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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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English Language Arts Grade 2 4.

23 Missing Link Lesson Plans and Activities (Movie) | Homeschool Super Freak

English Key Stage 2 Year 3 3. Literacy and English Second W. English Level 2 RV. Which set of standards are you looking for? Students will be able to use transitional words and conjunctions to join ideas in writing. Introduction 5 minutes. Invite students to close their eyes and imagine that they are in a car or bus, when suddenly the driver slams on the breaks. What happens?

How do they feel? Explain to the students that they will be learning how to link ideas using conjunctions and transition words in their writing.

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Demonstrate the concept of using conjunctions or other transitional words in a variety of contexts such as the following: for the purpose of contrast but , for a collection of objects and , as a cause because , to show a result so , as a condition if , or to provide additional examples or support in other words. Write these examples on the board or a piece of chart paper for students to reference later in the lesson. Guided Practice 15 minutes. Divide students into groups or pairs.

Distribute six to eight colored pieces of paper two different colors to each group. Tell the students to use one colored strip for the transition word or conjunction and the other color for the content that is connected.

If needed, model the process of writing sentences using the different colors of paper. Give the class several transition words or conjunctions to use as connections in parts of their sentences. For example, the following words can be used: and , but , for , nor , yet , after , although , because , since , though , unless , in other words , for example. Give the students time to create sentences that include the use of transition words or conjunctions. Provide additional prompting or partial sentences if students need extra help. After all students have finished, invite them to share their work and place sentences in the pockets of the pocket chart.

Independent working time 10 minutes. Ask the students to complete the worksheet Linking Up Ideas. Circulate around the room and provide additional prompts as needed. Support: Provide sentence frames or additional details for students who struggle to formulate sentences. Enrichment: Pre-teach correlative conjunctions and have students formulate sentences with multiple conjunctions rather than single conjunctions.

Invite students to explore multiple ways conjunctions and transitions can be used in different contexts. In place of using the board or a pocket chart, display conjunctions or transition words using electronic flashcard tools.


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Use an interactive whiteboard to write part of a sentence and invite students to complete the remainder of the sentence on the interactive whiteboard. Assessment 5 minutes. Give students a pair of ideas and ask them to write a sentence that includes transition words or conjunctions. Allow them to choose which conjunction to use.

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Check to see that students are formulating complete sentences that include appropriate conjunctions and transition words. Review and closing 5 minutes. Pair up students to be connection partners. Call out a transition word or conjunction and ask each pair of students to contribute part of a sentence and to use a conjunction or transition word to construct the whole sentence. Download to read more. Related learning resources. Help your students fill in the missing links! With a focus on transitional words and conjunctions, your students will discover the links that will help them combine ideas in their writing.

Linking Up Ideas. Give your students the opportunity to practice combining ideas using transition words and conjunctions. Linking Ideas with Transition Words. The use of transition words helps make writing smooth and connected. Use this exercise with your students to teach them to use linking words to connect ideas within their writing.

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A social capital perspective would answer the same question by looking not just at what a teacher knows, but also where she gets that knowledge. If she has a problem with a particular student, where does the teacher go for information and advice? Who does she use to sound out her own ideas or assumptions about teaching? Who does she confide in about the gaps in her understanding of her subject knowledge? He found that parochial school students performed better and attributed this to the social links among parents and within neighborhoods, which strengthened student support systems.

In business, social capital has received attention because of its role in creating intellectual resources within a firm.

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Our research shows that social capital is also at work in schools. When a teacher needs information or advice about how to do her job more effectively, she goes to other teachers. She turns far less frequently to the experts and is even less likely to talk to her principal. Further, when the relationships among teachers in a school are characterized by high trust and frequent interaction—that is, when social capital is strong—student achievement scores improve.

Although we have conducted studies of teacher human and social capital in several school districts,I will focus here on a large-scale project conducted in the New York City public schools. Between and , we followed more than 1, fourth- and fifth-grade teachers in a representative sample of elementary schools across the city. We examined one-year changes in student achievement scores in mathematics. We also took into account the economic need, attendance, and special education status of a child, because these factors might affect not just the level of student learning but also the rate of learning growth.

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We examined several facets of teacher human capital, including experience in the classroom and educational attainment, as predictors of student achievement gains. In addition to these more objective indicators, we surveyed more than 1, kindergarten through fifth grade teachers in one New York City subdistrict and asked them to report how competent they felt teaching particular aspects of math. We found that many elementary school teachers reported that they did not like to teach math and did not feel particularly competent at it.

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Teachers in the early grades were particularly uncomfortable, but even in fifth grade, three in 10 teachers expressed little confidence in their preparation for teaching basic math concepts like ratios and fractions. So we asked the teachers whom they talked to when they had questions or needed advice.

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Did they go to other teachers, to the school principal, or to the coaches hired by the district specifically to help them to be better math teachers? And how much did they trust the source of the advice they received? What we found is that in most instances teachers seek advice from one another. Teachers were almost twice as likely to turn to their peers as to the experts designated by the school district, and four times more likely to seek advice from one another than from the principal.

Most striking, students showed higher gains in math achievement when their teachers reported frequent conversations with their peers that centered on math, and when there was a feeling of trust or closeness among teachers. In other words, teacher social capital was a significant predictor of student achievement gains above and beyond teacher experience or ability in the classroom. And the effects of teacher social capital on student performance were powerful.

Each of us sets our own priorities in terms of student outcomes. For example, one teacher might emphasize students knowing all the facts and operational skills. What happens when you combine human and social capital? What if teachers are good at their jobs and also talk to one another frankly and on a regular basis about what they do in math class? If human capital is strong, individual teachers should have the knowledge and skills to do a good job in their own classrooms. But if social capital is also strong, teachers can continually learn from their conversations with one another and become even better at what they do.

Our results in New York City confirmed this expectation. We found that the students of high-ability teachers outperformed those of low-ability teachers, as proponents of human capital approaches to school improvement would predict. More significant were the interactions between human and social capital. Students whose teachers were more able high human capital and also had stronger ties with their peers strong social capital showed the highest gains in math achievement. Conversely, students of teachers with lower teaching ability low human capital and weaker ties with their peers weak social capital showed the lowest achievement gains.

We also found that even low-ability teachers can perform as well as teachers of average ability if they have strong social capital. Strong social capital can go a long way toward off setting any disadvantages students face when their teachers have low human capital. Teachers really see the benefit, and we get 80 to 90 percent voluntary participation. So not only does the teacher who is being observed get peer feedback, but the observing teachers learn new methods or approaches.

With new teachers this is really important, and most are really grateful for the help. One year I had a brand-new teacher who had never really taught before. She spent every one of her prep periods just observing my class and what I taught, and then she would do the same thing in her class a few days later.

This sort of modeling was really helpful to her in developing her own competence and confidence. In presenting these results to education experts, I generally find that there are lots of questions and a great deal of interest. When I present them to teachers, the results immediately resonate and many express relief that their informal work networks are finally being recognized as a valuable resource. When presenting them to school administrators, however, I have faced more skepticism and some unwillingness to let go of long-held beliefs about the need to monitor teachers and set strict guidelines for practice in the classroom.

Such skepticism is captured in the words of Michele Rhee, the ousted superintendent of the Washington, D. According to Ms. Teacher tenure is a topic of intense debate among education policymakers.