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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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His only extant work, Deipnosophistae Banquet of the Sophists , a collection of excerpts from some eight hundred ancient authors many of whose works are now lost provides information on many aspects of the ancient world.

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Diodorus Siculus first century , Greek author of a universal history, of which large sections sur- vive. His Book 17, concerned almost entirely with Alexander, is broken in places but nearly complete. Diodorus based his account of Alexander largely on the writings of Kleitarchos, and so is considered one of the vulgate sources. Eratosthenes c.

He was known for debunking mythic accounts of distant travels, including those of the Alexander historians. Eumenes c. Euripides c. Eighteen possibly nineteen of his plays survive. The Greek and Macedonian Art of War. Billows, R.

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Kings and Colonists: Aspects of Macedonian Imperialism. Leiden: Brill, Borza, Eugene N. Princeton: Princeton Uni- versity Press, Briant, Pierre. Translated by Peter Daniels.

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Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, The Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Errington, R. A History of Macedonia. Translated by Catherine Errington. Hammond, N. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Carney, Elizabeth. Olympias: Mother of Alexander the Great. New York and London: Routledge, Cartledge, Paul. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, Cawkwell, G. Philip of Macedon. London and Boston: Faber and Faber, Green, Peter.

Alexander of Macedon, — B. Alexander the Great: King, Commander, and Statesman. Lane Fox, Robin. Alexander the Great. London: Allen Lane in association with Longman, Alexander: Destiny and Myth. Translated by Janet Lloyd. Stoneman, Richard. Tarn, W. This particular motif or topos is also found in the main work of the Greek writer Arrian ca. AD 86 to ca. In Arrian, the battle is discussed in book three 3. A key element in the description of the battle among Greek and Roman writers is that Darius III, the king and commander of the Persian forces, flees from the battle, abandoning his troops in the process.

But according to the cuneiform tablets known as the Astronomical Diary , a contemporary source, the Persian army was demoralized and fled during the battle, effectively abandoning Darius III, who was thus in turn forced to flee. Of course, it can be countered that the writers of the cuneiform tablets tried to depict their ruler in as favourable a light as possible, and that these tablets are therefore not necessarily more trustworthy than the Greek and Roman material.

II On the distance which ancient ships sailed in 24 hours. Who is Arrian? And what does he have to say about the Black Sea? We do not know when he was born or when he died, but we think he was born around AD 86 and died around AD He was not only a historian and a philosopher, but also a public servant and a military commander. While his first language was Greek, he also knew how to read and write Latin.

He met Hadrian and became a friend of his around AD , while Trajan still ruled the empire. Perhaps this is the reason why Hadrian later decided to appoint him as consul or and as governor of a Roman province.

Alexander the Great - Sources: Arrian

Arrian served as governor of Cappadocia for seven years, He left his post shortly before Hadrian died. For more information about this person, his life and his works, see Arrian of Nicomedia by Philip A. Stadter Arrian wrote his letter about the Black Sea in the beginning of his term as governor. We do not know if he was ordered to write it or if he did so on his own initiative.

Perhaps this is why the Latin dispatches are lost, while the open letter has been preserved.

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The structure of the document is a bit surprising. We would expect a description of the Black Sea to start at one point and then go full circle, clock-wise or counter-clockwise. But Arrian does not work this way. His letter is divided into three sections the direction is always counter-clockwise :. Sailing from Trapezus Trebizond in the southeast to Sebastopolis Dioscurias in the northeast.

This part is based on personal observations: his inspection tour. Moving from Byzantium in the southwest to Trapezus in the southeast. This part is probably based on information from other sources. But it could be based on personal observations as well see below. Moving from Sebastopolis Dioscurias in the northeast to Byzantium in the southwest. This part is definitely based on information from other sources. He notes the three-part structure of the text when he says it contains:. What does the letter say? Part 1. The starting point is Trapezus, later Trebizond, and today Trabzon in Turkey.

Arrian mentions two altars of stone and a statue of Hadrian facing the sea.

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He is not happy with the statue: it does not look like the emperor. Although this town is a part of the Roman Empire, he describes the inhabitants as barbarians, because they do not know how to write a proper inscription on an official monument. The fleet stops at a place which is called Athenae Ponticae, because it has a Greek temple.

Arrian. Indica. English

But it is nothing like Athens in Greece. The governor and his staff seek shelter from a storm in this harbour. Continuing east, they reach Apsarus, or Asparus, today Gonio in Georgia.