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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Model Italy. Banca, giro, storno. Wirtschaft und Landwirtschaft. Versailles Model. Enlightenment Philosophy. The early eighteenth century witnessed the birth in England of the "Spectators", a journalistic and literary genre that developed in the wake of the Glorious Revolution Beginning in these newspapers and their fictitious narrators would influence the entire European continent.

In the Anglophone world the "Spectators" were also called "periodical essays", whereas in German-speaking lands they were known as "Moralische Wochenschriften" or, in a re-translation into English, as "Moral Weeklies". These periodicals constituted a new public medium, aimed especially at a bourgeois audience and responsible for a brisk discursive transfer.

They thus not only added further dimensions to public communication, but they also contributed decisively to the development of modern narrative forms. The Spectator genre owed its development in England to the political and cultural events of the late 17th century. In the reigns of William III of Orange — and his successor Queen Anne Stuart — , new forms of democratic sensibility emerged that diverged from absolutist models and laid the foundation for the genesis and promotion of public communication.

England had long since set its own course, one that was critically opposed to the traditional social forms of the European continent. Work in Parliament laid the foundation for English law, and new public structures arose; both processes were closely connected to the development of medial communication. The reigning moral code became that of the sober and pragmatic Protestant worldview, which underlay the national stereotype of the "practical Englishman". The philosopher John Locke — , the founder of modern epistemology and the critique of knowledge, gladly returned to England after William ascended the throne With his works An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Some Thoughts Concerning Education he contributed decisively to both the reflection on the process of social renewal and the communication of knowledge in the modern sense.

The time was slowly arriving for the successful English model to be exported to the European continent. Philosophy was joined by freedom of the press, introduced in , in promoting the notion of fairness and tolerance. This brought with it a trend towards liberalization that strengthened the middle class's sense of itself, giving rise to an appreciable feeling that change was in the air.

At that time the gentry set the tone in English society, and its ideal of the gentleman served as the model for the emerging bourgeoisie, especially in the capital city of London. Critical observers, however, found fault with this code of behaviour, claiming that it was otiose, morally nonchalant and constituted a playing field for the increasing depravity of culture. At the turn of the century, numerous cries were heard for the comprehensive reform of morals and behavioural patterns. Men of letters fruitfully joined forces with journalists at the inauguration of this "Augustan Age" — Jonathan Swift — , Daniel Defoe — , Joseph Addison — [ ] and Richard Steele — [ ] were active as both magazine authors and literary writers.

Parallel to the advent of new journalistic forms, the coffee house took on an important role, acting more and more as the setting for the public exchange of ideas and aiding the development of its visitors' facility for discussion. The literary roots of the periodical essays can be found partly in French culture, which at the time still served as the model for wide social circles in Europe. Nicolas Boileau's — writings provided access to discussions about the reception of the hegemonic textual forms of Greek and Roman antiquity.

Michel de Montaigne's — Essais also influenced the development of the Spectators , although the latter departed from the authentic first-person narrator of the French model and vanish behind the mask of a fictional narrator. This was the background for the journalistic enterprise of the Whig Richard Steele, who launched The Tatler. By Isaac Bickerstaff, Esq. The paper ran on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays, the days on which mail was delivered in the countryside. The rhythm suggested by the term "weekly" had not yet been established. It would first come into use in continental imitations, especially in connection with German papers.

Thus a genre was created that in the course of the century would spread all over Europe in hundreds of different periodicals. The distinctive feature of this model lay in the fact that it did not just engage in the didactic moralism typical of Anglican devotional literature but rather presented moral considerations in a new, playful and informal way.

In his first "Spectatorial" enterprise Steele used the persona of Isaac Bickerstaff, a fictional character originally contrived by Jonathan Swift. This imaginary figure was well known in England and especially in London, and thus this first observer of contemporary society was in a certain sense "trustworthy. Many contemporaries might have guessed that Steele was behind the mask, but only in the final issue of the newspaper did the true author identify himself.

Nevertheless, in a letter to the editor Bickerstaff was prompted to continue his intellectual game. A sequel to the project was thus to be expected. Indeed, a few weeks later, on 1 March , the next journal appeared. It was entitled Spectator and was much more sophisticated and complex than its predecessor. The Spectator acted as an anonymous, omnipresent observer who carefully examined conditions in the country. He was supported by a streetwise social club whose debates and raisonnements fascinated contemporary readers.

With its shrewd style, elegant argumentation, and subtle humour, this new paper, on which Steele was again joined by Joseph Addison, exceeded all expectations.

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The extensive inclusion of numerous letters to the editor was part of the Spectator 's basic design. The objectivity and sober-mindedness of its main characters, along with its high capacity for abstraction, would make the Spectator with its issues a prototype for the genre of the moral weeklies. The third and last journalistic prototype was the short-lived magazine The Guardian , which first appeared on 12 March and reached issues.

The septuagenarian Ironside possessed the necessary distance to the individual members of the family to portray their moral character and to interpret their conversations accordingly. Here, too, piety and virtue played a central role, as did the rational upbringing of youth and the observation of private discourse. The periodical essays were characterized by their entertaining portrayal of moralizing contents.

They were published in regular intervals, and after a certain period of time the folios were often collected and reissued in book form. Depending on the journal, they could appear in several editions over decades, sometimes even being printed in different cities. Thanks to their particular entertaining streak, these volumes tended to enjoy high sales. The economic factor could not be separated from "Spectatorial" enterprises. Thus it often happened that the economic success was reflected upon in the writings themselves or that reader reception was explicitly measured.

The valorisation of public communication brought with it the vitality that was essential to early liberal societies. Since reader expectations were always maintained, the regularly appearing issues became an event unto themselves and facilitated a kind of communication that was closely coupled in Luhmann's terms with the differentiation of functional social systems.

This dynamic was all the more idiosyncratic, as the weeklies did not deal with issues of everyday politics but rather with life's basic moral-philosophical questions and thus the same themes tended to recur. Repetition was one of the central traits of the papers, whose articles were self-contained and — with very few exceptions — could be exchanged with one another at will.

The articles' timelessness is the reason that the papers could appear years later in anthologies and continue to be of interest to the inquiring readers of the evolving middle class. The moralizing journalism pioneered by Steele was quick to win an audience and to give rise to adaptive imitations and translations. This type of reception occurred as early as regarding the Tatler itself. Soon after the journal's appearance several related titles hit the market. By Mrs.


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Crackenthorpe, a Lady that knows every thing. The fictional editor Mrs. Crackenthorpe claimed to be a colleague of Bickerstaff and to operate her periodical as a complement to his. The true author of this paper, which ended on 31 March after issues, has still not been identified. As this example shows, the periodical essays and the later weeklies displayed another core trait: they were often aimed at a female audience, such that the first women's magazines on a larger scale can be found in this genre.

The impact could be more or less appreciable depending on the cultural context in which the journal appeared, such as in Italy or Spain. Female voices were often a disguise for male authors, some of whom were Catholic priests. One of the most important traits of the genre was the introduction of fictional authors and editors.

Relying on a masked, anonymous authority like Bickerstaff, Spectator or Ironside allowed the periodical essays to achieve a high degree of aesthetic appeal and to communicate moral arguments and observations. The observers were able to capture and comment on all the communication in their environment unnoticed and could therefore construct a moral code that accommodated bourgeois interests.

Such characters, finally, provided the audience with innovative possibilities for self-identification. A game was developed with the readers, who felt that their own lifestyle was continually being addressed and that they were themselves being challenged. Many weeklies would later adopt this method, an excellent example of which can be seen in the introduction to the Spectator :. This clearly shows the significance of the communicative process between author and reader, in which the author's hidden identity increases the work's playful character.

Richard Squibbs Artful Templar 97 accomplishments by the magnitude of his library. Campbell over a decade later. The mem- bers of the Spectator club esteem him second only to Sir Roger for his good nature and second to none for his learning. This counts for no small amount in the world of The Spectator. True, the Templar spends more time reading literature, history, and the ancient rhetoricians than paying attention to his common law studies.

Chief among these are matters of property ownership and entailment, which lie at the center of English law. Wood adheres to the familiar eigh- teenth-century dichotomy of useless scholasticism, on one side, and prac- tical worldly knowledge, on the other, but he trains this bifurcation spe- cifically on the study of law. Campbell, quoted in Lemmings, Professors, The problem for Wood lies in the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge. The study and practice of law according to Wood should be a largely pragmatic enterprise guided by some very basic maxims gleaned from summary acquaintance with English common law, of the kind to be found in a handbook.

It rather suggests that what Thomas A. At this point in the his- tory of the British periodical essay, the positive relationship between law and literature remains at the level of suggestion. The Templar is neither a profligate like Wilding nor a shiftless idler like the Templars featured in later essay serials. Yet, he is of their milieu. In this he is not so different from the foppish Templars satirized elsewhere in The Specta- tor.

But to say that humanistic learning is valuable on its own terms is not to imply, with Wood, that those terms have no claim on the workaday world of daily life. The Templar practices a way of being that integrates his imaginative reading with less rigorous, more sociable enjoyments in the club, the coffeehouse, the tavern, and the theater.

His foppish ten- dencies—however much Mr. Contemporaries, and readers in subsequent decades, recognized how Addison and Steele meant to socialize humanistic learning and asserted that they enjoyed considerable success in their aim. See esp. S, , , , —69, and — Vinton A. Dearing and Charles E. Beckwith, 2 vols. For Hume, learning becomes produc- tive only insofar as it is diffused among ever-widening circles of men and women. Yet, the essay does more than simply communicate the labors of the scholar in an easily digestible form to the wider public.

That would do little toward bridging the distance between the two worlds. The Templar is manifestly among their number. It rather shifts the jurisdiction of law to another arena. Eugene F. Miller Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, , , hereafter cited parenthetically. Martin Coyle et al. London: Routledge, , , hereafter cited parenthetically. This did not involve a rigid practice of quasi-legal proscription, however. The critic-as-advocate argued special cases and appealed to precedent to carve out new freedoms within the existing body of rules.

The Templar adds to this advocative model of criticism a historical con- sciousness consonant with his civilian understanding of law. Though his sense of history emerges primarily from his literary reading, this does not make his grasp of law any less historical. Ultimately, he sees this imbalance as a mildly unfortu- nate side effect of the undeniable advantages modern commerce bestows upon society.

For the Templar, it represents a cultural catastrophe of the highest order. His turn to history—both political and literary—is therefore a defen- sive reaction to the prevailing drift of modernity. Beyond this, they—like Addison and Steele and the Templar himself—disavowed explicit politics in their writing and meant for their classical mediations to engage the everyday world of public conversation creatively, rather than to castigate it. The Characters; or, Manners of the Age.

Steele here evokes the tradition of the revels at the Inns that had its heyday in the Tudor and Jacobean eras. By the time of The Tatler, however, the revels were little more than a distant memory. See Philip J. Yet, Steele felt that the theater or at least the theater at its best provided an experience of sentimental community making that was essential to the moral prosperity of English society.

Each is the medium by which the orator or actor accomplishes his aim of wrapping up his audience in a moment of shared emotion. My thanks to Mac Pigman for directing me to this reference. Michael G. For other meditations in The Spectator on how awareness of context and propriety in expressing feelings help build community, see S, —81 and — Lawrence E. The Tem- plar, as a well-regarded critic around town, is able to help both the actor and the audience to understand how this connection works. His mastery of the laws of the stage proceeds from his conviction that a wholly suc- cessful dramatic performance gives more than aesthetic pleasure.

It pro- vides a heightened experience of communal potential with possible claims on life outside the theater. When Mr. The Templar realizes that he cannot halt the decline of English law into a mere adjunct to the world of business and commerce, but his training as an advocate in the republic of letters allows him to try to restore in the realm of art the fundamental social ties that modern commerce, and its legal apparatuses, has sundered.

My explanation of how law ideally functions in Augustan literary criti- cism and drama deliberately hews close to the terms employed by the writ- ers of the Tatler and Spectator. This is because the Edinburgh essayists received these English serials as something like self-contained worlds in the form of bound volumes. Members of the Edinburgh Easy Club —15 assumed pseudonyms drawn from the Tatler and Spectator and discussed the London essays at each meeting. Lawrence Stone, 2 vols. Roger A. Mason Edinburgh: Donald, , — Richard Squibbs Artful Templar More than just adaptive readings of the London essay serials prompted this conviction.

The social stature of lawyers in post-Union Scotland gave them unprecedented cultural and civic authority, in the service of which they raised literary work to a position of unique importance. Voluntary asso- ciations like the Easy Club and the Select Society had emerged in the power vacuum that the Act of Union created with its dissolution of the Scot- tish parliament. After many of the most politically active Scottish parliamen- tarians departed for London, the new societies of literati asserted their civic authority in extrapolitical terms.

Looking back on this phenomenon from the early nineteenth century, J. Roger L. Lockhart, quoted ibid. Henry Cockburn, quoted in Sher, Church and University, Mackenzie had earlier spent three years in Lon- don studying the intricacies of English law in preparation for this posi- tion.


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Mackenzie casts the antipathy between business and literary work, conventional in Enlightenment writing by the s, as the product of a culture of law that has lost all touch with its humanistic roots. Yet, the disjunction Mackenzie experiences in his encounter with the English legal system was potentially productive for both legal-philosophi- cal thinking and civic-oriented literary work. Scottish legal thinkers were not alone in registering the impact of commerce on law and legal practice, of course. James Grant Wilson, 2 vols.

New York: Harper, , , hereafter cited parenthetically. O M Brack Jr. Preston Athens: University of Georgia Press, , William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, 4 vols. London: Strahan, , Richard Squibbs Artful Templar based commerce head on. Both Blackstone and his Scottish contempo- raries pointed to equity as the legal procedure best suited to the needs of modern commerce. The transforma- tion of equity from the status of a legal corrective to a guiding force in Brit- ish jurisprudence seems, in hindsight, almost inevitable.

The legal writings of Lord Kames and John Millar deal extensively with equity. They were responding primarily to the conceptual alterations of property that credit-based commerce had wrought since the end of the seventeenth century. Even an early apostle of modern commerce like Daniel Defoe viewed credit economies with trepidation because they destabilized traditional indices of value, like actual property in land. Daniel Defoe, Review 6, no.

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Harlow, U. Oxford Historical Monographs. New York: Oxford U. Press; Oxford: Clarendon, Barker, Hannah, and Elaine Chalus eds. New York: Longman, Barker, Hannah, and David Vincent eds. Rochester, NY; Woodbridge, U.

"Such Opinions Cannot Cohere": Swift's Inwardness

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Edited by Giancarlo Roversi. Introduction by Aldo Berselli. Casalecchio di Reno, Bologna: Grafis, Bellocchi, Ugo. Bibliografia del giornalismo italiano. Rome: Centro di Documentazione Giornalistica, Bender, Wolfgang F. Theaterperiodika des Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Munich: Saur, Benhamou, Paul. Benhamou, Reed. Berglund, Lisa. DAI , 56 , A. Bergman, Hans. Philadelphia: Temple U. Berkvens-Stevelinck, Christiane, and Jeroom Vercruysse eds.

Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, Oxford: Voltaire Foundation at the Taylor Institution, Berry, Helen. Bertaud, Jean-Paul. Beyrer, Klaus, and Martin Dallmeier eds. Als die Post noch Zeitung machte: Eine Pressegeschichte. Giessen: Anabas; Deutschen Postmuseums, Most essays treat the history of the periodical press, esp. Black, Fiona A. Black, Jeremy. The English Press in the Eighteenth Century. London: Croom Helm, Black, Scott. Blasselle, Bruno, and Laurent Portes eds. Leipzig: U. Leipzig, Boening, John ed. With an introduction by Boening. New York: Garland, Convergences, New York and Paris: Peter Lang, Convergences, 4.

Bern: P. Lang, Bollinger, Ernst. Reihe Werkpapiere, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog, These three volumes on Hamburg contain, he notes, over twice the Hamburg titles in the previous standard work on German serials, that by Joachim Kirchner Entries contain bibliographical descriptions, notes on changes in title, personnel, and publication, and copy locations. Deutsche Presseforschung, Munich and New York: K. Saur, Bonville, Jean de. Sainte-Foy: Les Presse de l'U. Laval, Bost, Hubert.

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Utrecht: HES, Burrows, Simon. French Exile Journalism and European Politics, Royal Historical Society Studies in History, n.

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Woodbridge, Suffolk, U. Burton, Kathryn Mary. Florida State U. DAI , 54 , A. Busch, Hilmar. Edited by Gianni Francioni and Sergio Romagnoli. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, See the review essay by Paola Luciano, "La nuova edizione del Caffe," in La Rassegna della letteratura italiana , , Cannan, Paul D. Cannone, Belinda.

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Cave, Christophe, and Denis Reynaud. Edited by C. Volpilhac-Auger and C. Censer, Jack R. The French Press in the Age of Enlightenment. London and New York: Routledge, Popkin eds. Press and Politics in Pre-Revolutionary France. Berkeley, CA, and London: U. Chaison, Joanne D. Adkins' Index to Early American Periodicals to and the computer-generated indices of American Periodicals of the 's and American Periodicals, prepared by Computer Indexed Systems. Chandler, David. Chapman, Colin R.

An Introduction to Using Newspapers and Periodicals. Birmingham: Federation of Family History Societies, Chevaucherie, Eric. Chisik, Harvey. Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation, Murray's "Journalism as a Career Choice in " ; 4 tables classifying journalists ; and Jack R. Censer's "Robespierre the Journalist" Christians, Clifford G. Ferre, and Mark Fackler. Good News: Social Ethics and the Press.

Chuard, Jean P. Cienfuegos, Beatriz. La Pensadora Gaditana. Edited by Cinta Canteria. Cadiz: U. Clark, Charles E. Clay, Steven. Coleman, S. Anecdotes, faits divers, contes, nouvelles, Actes du Colloque d'Exeter, Septembre New York and Frankfurt am Main: P. Cook, Malcolm, and Annie Jourdan eds. French Studies of the 18th and 19th Centuries, 1. Bern and New York: P. Copeland, David A. Colonial American Newspapers: Character and Content. Newark: U. Westport, CT: Greenwood, Copley, Stephen. Coudart, Laurence. Preface by Michel Vovelle. Paris: L'Harmattan, Craven, Louise.

Crimmins, James E. Curtain, Nancy J. Oxford: Clarendon, Reviewed by L. Cullen in E-C Ireland , 9 , Cuaz, Marco. Le nuove di Francia: L'Immagine della rivoluzione francese nella stampa periodica italiana Gli Archetipi del futuro, 1. Turin: Albert Meynier, Dagnall, H. Dardenne, R. Davies, Simon. Davis, O. Dawson, Janis. De Graef, J. Edited by F. Del Frate, P. Edited by Ivan Tognarini.

Naples: ESL, Delpiano, Patrizia. Rivista Storica Italiana , , De Montluzin, Emily Lorraine. Attributions of Authorship in the European Magazine, The first part of the checklist, covering , appears in Studies in Bibliography , 44 , Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , Studies in British and American Magazines, Lewiston, NY: E.

Mellen, Derry, Stephen. Deutsche Zeitschriften des Olms, []. De Vet, J. Di Fino, Sharon Marie. New York: Peter Lang, Divendal, Joost. Dixon, Diana comp. Dixon, Diana. Paul's Bibliographies, Print Networks. Edited by Peter C. Isaac and Barry McKay. Winchester, U. Dixon, Peter.

Doedijns, Hendrik. De Haegse Mercurius, 7 augustus - 1 februari Duivelshoekreeks, 5. Edited and introduced by Rietje van Vliet. Leiden: Astraea, Doherty, Francis. Domergue, Lucienne. Donatelli, Joseph, and Geoffrey Winthrop-Young. Donoghue, Frank. New York: Routledge, Stanford, CA: Stanford U. Dooley, Brendan Maurice.

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Dooley, Brendan. Downie, J. Corns eds. London, and Portland, OR: F. Cass, Downs, R. London: McFarland, Dawson's summary in Libraries and Culture , 33 , Drotner, Kirsten. English Children and their Magazines, Proceedings of an International Congress at Lyon, June Censer ; and "L'histoire de la presse ancienne: Bilan et perspectives" by Jeremy D.

Popkin Dykstal, Timothy. Dziembowski, Edmond. Eagle, Selwyn. London: British Library, See McLaren, Juliet. Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. Lyell Lectures, Press; Oxford: Clarendon Press, Elias, A. English, Jim. Elyada, Ouzi. Estermann, Alfred ed. Frankfurt am Main: Frankfurter Sparkasse, Ettle, Josef. Ingolstadt: Donau-Kurier, Eveillard, James D. Rennes: Ouest-France, Ezell, Margaret J. Farge, Arlette.

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