in the summer months. The Esky Auto Box keeps drinks and food cold and fresh wherever you go. Will fit in the boot of any car. Winton Dirt Music : They have a folding table and esky out here on the sand beside the fire. A prison for the confinement of female convicts. Also known as a female factory. The first such factory was established in at Parramatta in New South Wales. It was a place of punishment, a labour and marriage agency for the colony, and a profit-making textiles factory where women made convict clothing and blankets.

There were eight other factories in the Australian convict settlements. Australia often sees itself as an egalitarian society, the land of the fair go , where all citizens have a right to fair treatment. It is often used as an exclamation: fair go Kev, give the kids a turn! Sometimes it expresses disbelief: fair go—the tooth fairy? For further discussion of this term see the article 'Australia - the land of the fair go' on our blog. Both men turned pale, but struggled, calling out, 'Read the warrants to us first'.

Inspector Ahern said, 'You can hear them later', and the police seized the prisoners. Both appealed to Mr. Ranking, crying out, 'Do you call this a fair go, Mr. Her baby brother sat on the floor eating the bits that fell off the table. Steady on, be reasonable. In Australian opposition leader Kevin Rudd famously used a variant of the phrase: 'fair shake of the sauce bottle'.

Fair suck of the sauce bottle is first recorded in the s. For a further discussion of the origin of the phrase see the article 'Folk Etymology in Australian English' in our Ozwords newsletter. As elsewhere, in Australia feral describes a domesticated animal that has gone wild. But in Australia the adjective has another meaning ' especially of a person wild, uncontrolled; unconventional; outside the conventional bounds of society; dirty, scruffy. Feral is also used as a noun to mean 'a person living outside the conventional bounds of society; a wild or uncontrolled person.

The Australian senses of the adjective and noun are first recorded in the s. The women clashed with media crews and politicians in a series of well-documented incidents They were quite happy with the 'feral' tag. They have invaded people's homes and maliciously destroyed victims' property. A firefighter. Firie follows a common pattern in Australian informal English whereby a word is abbreviated in this case firefighter or fireman and the -ie or -y suffix is added. Other examples include barbie a barbecue , Chrissy Christmas , and rellie a relative.

Firie is recorded from the s. Ostentatious, showy and a bit too flashily dressed. This phrase is usually used of a man, and implies that although he may be well-dressed and well-groomed, there is also something a bit dodgy about him. In spite of a superficial smartness, he is not to be trusted.

In spite of the gold tooth, he is still a rat. Eddie is as flash as a rat with a gold tooth. McNab Dodger : What brought him unstuck were his brazen schemes and lavish lifestyle. He was as flash as a rat with a gold tooth.

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Extremely busy, at top speed. The literal sense is to lie fully stretched out like a lizard , and the figurative sense means as fast as possible. The phrase also alludes to the rapid tongue-movement of a drinking lizard. To search or rummage for something. Cornish miners probably brought the term to Australia in the s and used it to describe their search for gold. Australia inherited a number of mining terms from the Cornish, but they remain very specialised, and fossick is the only one to move out into the wider speech community. Heidke Claudia's Big Break : 'Okay, we get the picture', said Sophie as she fossicked around in her enormous bag in search of boarding passes.

Like Fremantle, many towns have given it a local name. Albany, Geraldton, Esperance, Eucla and Perth all have their doctor. Fremantle doctor is recorded from the s. At Perth, with the Fremantle Doctor up his arse, he was seriously quick. A rumour or false report; an absurd story. Furphy comes from the name of a firm, J. The term probably originated at the Broadmeadows army camp in Melbourne as a transfer from the name of the carts to the typical gossip of soldiers at sites serviced by these carts during the period of the First World War.

Furphy is first recorded in Some of the troops do not suffer from lack of imagination. In early records it is variously spelt as galar , gillar , gulah , etc. The bird referred to is the grey-backed, pink-breasted cockatoo Eolophus roseicapillus , occurring in all parts of Australia except the extreme north-east and south-west. It is also known as the red-breasted cockatoo and rose-breasted cockatoo. Some early settlers used the galah as food.

In the Truth newspaper reports: 'The sunburnt residents of at that God-forsaken outpost of civilisation were subsisting on stewed galah and curried crow'. Some writers report that galah pie was a popular outback dish. The galah, which usually appears in a large flock, has a raucous call, and it was perhaps this trait which produced the term galah session for a period allocated for private conversation, especially between women on isolated stations, over an outback radio network.

Flynn in Northern Gateway writes: 'The women's radio hour, held regularly night and morning and referred to everywhere as the 'Galah Session'. It is a special time set aside for lonely station women to chat on whatever subject they like'. More generally, a galah session is 'a long chat' - A. Garve, Boomerang : 'For hours the three men chatted It was Dawes who said at last, "I reckon this galah session's gone on long enough". Very commonly in Australian English galah is used to refer to a fool or idiot.

This figurative sense is recorded from the s, and derives from the perceived stupidity of the bird. The following quotations give an indication of how the term is used:. Porteous Cattleman : 'The bloke on the other end of the line is only some useless galah tryin' to sell a new brand of dip'. O'Grady Aussie Etiket : 'You would be the greatest bloody galah this side of the rabbit-proof fence'. From this sense arise a number of colloquial idioms. To be mad as a gumtree full of galahs is to be completely crazy. To make a proper galah of oneself is to make a complete fool of oneself.

A pack of galahs is a group of contemptibly idiotic people. An abberviation of good day , a familiar greeting, used frequently and at any hour. While the word is recorded from the s, it came to international prominence in the s through a series of tourism advertisements where Australian actor and comedian Paul Hogan invited people from around the world to visit Australia and say g'day. Harms Memoirs of a Mug Punter : I made it to the table where the prime minister was wielding his pen. He looked up. He didn't recognise me. In International English geek means 'a person who is socially inept or boringly conventional or studious'.

The sense comes from the United States, where it originally referred to an assistant at a sideshow whose purpose was to appear an object of disgust or derision. The American word appears to be a variant of geck , a Scottish word from Dutch meaning 'a gesture of derision; an expression of scorn or contempt'. In more recent times the word has been increasingly applied to a person who is obsessed with computers and computer technology. In Australia, however, there is another meaning of the word geek.

It means 'a look', and usually appears in the phrase to have or take a geek at. It is also used as a verb.

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This Australian sense derives from British dialect Scottish and Northern England keek meaning 'to look, to peep'. The Australian form geek appears as a verb in Cornish meaning 'to peep, peer, spy', and this is likely to be the same word as the northern keek. The lateness of the word in Australian English, however, suggests a borrowing from the northern dialects rather than from Cornish. Both Australian senses of the noun and verb are recorded from the early 20th century. What about having a geek at that? The cafe has gained a steady stream of regulars for coffee, breakfast, lunch or a geek at the bikes.

Gilgai is a word which describes a terrain of low relief on a plain of heavy clay soil, characterised by the presence of hollows, rims, and mounds, as formed by alternating periods of expansion during wet weather and contraction with deep cracking during hot, dry weather. This type of terrain is described as gilgaed. A single hole is known as a gilgai , or gilgai hole. Such holes are also known as crabholes , dead-men's graves , or melon holes.

The word comes from Wiradjuri an Aboriginal language once spoken over a vast area from southern New South Wales to northern Victoria and Gamilaraay an Aboriginal language spoken over a vast area of east-central New South Wales and extending into southern Queensland gilgaay 'waterhole'. Gilgai if recorded from the s. Abbott Notes of a Journey on the Darling : At the blackfellows' tanks the clay excavated is still seen beside the waterholes, while in the gilgies there is no appearance of any embankment, the ground all round being perfectly level.

Kent What do you do with them on Sundays? A box in which a woman accumulates items in preparation for marriage; the collection itself. In other countries it is called a hope chest or bottom drawer.


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The term is first recorded in They were focused entirely on the fantasy of the day and it almost didn't matter who the groom was. Extremely drunk; replete with food; extremely full, packed. In Australian English a goog is an egg. The phrase is a variation of an earlier British phrase in the same sense: full as a tick , recorded from the late 17th century. Full as a goog is recorded from the s.

Cask wine. The form goon may also have been influenced by an altered pronunciation of flagon. Australia There is evidence for this term from the early s. For more about wine terms in Australian English see the article 'Wine in Australian English' on our blog. Birmingham Tasmanian Babes Fiasco : None of the wine he reviewed ever cost more than ten bucks a bottle. In fact very few even came within cooee of that, mostly tapering off at five or six bucks per four litre 'goon'. A prohibition on demolition or construction projects on sites deemed to be of historical, cultural or environmental significance, especially one imposed by a trade union.

The term arose by analogy with black ban a prohibition, especially as imposed by a trade union, that prevents work from proceeding , with the colour green being associated with the environmental lobby. Although green ban is used elsewhere, the term was recorded first in Australia in Thomas Taming the Concrete Jungle : A unionist coined a happy phrase for such bans to save natural bush and park.

A retired person who travels extensively within Australia, especially by campervan, caravan or motor home. The grey nomad is a product of the baby boomer generation. The term is recorded from the s. For a further discussion of this term see our Word of the Month article from September Guernsey is the second largest of the Channel Islands. The name is used attributively to designate things found in or associated with Guernsey.

Thus the term Guernsey cow for an animal of a breed of usually brown and white dairy cattle that originated in Guernsey. In the early nineteenth century the term Guernsey shirt arose for 'a close-fitting woollen sweater, especially one worn by sailors'. During the gold rushes in Australia in the mid nineteenth century, in a specialisation of this sense, the term guernsey was used to describe a kind of shirt worn by goldminers:. In a further specialisation in Australian English, the term guernsey has been used since the s to refer to a football jumper, especially as worn by a player of Australian Rules football:.

From the football meaning there arose in the early 20th century the phrase to get a guernsey or be given a guernsey , meaning to win selection for a sporting team. In a widening of this sense, the phrase came to mean 'to win selection, recognition, approbation', and is commonly used in non-sporting contexts:. Extremely happy. The origin of this phrase is unknown, but is perhaps an arbitrary partial rhyming reduplication with 'happy'. The phrase is used elsewhere but recorded earliest in New Zealand and Australia. The earliest non-Australasian evidence is Irish. The Dictionary of New Zealand English suggests a Scottish origin from the Clydesdale area larrie meaning 'joking, jesting, gibing'.

The phrase is first recorded in Australian evidence from the s. Thorne Bonzer : I put my disappointment away in a drawer, and pulling on my happy-as-Larry face, toddled down towards them. A cheerful person; a satisfied person. The phrase comes from a s advertising jingle for the yeast-based spread Vegemite.

For a further discussion of Vegemite and to view the advertisement see the article 'A History of Vegemite' on our blog. Fordham Dream Keeper : We have to remember what Mummy told us, happy thoughts make for happy little Vegemites. An importunate request especially of a monetary or sexual nature. This term is often found in the phrase to put the hard word on : to make demands especially monetary or sexual on someone. The term is from British dialect where it had various meanings including 'abuse, scandal, marriage proposal, refusal'.

The Australian usage is recorded from the early 20th century. To escape; to make a rapid departure. To do a Harold Holt is rhyming slang for bolt. The phrase is from the name of former Australian prime minister Harold Holt who disappeared, presumed drowned, while swiming at Portsea, Victoria, in As with other rhyming slang terms the rhyming element is often omitted, hence we sometimes see the forms to do a Harold and to do a Harry.

The phrase is recorded from the s. For a further discussion of this term see the article 'Harold Holt does a Harry' on our blog. The hills hoist is a rotary clothes line fitted with a hoist that is operated by a crown and pinion winding mechanism. In Australia Lance Hill is commonly thought to have invented the rotary clothes hoist, but he adapted the existing design in by including his own winding mechanism.

The name hills hoist is used generically in Australia for any rotary clothes line. As a symbol, the hills hoist has both positive and negative connotations in Australian culture. As a negative symbol it stands for the dreary sameness and ordinariness of Australian suburbia. I would have been up to my wrists in grey water with peas and mutton fat floating in it. I would have been staring through chipped venetian blinds at rusted Hills hoists and broken plastic toys. An imaginary nerve that reacts whenever demands are made on one's money especially in contexts such as government proposals to increase taxes.

The term is from hip-pocket 'a trouser pocket that traditionally contains a wallet'. Hip-pocket nerve is recorded from the s. This is showing up, for example, in falling real wages that inevitably will grate the hip-pocket nerve of voters. A lout or an exhibitionist, especially a young male who drives dangerously or at reckless speed. Suggestions for its origin include: an alteration of Australian English hooer 'a prostitute, a general term of abuse'; an alteration of Australian English poon 'a simpleton or fool'; a contraction of hooligan; and the Scottish word hune 'a loiterer, a drone, a lazy, silly person'.

The current sense referring to a reckless driver only emerged in the s. For further discussion of this term see the article 'A Hoon by any other Name' in our Ozwords newsletter, and for a discussion of the term hoon operation see our Word of the Month article from July Particularly when you're standing out on the road, hoons drive past with bare bums hanging out of the window fairly frequently.

Dooley Big Twitch : It was into this habitat, at about Hughie is the rain god, and the appeal send it down Hughie is a request for a heavy fall of rain - the phrase is first recorded in Since the s surfers have also implored the god's name in a request for good waves. For a further discussion about this term and its possible origins see the article 'Send Her Down Who-ie?

A confection of flavoured and frozen water. Almost a necessity on hot summer days in Australia. An iceblock. You call them iceblocks', I reply. A small-time confidence trickster. The word is probably formed from illy with the same meaning which is likely an alteration of the Australian word spieler meaning 'a person who engages in sharp practice; a swindler, originally a card sharper'. To whack the illy to act as a confidence trickster and illywhacker are first recorded in Kylie Tennant's The Battlers :.

An illy-wacker is someone who is putting a confidence trick over, selling imitation diamond pins, new-style patent razors or infallible 'tonics' A man who 'wacks the illy' can be almost anything, but two of these particular illy-wackers were equipped with a dart game. Illywhacker was becoming obsolescent in Australian English, but it was given new life when Peter Carey used it as the title of his novel. In that novel, we find the following passage:. For further discussion of this term see our Word of the Month article from June Extremely lazy.

When vaccinations became routine in the mids, the fear of polio diminished. Hardy Outcasts of Foolgarah : Even the most primitive societies protect, succor and shelter the aged, but not so the affluent society with the principle of he that cannot work neither shall he eat except Silver Tails who wouldn't work in an iron lung. Now, we are illiterate, ill-mannered, wouldn't work in an iron lung, among the worst-dressed in the world, and overall, not very happy people.

What happened, I wonder? The word jackeroo was originally a Queensland term recorded from referring to a white man who lived beyond the bounds of close settlement. Later, a jackeroo was 'a young man frequently English and of independent means seeking to gain experience by working in a supernumerary capacity on a sheep or cattle station'. A jackeroo is now 'a person working on such a station with a view to acquiring the practical experience and management skills desirable in a station owner or manager'.

The word can also be used as a verb, meaning 'to work as a jackeroo'. Sign up. Thanks for signing up as a global citizen. In order to create your account we need you to provide your email address. You can check out our Privacy Policy to see how we safeguard and use the information you provide us with. If your Facebook account does not have an attached e-mail address, you'll need to add that before you can sign up. Please contact us at contact globalcitizen. Extreme poverty ends with you.

Check out original content and videos published every day to help you learn about the issues that mean the most to you. Send petitions, emails, or tweets to world leaders. Call governments or join rallies. We offer a variety of ways to make your voice heard. Meet other Global Citizens who care about the same issues you do.

Keep updated on what they're doing to change the world. Find out more about Global Citizen. By Neha Shah. Over 5. A poignant series of drawings by Nelson Mandela, called the Struggle Series, served as an inspiration for the festival. They depict his hands in five positions representing: struggle, imprisonment, freedom, unity and the future.

They also depict the motivation behind actions that Global Citizens have been taking this year to see the end to extreme poverty in our lifetime. Global Citizen Festival: Mandela set a historic stage for not only donor countries but also for African countries standing up for his hope for the future, making sure that Africa was standing up and getting its voice heard.

These commitments, announced by Dr.

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Precious Motsepe and Patrice Motsepe are set to advance education, economic inclusion, and equality of women and girls, as well as to ensure that current land discussions and processes in South Africa will result in land being made available to black people living in rural and urban areas. Education: Significant strides were made to FundEducation, with Sierra Leone committing to increase its education budget to Below is a list of every Global Citizen commitment, partner commitment, announcement, and call-to-action made on the Global Citizen platform as part of the Mandela campaign.

Chimaobim Betta Edu addressed the thousands of Global Citizens:. She ended with a call to action for other Nigerian governors to join Cross River to champion this issue. We are committed to the goal of investing 0. We see it as a step on the journey to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. This will allow us to intensify our work with our partners around the world to improve education, particularly for girls, build health services, and reduce hunger as we work together to be the generation that eradicates extreme poverty from the world.

Barbara Lee of California, Rep. Hank Johnson of Georgia, Rep.