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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Although the simplistic bargain to trade economic development for cheap labor appeared to succeed in the short term, complex issues of German domestic unemployment and social disorder filtered to Central American countries and added to their own burdens. By , Germany had recovered most of its pre-World War I economic position. Visit Seller's Storefront. We also accept Credit Card payments through Paypal.

Federal Republic of Central America 5 Countries 1821-1841 First Mexican Empire

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Germany in Central America: Competitive Imperialism, 1821-1929

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Payment Methods accepted by seller. AbeBooks Bookseller Since: April 9, Home Schoonover, Thomas D. Germany in Central America : Competitive Imperialism, Stock Image. Condition: Near Fine Hardcover. Save for Later. Looks at German role in Central America Bookseller Inventory Ask Seller a Question.

About this title Synopsis: Using previously untapped resources including private collections, the records of cultural institutions, and federal and state government archives, Schoonover analyzes the German role in Central American domestic and international relations. With restored economic and diplomatic relations after , German industrialists established branch plants in a number of countries; German-speaking immigrants—including noteworthy contingents from old areas of German settlement in Russia and Eastern Europe —resumed their move to the Southern Cone.

In the drive for economic self-sufficiency in the s, Germany sought assured Latin American sources of foodstuffs and raw materials. The search culminated in in a trade policy of strict bilateralism, embodied in treaties with Brazil, Argentina, and other countries, which produced gains at British and North American expense.


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The economic offensive was accompanied after by strident propaganda and by strengthened relations between the Third Reich and the poorly assimilated German-speaking communities of the area; Nazis labored to organize these communities for purposes that were never clarified. The expansion of German-controlled airlines, particularly near the Panama Canal , worried the North American military. In the United States belief grew in a vast German strategic project to create—through subversion of undemocratic political elites and perhaps with the aid of German-speaking "fifth columns"—a congeries of Latin American client states of the Third Reich within the Western Hemisphere.

In the late s German rearmament reduced the amount of civilian goods available to trade for Latin American raw materials, and the economic offensive lost its impetus.

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Nevertheless, Hitler's military victories from to lent credibility to German promises to integrate Latin America into a reorganized European economy under German hegemony. Therefore, in the United States undertook a costly program of preemptive buying of Latin American commodities. It should be noted that since historians have found no evidence of the widely believed-in "German master plan" for the Americas.

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At the foreign ministers' conference held in Rio de Janeiro early in , the Latin American states, except Argentina and Chile, followed the United States in declaring war on the Axis powers Germany, Italy, and Japan. Apart from Brazil and Mexico, Latin America's war effort was limited to increased production of raw materials for the Allies, closure of Axis embassies, seizures of Axis property, and expulsion of Axis nationals deemed dangerous.

German espionage networks, continental in scope but centered in Argentina, were not suppressed until The threat of invasion—which proved ephemeral—caused Latin American governments to request and receive U. As the war ended, Washington, ostensibly out of concern that Axis war criminals would escape to Latin America, pressed Latin American governments to suppress German-language institutions and to close their doors to refugees.

These pressures offended Latin American sovereignty and were unsuccessful: thousands of Axis nationals migrated to Latin America after Many were scientists and technicians; some were fugitives; some were both. The most notable was Adolf Eichmann , a high-ranking Nazi officer. The Israeli government eventually captured him in a Buenos Aires suburb in Normal relations were restored between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Latin American nations in the s.

With the growth of Germany's economic strength, in the postwar era it became one of the most important trading partners for the Latin American region. Germany is the top European exporter to Latin America, and Mexico is its largest market.


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