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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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This chapter provides a better understanding of the impact that the Internet and mobile sports marketing are having on a business's ability to achieve customer engagement. To achieve this goal, the case of Real Madrid football team is analyzed, as it is calculated to have over million supporters worldwide. Information about Real Madrid was gathered from September to March by repeatedly browsing the team's Website, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and apps.

Data from interviews of R AbstractOne of the major problems associated with our development and consumption model is to generate lots of waste. These ones are becoming a serious problem as one of the main factors that influences and determines the environmental quality of our cities and their surroundings. In addition, thisdispose of waste generates a big consumption of land which its keeping up is very difficult in densely populated areas as the Madrid Autonomous Region.

The absence of a real and active concern by planning instruments is the fact that encourages the development of this research. The domestic waste storage in dumps must be questioned and studied.

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This text tries to show the economic, environmental and management problems that can be. Satellite information has contributed to improve our understanding of the spatial variability of hydro-climatic and ecological processes. Vegetation activity is tightly coupled with climate, hydro-ecological fluxes, and terrain dynamics in river basins at a wide range of space-time scales Scheuring and Riedi, Indices of vegetation activity are constructed using satellite information of reflectance of the relevant spectral bands which enhance the contribution of vegetation being Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI widely used.

How can we study such a complex system? In this work, we have applied these techniques to study the spatial pattern through one year of NDVI maps. A rectangular area that includes the Community of Madrid and part of the surroundings, consisting of x pixels with a resolution of x m2 has been selected and monthly NDVI maps analyzed using the multifractal spectrum and the map of singularities Cheng and Agterberg, References Cheng, Q. Multifractal modeling and spatial statistics. Vol 28, The severity of drought has many implications for society, including its impacts on the water supply, water pollution, reservoir management and ecosystem.

However, its impacts on rain-fed agriculture are especially direct. Because of the importance of drought, there have been many attempts to characterize its severity, resulting in the numerous drought indices that have been developed Niemeyer This type of agricultural insurance is named as 'index-based insurance' IBI. IBI is perceived to be substantially less costly to operate and manage than multiple peril insurance. IBI contracts pay indemnities based not on the actual yield or revenue losses experienced by the insurance purchaser but rather based on realized NDVI values historical data that is correlated with farm-level losses Xiaohui Deng et al.

Definition of when drought event occurs is defined on NDVI threshold values mainly based in statistical parameters, average and standard deviation that characterize a normal distribution. In this work a pasture area at the north of Community of Madrid Spain has been delimited. A statistical analysis of the NDVI histograms at consecutives 46 intervals of that area was applied to search for the best statistical distribution based on the maximum likelihood criteria.

References Kolli N Rao. Index based Crop Insurance. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 1, The Guadarrama Monitoring Network initiative GuMNet is an observational infrastructure focused on monitoring the state of the atmosphere, surface and subsurface in the Sierra de Guadarrama, 50 km NW of the city of Madrid. The network is composed of 10 automatic real time weather stations ranging from low altitude ca.

The GuMNet infrastructure consists in 10 real time automatic weather stations with instrumentation for observing the state of the atmosphere, surface and the subsurface at the Sierra de Guadarrama, just 50 km north-northwest of the city of Madrid. GuMNet lays the foundations of a research network on weather, soil thermodynamics, boundary layer physics, climate and ecosystem oriented impacts, air pollutions, etc. GuMNet represents a first step to provide a unique observational network in an environment of high protection to be used as a laboratory serving a wide range of scientific and educational interests.

High altitude sites are focused on periglacial areas and lower altitude sites have emphasis on pastures. The network is connected via general packet radio service GPRS to the central lab in the Campus of Excellence of Moncloa and a management software has been developed to handle the operation of the infrastructure.

The deployment of instrumentation and connection of sites to the network was finished in GuMNet is currently in the process of becoming operational. Conceptually, GuMNet intends to convert a. Full Text Available This article describes the purpose, program and architectural plan, as well as the final design, system of construction, calculations and tests connected with this important office building, which has a finely evolved and modern style, and an interesting structure, affecting its five basements and ten floors above ground level.

The M Madrid commuter train bombings of constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat STR profiling of exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a critical part of the investigation and was instigated to help refine the search for further suspects. Although mitochondrial DNA mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers routinely demonstrate informative geographic differentiation, the populations compared in this analysis were known to show a proportion of shared mtDNA and Y haplotypes as a result of recent gene-flow across the western Mediterranean, while any two loci can be unrepresentative of the ancestry of an individual as a whole.

We based our principal analysis on a validated 34plex autosomal ancestry-informative-marker single nucleotide polymorphism AIM-SNP assay to make an assignment of ancestry for DNA from seven unmatched case samples including a handprint from a bag containing undetonated explosives together with personal items recovered from various locations in Madrid associated with the suspects. Once misclassification error was found to be sufficiently low, genotyping yielded seven near-complete profiles 33 of 34 AIM-SNPs that in four cases gave probabilities providing a clear assignment of ancestry.

The results. Proteja a sus seres queridos de las lesiones viales. Proteja a sus seres queridos de un ahogamiento. Proteja a sus seres queridos de las quemaduras. Proteja a sus seres queridos de las intoxicaciones. Full Text Available The article describes the restoration of four rural churches in the Madrid Community with a common set of problems: the typological and structural loss, mainly wooden roof and the retrieval of the architectural scheme in order to enable its comprehension in the historical context. In the church of Camarma, Mudejar elements: apse, ante apse, roofing and mural paintings are restored and displayed.

Also, the structural problems in walls that were close to collapsing are solved. En Torremocha, the concealed structure is being revealed and its architectural evolution is shown step by step with an easily comprehensible scheme. The Braojos case represents the elimination of inappropriate actions through the retrieval of the construction scheme of a traditional language and with traditional materials. Imported malaria in children in Madrid , Spain, The majority of malaria cases diagnosed in Europe in the last few years have occurred in people living in non-endemic areas travelling back to their home country to visit friends and relatives VFRs.

A retrospective multicentre study was conducted in 24 hospitals in Madrid Spain including patients under 16 years diagnosed with malaria A total of episodes in children were reported. Plasmodium falciparum was the species most commonly isolated. Twenty-five patients developed severe malaria and there was one death related to malaria. VFR accounted for Only 17 VFRs had received prophylaxis, and 4 of them taken appropriately. They seldom took adequate prophylaxis, and delayed the visit to the physician, increasing the length of fever and subsequent delaying in diagnosis.

Appropriate preventive measures, such as education and pre-travel advices should be taken in this population. Hydrothermal behaviour of sedimentary saponitic clays from Madrid Basin. The hydrothermal behavior of sedimentary saponitic clays from Madrid Basin has been investigated to assess their potential use as a buffer material in high level radioactive waste repositories. Experiments have covered temperatures up to degree centigree with an excess of liquid water except on the last subject.

Chemical and XRD analyses of final clay products and solutions indicates minor alteration of the saponite in the hydrothermal experiments either in the presence or absence of potassium. No illitization or chloritization processes seems to affect the smectite.

Sepiolite was found to be largely dissolved at degree centigree, a process that inhibited recrystallization or formation of illite observed when illite was present in significant amounts in starting materials. Accessory minerals illite and sepiolite accompanying as traces the saponitic material underwent and intense degradation at degree centigree in absence of potassium.

On the other hand, clay steamed at degree centigree showed significant textural changes forming highly stable silt size aggregates which hindered the swelling abilities of the saponitic material, a fact that was previously observed in montmorillonites. Author 25 refs. La imagen alfonsina del Palacio Real de Madrid.

To describe health behavior of students about diet, alcohol and tobacco, dental-oral hygiene, leisure time activities and interpersonal relations. Children come from six schools of the town of Parla in the south of Madrid. They are from 9 to 14 years old. The instruments have been made for this study, helping by teachers of EGB.

The students watch television three hours and half, means, in the day. In general, girls have better habits than boys. Only exercise is more prevalent in the boys than in the girls. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume V. The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs and Sr This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties.

Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid. Author 39 refs. The acting Minister of the Interior announced that the number of officers of the Guardia Civil watching over the Spanish nuclear power plants will be doubled.

Bioclimatic buildings of 16 houses in Pozuelo de Alarcon Madrid ; Edificio bioclimatico de 16 viviendas de promocion publica pra jovenes en Pozuelo de Alarcon. We present in this article a housing building for young people recently built for the Autonomous Administration of Madrid in Pozuelo de Alarcon in which have been applied some bioclimatic and energy efficiency techniques.

In this communication are described the main architectural features and are exposed some of the estimated results of energy saving and reduction of Co2. Building with 54 houses of high energetical efficiency in Madrid ; Edificio de 54 viviendas de alta eficiencia energetica en el oeste de San Fermin. Parclea 5 Madrid. We present in this article a residential building recently built in Madrid for the EMV in which have been applied some bioclimatic and energy efficiency techniques. In this communication are described the main architectural features and are exposed some of the estimated results of energy saving with the contribution of solar energy in passive space and water heating.

Los directores aprendiendo de sus maestros. Abstract This research paper, framed within the line of inquiry Learning Management, deals with the main lessons that have acquired the management of basic education in the state of Durango, Mexico, for the best performance of their duties, from a study of narrative histories of 16 directors of state primary education outside the school zone 24 the education sector 1 of the Ministry of Education. The data analysis was performed using the computer statistical package you Atlas ti version 7.

The research findings show that there are two main lessons that have acquired the management of basic education in the state of Durango, Mexico from their teachers for the better performance of their function: a teamwork. El olivar andaluz y sus transformaciones recientes. Since then olive grove has known an exceptional economic conjuncture, like express his enormous superficial expansion or his notable productivity. In this work we approach the reasons that explain the consolidation of one of the most typical monocultures of southern Spain, indicating the diversity of situations that coexist under a seemingly monotonous landscape and analyzing some cases that can well illustrate the set of changes experienced since In general, a modulated reinforced concrete structure has been used, consisting of a series of longitudinal thick beams, reinforced concrete slab floorings and barrel vault ceilings with concrete arches.

For the enclosure of the buildings continuous tile surfacing was used. Los resultados muestran una alarmante diferencia entre las competencias que debieran tener los profesores para desarrollar la competencia digital en sus alumnos y la que verdaderamente tienen. Una alabarda procedente del valle del Manzanares Madrid. It might have appeared with other materials Palmela Points?

Made in a single-faced mould which allows a homogeneous finish to only one of the sides, it belongs from. Robada, prostituida, restituida, y siempre virgen. El caso de N. These texts, very rich as 17th-century ethnographies, are about the loss and recovery of the collective memory, as well as the blending of the oral with the written tradition. The practice of the art critic in Madrid after the Civil War had special characteristics because of the politic situation then.

The new political regime wanted to controlate the culture and the public opinion. The main art critics had narrow ways of work about fifties. Their characteristics and evolution — acording to the politic and cultural needs in the country— are studied in this work until first sixties when we can find a new way of art critics. Annual pharmaceutical expenditures in prisons increases dramatically and the rising costs of psychoactive drugs have especially contributed to this.

These drugs are often prescribed in order to find therapeutic uses in the field of personality disorders, addictions, and dysfunctional behaviours that are not included in the authorized indications compassionate use. This study has enabled a detailed description of the use of psychoactive drugs at the Madrid III prison, a centre with one of the lowest levels of pharmaceutical expenditure in this autonomous community.

Miguel Garcia Baro

During a two-week period, all prescriptions of psychoactive drugs were collected and registered along with data of several possible conditioning factors. The total cost of the fortnight's treatment was euros 5, with a saving of euro due to requesting and selecting offers carried out by the pharmacist.

The prescriber was one of the key influential factors over the amount, type and cost of the treatments. There are signs that compassionate use of current antipsychotics and antiepileptics, and newer antidepressants are a main cause of the dramatic increase in the costs, with cost-efficiency not always clearly demonstrated. These results are not an isolated fact restricted only to prisons, as demonstrated by consumption data published by the National Health System in the same year. El entorno residencial de los mayores en Madrid. Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the residential environment and its perception by the elderly people ageing in place in Madrid , to obtain a better knowledge of the elements to modify in order to increase their satisfaction.

In general terms, old people live in old houses, as owners, not crowded but with lack of facilities. These people have been living for a long time in the same neighbourhood, an environment affected by the problems characteristic of big cities, and are integrated in the neighbour by means of activities requiring not to much physical or financial effort.

Residential lacks affect mainly to that groups with social and economic vulnerability: female, lower income and educational level, worse health status, So, two out ten aged people would move mainly due to the negative conditions of habitability, adaptation and facilities. Moreover, reasons for not moving are related to the force of habit, the memories, or consequence of age, bad health or less resources. Las deficiencias. Full Text Available This work analyses how Spanish university scholars are adopting the use of the Internet, focusing on the Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

The number of scholars with a personal page was very low; those of the Social Sciences and Humanities were better represented. Women scholars were more poorly represented than men in this respect. Also, the amount of work, deposited in the E-Prints repository was found to be very low. No differences were seen between men and women with respect to visibility.

Por otro lado son las mujeres las que menos uso hacen de este medio. En cuanto a la visibilidad no existen diferencias entre ambos sexos. The model applied was able to coordinate the public investment of the Regional Government and the Local Governments, making of the municipalities of Madrid their own managers. The model is endorsed by the unanimous political support at the regional and local level; the continuity of PRISMA during three successive phases from to ; and its inclusion in the regional legislation as a basic instrument for the cooperation of the Regional Administration with the municipalities.

However, the application of the model poses some difficulties: regarding the management of the program, that —without the appropriate measures— may be consign to oblivion; and in relation with the participation process, that —if done in a mechanized way— may be diluted over time.

Bajo este modelo se han coordinado las inversiones del Gobierno Regional y de Gobiernos Locales, convirtiendo a los municipios en sus propios gestores. Se calcularon tasas de mortalidad prematura estratificadas por sexo y ajustadas por edad y razones de mortalidad para cada cuartil. La tasa de mortalidad prematura para el Q1 en Madrid fue 1,65por 10 3 en hombres y 0,92 por 10 3 y de 2,81 por 10 3 en hombres y 1,22 por 10 3 en mujeres residentes en Q4. En Barcelona la tasa de mortalidad fue de 2,33 por 10 3 en hombres y de 1,15 por 10 3 mujeres en el Q1 y de 3,49 por 10 3 en hombres y 1,52 por 10 3 en mujeres del Q4.

Chronic thought suppression and posttraumatic symptoms: data from the Madrid March 11, terrorist attack. Although a considerable number of people either witnessed directly or in the mass media the traumatic scenes of the terrorist attack that took place on March 11th, in Madrid , only a fraction of Madrid citizens developed posttraumatic symptoms. In this study, posttraumatic stress-related symptoms, degree of exposure, coping strategies related to the attack, and chronic attempts to avoid intrusive thoughts i. Our results showed that participants with higher scores in chronic thought suppression exhibited higher levels of PTSD symptoms.

Higher scores in chronic thought suppression also correlated positively with the use of avoidant coping strategies after the attacks. We discuss the possible common roots of avoidance of intrusive thoughts and avoidant coping strategies and the implications of this relationship for the emergence of stress-related symptoms as well as for public health policies.

Full Text Available The effect of delocalization on a national economy has been widely studied, however subnational delocalization remains as an unvisited field for researchers. This paper studies the effects of fragmentation and the subsequent localization outside or abroad on the level of industrial and services employment in Madrid region.

We work with Madrid data from regional input-output tables and estimate a labour demand function using panel data. Our results show a significant and small negative effect on regional employment of intra-industrial inputs from the national economy and abroad, while imported inputs from other sectors and origins are complementary to employment, resulting in a positive net effect on employment. The increasing specialization in main activities and the use of external providers by firms have a positive impact on the employment of Madrid region.

There is broad agreement in the scientific community that a continuing concern exists for a major destructive earthquake in the New Madrid seismic zone. Many structures in Memphis, Tenn. Louis, Mo. This assessment is based on decades of research on New Madrid earthquakes and related phenomena by dozens of Federal, university, State, and consulting earth scientists. Considerable interest has developed recently from media reports that the New Madrid seismic zone may be shutting down. These reports stem from published research using global positioning system GPS instruments with results of geodetic measurements of strain in the Earth's crust.

Because of a lack of measurable strain at the surface in some areas of the seismic zone over the past 14 years, arguments have been advanced that there is no buildup of stress at depth within the New Madrid seismic zone and that the zone may no longer pose a significant hazard. As part of the consensus-building process used to develop the national seismic hazard maps, the U. These experts considered the GPS data from New Madrid available at that time that also showed little to no ground movement at the surface.

The experts did not find the GPS data to be a convincing reason to lower the assessment of earthquake hazard in the New Madrid region, especially in light of the many other types of data that are used to construct the hazard assessment, several of which are described here. Studying geodesy and earthquake hazard in and around the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The group addressed the challenge of reconciling current geodetic measurements, which show low present-day surface strain rates, with paleoseismic evidence of recent, relatively frequent, major earthquakes in the region.

Full Text Available Road traffic noise is one of the main concerns of large cities. Most of them have classified their territory in acoustic areas and have constructed strategic noise maps. From both sources we have elaborated seven types of acoustic neighbourhoods according to both their noise gap in regard to the legal standard and the percentage of population exposed to noise. A spatial Durbin model has been selected as the strategy that best models the impact of noise on housing prices. However, results for Madrid do not confirm the hedonic theory and indicate, as one of the possibilities, that the official acoustic areas in Madrid could be incorrectly designed.

Elisabeth and Loreto according Constitutions of and La violencia de hijos adolescentes contra sus progenitores La violencia de hijos adolescentes contra sus progenitores. Suede this worrying increase, the principal aim of our article is to check the scientific international and national documentation, from until the year that analyses the phenomenon of the adolescent violence against parents, to achieve an approximation to its keys that there allows us the comprehension and analysis of this serious familiar problem.

The information obtained in this research review and qualitative analysis, change in base to the methodology used and the type of sample under study to obtain conclusions. Even though, we wantto do research into needs to investigate this type of familiar violence, and from there, to do researches with rigorous scientific methodologies, unifying criteria and variables to be investigating, to be able to anticipate in this increasing problem that the parents have.

En ascendieron a 4. However, it had become a reserve of land in which various alliances between the institutional authorities and the dominant social class, have been operating on the margin of the original plan, exposing a scarcity of legal and cultural resources for the safeguarding of common interests, and in which the geographical and natural characteristics of the territory itself have come to play an influential role in the functional specialization and spatial segregation of the MMA.

Chilenos en Madrid : Perfiles, trayectorias y su mirada inmigrante. The term "burnout" is related to a situation arising increasingly more often among the professionals performing their duties by way of a long-term, direct, people-to-people relationship, which includes all healthcare professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the professionals assigned to the nursing staff at the above-mentioned hospital. The variables involved were gathered by means of a questionnaire prepared by those conducting this study.

The Burnout syndrome was measured by means of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, in the validated Spanish version thereof. The conclusion which may be drawn from this study is that the profile of a person affected by Burnout is that of a professional with on-the-job experience who nevertheless considers very little recognition to be given to their caregiving and a high degree of dissatisfaction with the way in which their workplaces are managed. This poster summarizes a few of the more significant facts about the series of large earthquakes that struck the New Madrid seismic zone of southeastern Missouri, northeastern Arkansas, and adjacent parts of Tennessee and Kentucky from December to February Three earthquakes in this sequence had a magnitude M of 7.

The first earthquake occurred on December 16, , at a. These three earthquakes were among the largest to strike North America since European settlement. The mainshocks were followed by many hundreds of aftershocks that occurred over the next decade. Many of the aftershocks were major earthquakes themselves.

The area that was strongly shaken by the three main shocks was times as large as the strongly shaken area of the M9. Geologic studies show that the sequence was not an isolated event in the New Madrid region. The New Madrid earthquake sequence was preceded by at least two other similar sequences in about A. Research also indicates that other large earthquakes have occurred in the region surrounding the main New Madrid seismicity trends in the past 5, years or so.

PURPOSE: To describe the acoustic vocal modifications and the sensations occurred after the reverse phonation technique in young adult women without vocal complaints and with normal larynx. Asimismo, se han valorado las implicaciones para el sistema educativo. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid Spain. Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning.

One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants. This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions.

This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use.

III, Madrid -Valencia. Full Text Available The footbridge over the C. Ill , Madrid -Valencia road, near Madrid , enables pedestrians to cross the motor road where the latter runs between Moratalaz and Vallecas, without impeding the road traffic. The adoption of an elevated pass is convenient, since at this section the road runs along a deep trench.

The structure of the footpath is a continuous metallic box girder, resting on five rectangular metal supports, and two end concrete abutments. The total length of the bridge is m, and the width of the platform is 2. The project took one month to complete. La pasarela sobre la C. La obra tiene una longitud total de aproximadamente m y el ancho de la plataforma es de 2,40 metros.

Nutriment habits and oral hygiene in a preschool population in Madrid were studied by stratification in public or private schools. Significant differences were found only with regard to consumption of fish. Vegetable and fruit consumption was low in both groups, but not statistically significant. This paper presents a case of collaboration between different types of public services and the private sector for the promotion of an entrepreneurial culture.

This collaboration is achieved by means of a centre established and developed by the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid , the Centro de Iniciativas Emprendedoras the Centre for Entrepreneurial…. Tourism in Conflict Zones. Full Text Available For more than a decade, the processes of patrimonialization of spaces and cultural assets of the Spanish Civil War have been strengthened. The Community of Madrid has not been, and is not, alien to this process. Since the creation of the Grupo de Estudios del Frente de Madrid GEFREMA in , associations whose objective is to investigate this historical period and its material legacy, research, and patrimonialisation processes in the region have continued to increase.

This article presents an investigation that analyzes the different spaces of the Spanish Civil War that have recovered in the region of Madrid. Based on the museological theories, which provides the communication and interpretation of the heritage, and the methodologies for the collection of quantitative and qualitative data, we have evaluated the different places in which this heritage has been valued in order to be able to Define its main variables and also be able to build proposals for its future and for future interventions elsewhere.

Ayuntamiento de Madrid. This paper examines educational practices in Spain and in particular Madrid. With this contextual frame as the starting point the following issues are discussed: the "official" conceptualization of cultural diversity, educational policies and resolutions related to cultural diversity, and school programs and resources facilitated by…. By adopting a critical interpretive perspective Tollefson in "Language…. This article describes the Ensina SUS Project, the research developed within the project, and the various dimensions and implications that will lead to understanding the experiences that have been taking place in courses in the field of health care as regards their processes of change.

Our aim is to share the experience of integrating researchers, coming from different institutional and professional backgrounds, in order to build a common project, based on their. Elec Sus : Extension to arbitrary geometry magneto-optics.

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We present a major update to Elec Sus , a computer program and underlying model to calculate the electric susceptibility of an alkali-metal atomic vapour. Knowledge of the electric susceptibility of a medium is essential to predict its absorptive and dispersive properties. In this version we implement several changes which significantly extend the range of applications of Elec Sus , the most important of which is support for non-axial magnetic fields i.

Supporting this change requires a much more general approach to light propagation in the system, which we have now implemented. We exemplify many of these new applications by comparing Elec Sus to experimental data. In addition, we have developed a graphical user interface front-end which makes the program much more accessible, and have improved on several other minor areas of the program structure.

Strategies for sustainable households. The Sus House project. The international Sus House project has developed a strategy design approach that can contribute to major factor 20 efficiency improvements in household activities. Stakeholder workshops have been held to develop scenarios for a sustainable future These scenarios were evaluated on their economic consequences, environmental impacts and consumer acceptance.

This Research Note reviews the Sus House approach and its results. It ends with suggestions for further steps to be taken. A Sus House CD-ROM is available, containing all final project reports as well as a scenario presentation in the form of images and short texts. Algunas galaxias exhiben estructuras poligonales. Ya tienen demasiado que hacer sin implicarse en temas que son irrelevantes para su trabajo. El granito se descompone formando suelos bien drenados y ricos en nutrientes minerales, haciendo ideales para la agricultura zonas como California.

El viento y la lluvia se estrellan contra las formaciones como insectos contra un parabrisas, pero eso no significa que el tiempo o los insectos creen las formas. El proceso es similar al de un mecanismo de plasma denso en un laboratorio. Los portadores de carga se disipan y a grandes distancias vuelven al plano ecuatorial de la galaxia.

Caen en espiral hacia el centro, formando de nuevo filamentos que aparecen como brazos espirales, completando de esta manera el circuito. Investigadores han dejado resbalar bloques de hielo seco por dunas de arena y han replicado algunos de los rasgos de los largos barrancos longitudinales de las laderas marcianas. No hay RFM y no hay materia aceleradora antigravitatoria en el cosmos distante hasta casi la velocidad de la luz. Las corrientes de Birkeland que fluyen por el plasma en filamentos de mega-parsec encienden las estrellas y forman remolinos giratorios hasta donde nuestros instrumentos alcanzan a ver.

Por tanto, su recuento de galaxias se queda probablemente corto por un factor significativo. La luz infrarroja es menos absorbida por gas y polvo intermedio. Los iones comprimidos forman esferas de plasma refulgente, algunas en modo arco, otras en modo brillo y otras con variabilidad entre ambos estados. El monolito Murray se parece a la estructura de dolerita de Tasmania llamada Craddle Mountain. Otro tiene forma de herradura como el Massif des Bauges en Francia. Parece posible que las interacciones de plasma con la Tierra y otros cuerpos con carga del espacio o el impacto sobre nuestra biosfera de chorros de iones pudieran alterar los cambios elementales que se usan para datar rocas.

El plasma es descrito a menudo como el cuarto estado de la materia. Cuando la tierra y el mar cambiaron de sitio, las fumarolas fosilizadas se localizaron en el desierto. Ahora deben alzar los ojos hacia el cielo y considerar el origen de lo que ven en los riscos y precipicios. Los quasares de alto desplazamiento al rojo, como se ha comentado previamente, aparecen en alineamientos axiales con galaxias que poseen un desplazamiento al rojo sustancialmente menor.

Algunas de las observaciones muestran pares de quasars eyectados en direcciones opuestas desde galaxias activas. Dentro del material brillante del brazo hay otros dos objetos, cada uno con desplazamientos al rojo diferentes de la pareja de galaxias. La edad actualmente estimada para el universo es de Sin embargo hay un problema asociado con esa cifra.

Esto es conocido como horizonte universal o radio de Hubble.

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Neptuno es un planeta masivo, con una velocidad de escape cercana a los Se ha demostrado que los diversos efectos en cometas, por ejemplo, se deben a descargas de plasma. Conocidos como meteoritos HED, son lava cristalizada compuesta de howardita, eucrita y diogenita. La diogenita es una mezcla del grupo piroxeno y varios feldespatos. Igual que los gases en algunos meteoritos muestran que proceden de Marte, los meteoritos HED son identificados con Vesta. Ver es creer. Son eyectados. Neptuno y el resto de sus lunas rotan todos en sentido contrario a las agujas del reloj.

La presencia de agua helada implica que la se produjo. La unidad de medida de longitud debe ser considerada. Depende del valor de la unidad antes de que la pregunta tenga sentido. Se mueve despacio. Se mueve desde la fuente a la carga y luego se aleja del circuito como luz o calor, para no volver.

Sin embargo viaja por fuera de los cables a velocidades cercanas a la velocidad de la luz. Y entre los manihiki norte de las islas Cook, Polinesia , lo que perdura en su recuerdo es la antigua rapidez del movimiento del sol:. Los cambios en el movimiento orbital de la Tierra es lo primero que viene a la mente. La extrema complejidad de estos escenarios es casi prohibitiva. En el parque nacional del Suroeste en Tasmania hay una gran estructura circular. No es el tipo de roca adecuada. Y eso tampoco explica la forma circular.

Es exhilarante descubrir dos nuevas ideas que interaccionan para revelar oportunidades previamente inimaginables. Las cargas intermedias en el filamento siguen trayectorias helicoidales proporcionales. Incluso en la actualidad, las personas con vista aguda que contempla tormentas bajas en el horizonte a gran distancia o en una noche clara y oscura son capaces en ocasiones de ver sprites sobre la cubierta de nubes. La electricidad hace que el plasma en el interior del tubo brille. En un experimento en Vemassat Laboratories, el Dr. Cuando el basalto se calienta emite gases que hacen que su color cambie de oscuro a claro.

Eso significa una gran carga en superficie. Por ejemplo, las corrientes fluyen en el plasma sobre la superficie y son inducidas en la superficie del planeta. Al final el terreno se convierte en una red de socavones, arroyos hundidos y manantiales. Se calcula que hay hasta 1. El hijo de Urano era uno de los gigantes o titanes que fueron vencidos por Zeus y sus aliados. Encelado fue descubierto por William Herschel en El conducto central tiene una profundidad de metro.

Los cauces tienen lados paralelos y una anchura constante a lo largo de su recorrido. Se supone que existe una estrella de neutrones en el centro de la nebulosa Cas A. Los rayos azules se suponen neutrinos que escapan de la estrella de neutrones, provocando su enfriamiento y formando un superfluido de neutrones. En el laboratorio se pueden crear efectos que replican los que se observan en el espacio.

Los efectos gravitatorios no son escalables en el laboratorio. Como establece el punto de vista de consenso, eso hace posible usar el sol como forma de calibrar lecturas de otras estrellas. Al comparar estas oscilaciones con las lecturas de brillo de miles de otras estrellas, se espera que el Kepler ofrezca pistas sobre la edad de las estrellas de nuestra galaxia y de otras galaxias. Los rayos brillantes de Rea parecen haber sido creados de la misma manera. A pesar de lo que parecen explosiones lo bastante grandes como para sacudir el planeta, no hay fragmentos ni grandes rocas o bloques de piedra que debieran haber salido de los grandes agujeros.

Una nueva mirada a vecinos cercanos — Segunda parte. En otras galaxias se ven estructuras similares. NGC , por ejemplo. Esto es similar a lo que se observa en las estrellas. Las ruedas del cambio giran lentamente, pero giran. Una nueva mirada a vecinos cercanos — Primera parte. Los agujeros negros super masivos fueron las semillas que reunieron gravitacionalmente gas, polvo y estrellas circundantes para formar los diversos tipos y formas de galaxias. Las galaxias se formaron a lo largo de los filamentos, y esto explica las cadenas de galaxias que parecen perlas de un collar.

Donde hay perfiles rotacionales que no pueden ser explicados mediante la materia visible, se invocan halos de materia oscura para disponer de gravedad. En esencia, una galaxia se comporta como un motor homopolar impulsado por la variable densidad de corriente que recibe. Before and after this marriage she was apparently in love with Henry Pierce, an attorney's clerk and a friend of her first husband 'Alexis' in her poems.

Evidence has recently come to light that as early as the Egertons were involved in an acrimonious divorce suit, she accusing him of cruelty, he accusing her of desertion, but the divorce seems not to have been granted. She had been friendly, but later quarrelled, with Delariviere Manley, who gave a remarkable and no doubt heightened account of the Egerton marriage in her Secret Memoirs Manley's limited sympathy is reserved for her husband, 'an old thin raw-bon'd Priest', who is persecuted by his hysterical and violent wife 'a She-Devil incarnate'. Such is his punishment for marrying a younger wife, 'when I had Children grown up to keep my House, and administer comfortably to my Necessities'.

With a good estate and income, he could keep a coach and four servants for her, but her violence had driven away his children, and 'Then she's in love with all the handsome Fellows she sees; but her Face, I believe, protects her Chastity As for her incomprehensible verse, 'Deliver me from a poetical wife She rumbles in Verses of Atomes, Artic and Antartic, of Gods, and of strange things, foreign to all fashionable Understanding'.

In her Memoirs of Europe , the relentless Manley referred to her again as the 'shockingly ugly' woman who had presented the literary patron Julius Sergius the Earl of Halifax with 'the Labours of her Brain'. The unhappy marriage was evidently notorious: it was ridiculed again, together with her poetic ambitions, in The Butter'd Apple-Pye , a broadsheet verse satire.

She had no children and died in February her husband having died in In the course of some correspondence about her identity in the Gentleman's Magazine in , one 'M. Etiquetas: Literatura , Feminismo , Egerton. Etiquetas: Barcos , Fotos , Mar. Humanism in the theatre. English dramatic writing produced no masterpiece in this period, yet felt its way along the most various paths, and acquired an experience without which the Elizabethan drama would have been impossible. It partook both of the past which had survived, and of the future for which it was preparing.

The miracle plays were performed almost till the end, although, since the Protestants looked askance at them, they gradually lost ground, and the cycles of the different towns disappeared, one after another, as the Reformation advanced. In any case, these plays did no more than prolong their existence. They no longer changed: they merely persisted in the form which they had assumed in the fifteenth century.

The interesting point is that they still had a large public, and that dramatic innovations did not supplant them, but were introduced side by side with them. Moralities, on the other hand, did not only continue to be much appreciated, but were also modified and renewed in accordance with circumstances. Those produced until about were Christian and no more. They may be said to have had neither place nor date. But the moralities came to be impregnated with the spirit of the Renascence or the Reformation. Two distinct groups of them appeared, which voiced respectively humanist and Protestant tendencies.

Tedious though was the morality Magnificence , written by John Skelton about , it yet showed a new standpoint. It did not merely, like its predecessors, represent the struggle between Heaven and Hell. Skelton, who seems to have aimed at warning Henry VIII against mad extravagance, does not deal wih the great problem of Christianity, but enforces a particular moral lesson.

His hero, Magnificence, is brought to ruin by a succession of bad counsellors, and would kill himself were he not saved by the intervention of Good Hope, Circumspection, Perseverance, and others. This is the first specimen of a laicized morality. In its two successors the spirit of the Renascence is much more clearly marked. They are inspired neither by the usual moral lesson nor by religious faith, but by the love of knowledge. Manifestly they were born in academic circles in which knowledge is the ideal goal and in which the devil is named Ignorance.

The morality of The Four Elements , which was printed in , and of which fragments are extant, is very curious. It is contemporary with More's Utopia. Like More, the author is under the influence of the tales of Amerigo Vespucci. He teaches geography, cosmography, almost all the sciences known to his time. The Messenger, who speaks the prologue, discourses gravely on science and deplores the lack of learned books in England and English. Only frivolous books, he says, are written in English, and only the rich man is esteeemed wise in England. Yet true wisdom is in knowledge, in knowledge of God who can be known only by His works, and therefore in the study of nature.

The play leaves theology on one side. The subject is the instruction of the child Humanity, son of 'Natura Naturata'. He is entrusted to Studious Desire, but his progress is interrupted by the temptations of Sensual Appetite, who takes him to the tavern. The child has interpreted ill the works of Nature, who bade him use his senses. Only at the end of the play does he again show a taste for knowledge. Sensual Appetite here plays the part of clown, as does his friend Ignorance, who detests philosophers and astronomers and boasts of his own power, saying that he is mightier than the king of England or France, that he is the greatest lord alive, and has more than five hundred thousand servants in England.

He addresses the audience directly:. A geography lesson produces a burst of patriotism.

Studious Desire instructs Humanity that the earth is round; Experience diplays a globe, enumerates the countries she has visited, dwelling on America, and deplores that Spaniards, Portuguese, and Frenchmen have gone farther than Englishmen:. She would have wished all these countries to have been civilized and converted to religion by the English.

Reason, after the manner of a highborn father, wishes to marry his daughter Science to Human Wit, the son of Nature. It matters not that Wit is neither well born nor rich:. But Wit for long lacks wisdom. In his youthful eagerness to know he imprudently attacks Tediousness and is saved only just in time by Honest Recreation. She, unfortunately, does not satisfy him and he leaves her and falls asleep in the lap of Idleness. Without knowing it he has become a fiool, when, at last, he reaches the presence of Science, who repels him for an ignorant suitor. But in a mirror he sees himself as he is and is disgusted.

After a term of chastisement and hard labour, he again attacks Tediousness, this time with a good sword, and slays him. Science, who has witnessed the encounter from the summit of Mount Parnassus, now accepts her destined spouse, first warning him:. This is an ingenious and well-arranged morality, which is pervaded by strong rationalist conviction.

It resumes the spirit of the Renascence well, and bears witness to the appetite for knowledge which caused schools and colleges to be born in the land. The comic element is supplied by an episode in which Ignorance is heard blundering thorugh a lesson in the alphabet given him by his mother, Idleness The mistress, who represents the old somnolent methods of teaching, is no less ridiculous than her idiot pupil.

The Reformation on the Stage. John Bale. Very early, the Reformation attempted to take possession of the morality and use it for its own ends. Passion, inevitably unjust and sometimes brutal, gave life to more than one Protestant morality play. They appeared in the north and in the south. The first in date was written by the Scot Sir David Lyndsay, whose reforming zeal we have already seen. His Satire of the Thrie Estaitis was played in at Linlithgow before the King of Scotland, the bishops, and the people. It is as political as it is religious.

The three estates are the nobles, the clergy, and the merchants, and all three are pilloried together, censured for giving too much ear to Sensuality, Wantonness, and Deceit. The grieevances which John the Common Weal, the man of the people, has against them are just enough, and it is pleasant to see him obtain the needed reforms with the help of Good Counsel and Correction. Lyndsay's special attack is against the Church.

Dame Veritie, who desires access to the king, finds her way barred by the lords spiritual, scared at her advent. An abbot wishes to cast her into prison, and a parson recommends that she be put to death, under cover of the king's momentary subjection to Dame Sensuality. The same priest summons Veritie to declare by what right she is addicted to preaching. He threatens her with the stake, and when she refuses to retract, Flattery, a monk, exclaims:.

In a comic interlude the social satire is dominant. Pauper recounts his misadventures. He used to keep his old father and mother by his labour and owned a mare and three cows. When his partents died the landlord took the mare as a heriot; the vicar seized the best cow at his father's, and the second best at his mother's, death.

The third cow went the same way when his wife died of grief, when also the vicar's clerk bore off the uppermost clothes of the family. There is nothing left for Pauper to do but to beg. The parish priest has refused him Easter communion because he no longer pays tithes. He has only one farthing in his pocket with which to plead for justice. A Pardoner arrives, boasting of his relics and insulting the New Testament, which sells to the injury of his trade.

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With his last farthing Pauper buys a thousand years' indulgence, but when he asks to see his purchase a fight ensues and the relics fall into the gutter. These passages give an idea of the violence of the attack and of the life it imparted to the morality. The Protestants of England were no less ferocious. Their most famous dramatic champion was Bishop John Bale , who even attempted to turn the fixed and traditional miracle plays to Protestant uses.

Under the name of tragedies, comedies, and interludes, he wrote scenes in harmony with the reformed faith, taking them from sacred history and principally from the life of Christ. But he gave the chief of his efforts to morality plays, combined with history which was sometimes contermporary, as in his Proditiones Papistarum and Super utroque Regis Coniugio. The most interesting of his dramatic essays is, however, his allegory King Johan , in which he recasts history to his liking. He makes of the deplorable John a great king, hated and calumniated by the clergy.

For John had been bold enough to rebel against Rome, and all his faults, crimes, and cowardice are therefore wiped out. He is represented as a man misunderstood, a noble victim, the first Protestant. This play merits a particular place in the history of the theatre. It is the half-open chrysalis, the morality play whence the historical drama is about to emerge.

Real and allegorical characters are mingled in it. John is betrayed by Dissimulation and threatened by Sedition. Moreover, abstractions are changed in the course of the play into living beings. This is a travesty of history and yet history, and, through the medium of another and Elizabethan work on the same reign, it was to leave its mark on Shakespeare's King John. Heywood's Interludes. Two of them were printed as early as Heywood, a good Catholic and the friend of Thomas More, wrote in the medieval tradition, in the spirit of the fabliaux which certainly did not spare churchmen.

He was original in avoiding morality plays and in having no purpose but to amuse. His interludes are mere comic dialogues, scenes from fabliaux sometimes modelled on the French. But he is of his own nation almost the only representative of this school of dramatic writing. The four interludes which he certainly wroter are controversies in burlesque. In Witty and Witless, James and John discuss whether it is better to be a fool or a wise man; they are echoing the Dyalogue du fol et du sage performed at the court of Louis XII.

In Love, an unloved lover and his unloving mistress seek, each of them, to prove himself the more miserable, while another couple, a lover beloved and a man who is neither loved nor a lover, dispute the right to be called the happier. In The Play of the Weather, ten characters demand of Jupiter that he sends them weather suited to their needs or desires, and the god finally decides that each of them shall be satisfied in turn. The pilgrim declares that in all his travels he has never seen a woman lose patience, and the others themselves allow that he has won the prize.

These plays are, it is seen, without plot, but Heywood puts life into his characters and expresses himself with a drollery which recalls Chaucer. There is a grotesque description of hell equal to the Sompnour's in the prologue to his Tale. Good humour reigns everywhere. Yet these writings are hardly dramas. If, as is probable, Heywood also wrote The Pardoner and the Friar and Johan Johan, the story of a husband deceived by his wife, Tyb, and Sir Johan, the parish priest, he came much nearer to farce in them.

Their characters and incidents conform excellently to the old comic tradition, and their dramatization could not be more vigorous. Not, that is, unless the comic monologue Thersites, played about , may be ascribed to him on the evidence of style. Its subject and its allusions are loaded with classical reminiscences. Antiquity supplied the material for this farce, which had many analogies with the Franc Archer de Bagnolet, and which brougth the braggart on to the English stage for the first time. The English playwright has kept only the first four of the sixteen acts of his original.

He has changed the long crowded drama with its tragic conclusion to a romantic comedy having a moral and cheerful ending. The character of the procuress Celestina, the descendant of Dame Siriz and the prototype of Macette, is indeed the same in the English as in the original version, but before she throws Meliboea into the arms of Calisto, the girl's father intervenes to save her on the brink of the abyss. Thus the didactic instinct cuts short a romantic drama.

Progress of the theatre after There was no further change in the first half of the century, but from onwards innovations came thick and fast. It is about the middle of the century that the formation of troops of professional players, in addition to the amateurs who performed in the miracle plays, can be clearly traced. In more than one school and more than one college of the universities there were performances especially of classical pieces, but usually they were written by the masters and acted by the pupils.

But the people of the provinces as well as those of the capital wished to be amused, and they were no longer satisfied with the miracle plays and moralities. Interludes, otherwise farces, were in great demand and were provided by professional actors. These were at first poor wretches, always under suspicion, who were harried by the authorities as rogues and vagabonds. Before they could be left in piece they had to obtain the patronage of a magnate, a baron at the least. There was no lack of such willing protectors who appreciated their services. The first company to obtain letters patent was Leicester's, in , but it was not the first to stroll about the country.

In London the players were at the mercy of the civic authorities, who made thir life hard, less perhaps from Puritan prejudice, than because the highly popular darmatic performances constantly gave occasion for disorder, and by attracting a great concourse of spectators might spread the plague, during these years in which it was endemic. Against the persecuting lord mayor the actors invoked the help of the queen and the magnates. Their chief plea was that they contributed to the queen's pleasure and had need of practice in order to be worthy to play before her.

The Privy Council supported them against the City. They first played in London in the courtyards of certain inns. Then, to escape constant annoyance and prohibitions, some of them built, in , their first theatre , outside the city but on its confines, on waste land in Shoreditch. London meanwhile enjoyed more select peformances. The Inns of Court were a home for the drama of classical tendencies, and a connecting link between the stage of the uniersities and that of the popular theatres. That the queen might be ensured a supply of worthy actors, the choristers or children of the Chapel Royal were trained to perform plays, both those specially written for them by the master of the Chapel Royal, and others.

These bos, both singers and actors, performed for the public as well as for the court, and were for some fifty years the dreaded competitors of adult and professional actors. Their example was followed by other London schools—St. Paul's, Westminster, and Merchant Taylors'—where the most gifted pupils were trained to act and were proud to contribute to the royal diversions.

Nothing, nor Puritan disapproval nor civic alarms, could stem the growing passion for the theatre which was felt by the whole nation—nobles, burghers, and people. Instead of making the Westminster boys act Plautus, Udall wrote for them, according to the laws of the classical drama, a comedy in five acts, inspired by Latin comic plays.

He borrowed some characters from the ancients, but took others straight from English life.


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The hero Ralph recalls the Pyrgopolinices and Therapontigone of Plautus, is swaggering, stupid, and fatuous as they. Since the play is intended for schoolboys, Udall does not make him a libertine as in the Latin original, but a man really in love, even sentimentally and tearfully amorous. As he endows him also with avarice, so that the keeps an eye on his lady's dowry, the character is confused and lacks versimilitude. Side by side with Ralph appears Merrygreek, a parasite from ancient comedy, but one who plays his part for fun rather than self-interest.

It is the parasite about to be changed into Mascarille or Scapin. Besides these imitated characters, ther is the heroine, Dame Constance, who is courted by Ralph, a worthy and chaste matron annoyed by an impudent fool. When she knows that she has been slandered to the merchant Goodrich, whom she loves honourably, she sends up to heaven a fine prayer for protection.

About her are her maids, one young and the other old, real English servans painted with merry realism. In fact, Udall acccpts aid from Plautus, but has no superstitious veneration for him. His aim, like that of his contemporary Rabelais, is to ause, 'for mirth,' he says, 'prolongeth life and causes health'. The principal scenes are that in which Merrygreek reads to Constance a love-letter from Ralph and makes it insulting by revising the punctuation, and that in which the roisterer besieges his mistress's house and, in spite of a warlike disguise—Merrygreek has put a hencoop of his head for a helmet—is routed by the dame and his maids.

Udall may have had a moral purpose—he may have desired to satirize vainglory—but his chief aim was to cause innocent laughter. He has not only produced a frace on the classical model, but has also constructed a plot without expelling gaiety. His verse is stiff and stilted, but his language has savour. There is even more go in a farce performed about the same time in Christ's College, Cambridge. This takes nothing from antiquity except its distribution in acts and its regular consturction. Subject and characters are completely English and completely rustic. Gammer Gurton's Needle , which was printed in , was written by a Master of Arts of the University, reputedly by a certain William Stevenson.

Gammer Gurton loses the needle with which she sews breeches for her servant Hodge. The good-for-nothing Diccon persuades her that it has been stolen by her neighbour, Mother Chatte, and quarrels and recriminations follow. The whole village is turned upside down. The parson intervenes, and Diccon takes advantage of the confusion to steal a ham.

Finally Hodge utters a scream and the needl is found sticking in his breeches, and all is thereupon discovered. This story is not refined, but the dialogue has go; the rhymed verse, nimbler than Udall's, lends itself to comic effects; the realism is not adulterated by borrowings from antiquity, and there is an unsurpassable drinking-song, 'Back and side go bare. They had had a place in the miracle plays. The novelty was all in the isolation of the comic element. It was in tragedy that the national theatre and the theatre of angiquity came together most significantly. Like the Italians and the French, the English were far more inspired by Seneca than by the Greek theatre.

He was a somewhat dangerous model, for his were oratorical tragedies, and it is a moot poin whether they were written to be staged or to be declaimed. He used again the mythological themes of the Greeks, but used them, like a romantic, neither for their national sentiment nor because he believed in their legends, but for their brilliancy. He knew nothing of dramatic movement, and there is no action in his tragedies. His characters rarely voice real sentiments: their speeches abound with maxims; thir language is emphatic and lyrical, full of choice metaphors which show great force of oratory and real subtlety in analysis.

Long monologues alternate with passages made up of short question and answers, each crowded into a single line. Seneca's political allusions are frequent and he often attacks tyrants. Most of these characteristics recur in the work of his imitators, but what they have taken from him by preference is certain of his expedients, sometimes his choruses and more often his phantom who has the duty of explanation. Above all, they have been impressed by the atrocity of his subjects, and have learnt from him to associate the idea of tragedy with that of crime, nearly always monstrous crime.

Agamemnnon and the horrors of the Atrides, Oedipus, Medea, Phaedra, and, above all, Thyestes and the horrible banquet of Atreus, led to tragedies of atrocious vengeance like Titus Andronicus and The Duchess of Malfi. Five of Seneca's plays were separately translated and perhaps performed between and , before the translation, published in , of his Ten Tragedies. As early as Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton produced the tragedy of Gorboduc, or Ferrex and Porrex , which was imitated from him although it had an independence.

Sackville was the author of the Induction to the Mirror for Magistrates and the best poet of his day, and both playwrights were lawyers and politicians. Their tragedy was given in one of the Inns of Court. Seneca's influence is apparent in the uninterrupted seriousness of the play; in the sustained nobility of the style; in the almost abstract character of the scenes, where all the action falls to messengers and to confidants, male and female; in the abundant speechifying, and also in the sanguinary plot.

King Gorboduc abdicates in favour of his two sons, Ferrex and Porrex, who, like another Eteocles and Polynices, at once take up arms against each other. Ferrex is slain, and their mother, whose favourite son he is, kills her other son, Porrex, the slayer. The people are angered, rise in rebellion, and put father and mother to death. Anarchy, usurpation, and the death of the usurper ensue. In spite of these piled-up crimes, the play is cold and lacks movement and drama. Its authors were better fitted to express ideas than to put life in characters. They had a didactic aim, for they wished to depict the misfortunes of a kingdom to which the succession is uncertain—a constant preoccupation of Elizabethan politicians—and the horrors which accompany civil war and result from anarchy.

Their tragedy would assuredly have interested Corneille had he known it. It is Seneca after the style of lawyers and members of Parliament. The authors have a certain originality because of the didactic sense which, in spite of everything, connects Gorboduc with the moralities, and because of the patriotic feeling which made these young humanists choose thir subject from the annals of Great Britain, as the subject of King Lear, with which it has analogies, was thence taken. They stand less apart from the national tradition than at first appears from their superficial resemblance to Seneca, that is, from their use of choruses, and their cult of gloomy effects combined with their rejection of the spectacular.

But the symmetrical plan of their scenes—Ferrex and Porrex consulting thir good and their bad adviser in turn, advisers who are almost as much abstractions as vice and virtue—betrays an artless simplification inspired by morality plays rather than Seneca. That the moral of the play may be the more distinct, and perhaps also that spectators unused to such heights of seriousness may be diverted, each act opens with a pantomime in which the lesson it conveys is illustrated.

This is therefore no mere academic tragedy. It is a work which stands first in a line of succession, the first unrelieved English tragedy and therefore the play which led to Kyd's Spanish Tragedie. It brought the idea of fatality on to the English stage. In spite of its great defects it established a high artistic level.

Finally, it was the first play in which the blank verse formed under the influence of antiquity was used. The metre which Surrey had invented for his translation of Virgil served Sackville and Norton when they emulated Seneca. They handled it forcibly and with dignity, but were incapable of giving it the ductility necessary for the stage.

Twenty-five years were to pass before their inititative was followed triumphantly. Their merit is that, though they did not reach success, they made the attempt. Round this play there were many tentative efforts and importations from abroad, all of them pointing English drama along different paths. It has been possible to group several plays under the title 'Prodigal Son Series'. This time the prototype was a work by a Neo-Latinist, the Dutchman Gnaphaeus whose Acolastus had been translated by John Palsgrave in He was imitated with great talent and with original additions in Misogonus, performed about The author, uncertainly identified as Thomas Richardes, wrote a strongly constructed and well-arranged play, enlivened by frankly comic scenes.

The morality Nice Wanton, which appearedabout , connects with the same series and is a commentary on the adage 'Spare the rod and spoil the child'. Geroge Gascoigne, ever in quest of novelty, is the best witness to the diversity of the influences operative at this time and of the sources whence plays derived. Besides T he Glass of Government he wrote The Supposes, a prose translation of a comedy by Ariosto, and Jocasta , a tragedy which purports to be a translation from the Phoenissae of Euripides, but is in truth a rearrangement of the Greek tragedy by the Italian Lodovico Dolce.

Italian influence is yet more apparent in a free adaptation by an unknown author of the Florentine Grazzini's La Spiritata , under the title The Bugbears , in which a son obtains three thousand crowns from a misely father by frightening him at night with noises attributed to ghosts, and is thus enabled to marry his mistress. Other plays inspired by Italian comedies also appeared, but only their names have been preserved. But there is a group of plays then acted which were not adaptations but truly English, and although they have weaknesses and an element of the ridiculous, they reveal the national drama as already almost a reality.

They conform to that broad type which was finally adopted for drama and was followed by Shakespeare and his contemporaries. Dramas of this type still partook of the morality plays, at least in right of certain characters, but they tended more and more to stage the scenes of an episode of history or a romance, and they were wont to relieve tragedy or romance by scenes of broad comedy, more or less skilfully related to the principal plot, thus observing the great tradition of the miracle plays. The most striking of these plays are Appius and Virginia ?

Three are obviously connected with the moralities. Like Bale's King John, they mingle abstractions and real characters. Appius and Virginia, of which the ridiculously emphatic language remained dear to Shakespeare's Pistol—'The furies fell of Limbo lake'—dramatizes the well-known story of Virginius, who slew his daughter to save her from the wicked judge Appius.

Appius is impelled by the vice called Haphazard, and Conscience and Justice appear to him. Homely and comic scenes alternate with tragedy. There is a curious mingling of all the earlier dramatic elements with a classic theme. Cambyses is yet more significant. The marked and yet artless bad taste of the style has thrown doubt on this authorship, yet the play shows signs of having been written by a humanist, for Herodotus is followed step by step, and there are many mythological reminiscences.

The full title, as printed, is very characteristic. A Lamentable Tragedie mixed full of plesant mirth containing the Life of Cambises, King of Persia, from the beginning of his kingdome unto his Death, his one good deede of execution, after that, many wicked deedes and tyrannous murders committed by and thorugh him, and last of all, his odious death by Gods Justice appointed. Preston's method is that of the authors of the miracle plays. He cuts up the story from Herodotus into scenes as they did the Scriptures.

Not the whole fo the story is in his play, but nearly all of it. He makes no attempt to weave a plot or by simplification to give unity to characters. Cambyses is represented in all the diversity and chronological incoherence of his actions. He begins well by ordering the execution of a prevaricating delegate, then, impulsive undr the influence of wine, commits a series of atrocious crimes, almost all of them instantanously, and passes immediatly from the exaltation of love at first sight to passionate and murderous fury against his new-made bride.