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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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The liberty of the blacks was in the balance of fate against the lives of the whites. He could strike that balance in favor of the blacks only by Page 24 the total destruction of the whites. Therefore the whites, men, women, and children, were doomed to death. American Negro Academy , pp. The plot was well-laid, but the conspirators were betrayed. Less than ten years after this plot was discovered and Vesey and his associates hanged, there broke out the Nat Turner insurrection in Virginia.

Turner was himself a preacher. He was conscious that he was a Man and not a 'thing;' therefore, driven by religious fanaticism, he undertook a difficult and bloody task. Nathaniel Turner was born in Southampton county, Virginia, October 2, His master was one Benjamin Turner, a very wealthy and aristocratic man. He owned many slaves, and was a cruel and exacting master. Young 'Nat' was born of slave parents, and carried to his grave many of the superstitions and traits of his father and mother. The former was a preacher, the latter a 'mother in Israel.

The mother began when Nat was quite young to teach him that he was born, like Moses, to be the deliverer of his race. She would sing to him snatches of wild, rapturous songs and repeat portions of prophecy she had learned from the preachers of those times. Nat listened with reverence and awe, and believed everything his mother said. He imbibed the deep religious character of his parents, and soon manifested a desire to preach.

He was solemnly set apart to 'the gospel ministry' by his father, the church, and visiting preachers. He was quite low in stature, dark, and had the genuine African features. His eyes were small, but sharp, and gleamed like fire when he was talking about his 'mission' or preaching from some prophetic passage of scripture. It is said that he never laughed. He was a dreamy sort of a man, and avoided the crowd.

Like Moses he lived in the solitudes of the mountains and brooded over the condition of his people. There was something grand to him in the rugged scenery that nature had surrounded him with. He believed that he was a prophet, a leader raised up by God to burst the bolts of the prison-house and set the oppressed free. The thunder, the hail, the storm-cloud, the air, the earth, the stars, at which he would sit and gaze half the night all spake the language of the God of the oppressed.

He was seldom seen in a large company, and never drank a drop of ardent spirits. Like John the Baptist, when he had delivered his message, he would retire to the fastness of the mountain or seek the desert, where he could meditate upon his great work. In the impression of the Richmond Enquirer of the 30th of August, , the first editorial or leader is under the caption of "The Banditte.

Nothing is spared; neither age nor sex respected--the helplessness of women and children pleads in vain for mercy. The case of Nat Turner warns us. No black man ought to be permitted to turn preacher through the country. The law must be enforced--or the tragedy of Southampton appeals to us in vain. Gray, the man to whom Turner made his confession before dying, said:. It is notorious that he was never known to have had a dollar in his life, to swear an oath or drink a drop of spirits.

As to his ignorance, he certainly never had the advantages of education, but he can read and write, and for natural intelligence and quickness of apprehension is surpassed by few men I have ever seen. As to his being a coward, his reason as given for not resisting Mr.

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Phipps, shows the decision of his character. When he saw Mr. Phipps present his gun, he said he knew it was impossible for him to escape as the woods were full of men. He, therefore, thought it was better for him to surrender and trust to fortune for his escape. On other subjects he possesses an uncommon share of intelligence, with a mind capable of attaining anything, but warped and perverted by the influence of early impressions.

He is below the ordinary stature, though strong and active, having the true Negro face, every feature of which is strongly marked. I shall not attempt to describe the effect of his narrative, as told and commented on by himself, in the condemned hole of the prison; the calm, deliberate composure with which he spoke of his late deeds and intentious; the expression of his fiend-like face when excited by enthusiasm, still bearing the stains of the blood of the helpless innocence about him, clothed with rags and covered with chains, yet daring to raise his manacled hand to heaven, with a spirit soaring above the attributes of man.

I looked on him and the blood curdled in my veins. The Turner insurrection is so connected with the economic revolution which enthroned cotton that it marks an epoch in the history of the slave. A wave of legislation passed over the South prohibiting the slaves from learning to read and write, forbidding Negroes to preach, and interfering with Negro religious meetings.

Virginia declared, in , that neither slaves or free Negroes might preach, nor could they attend religious service at night without permission. In North Carolina slaves and free Negroes were forbidden to preach, exhort or teach "in any prayer-meeting or other association for worship where slaves of different families are collected together" on penalty of not more than thirty-nine lashes. Maryland and Georgia had similar laws. The Mississippi law of said: It is "unlawful for any slave, free Negro, or mulatto to preach the gospel" upon pain of receiving thirty-nine lashes upon the naked back of the presumptuous preacher.

If a Negro received written permission from his master he might preach to the Negroes in his immediate neighborhood, providing six respectable white men, owners of slaves, were present. In the District of Columbia the free Negroes began to leave white churches in and to assemble in their own. The efforts to convert Negroes in America fall in three main periods. The first period was early in the eighteenth century after it was decided that baptism did not free slaves. Results at this time were meagre, and the effort spasmodic. A second period came about the time of the Revolution, and had larger results.

Jones says of the conditions, , that:. Their increase was natural and regular, ranging every ten years, between 31 and 36 per cent. As the old stock from Africa died out of the country the grosser customs, ignorance and paganism of Africa, died with them. Their descendants, the country-born, were better looking, more intelligent, more civilized, more susceptible of religious impressions. The third period followed after the depression of the thirties. This depression was severe, and lasted nearly twenty years. The Presbyterian Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, in , published a statement in which they said of the slaves:.

They may justly be considered the heathen of this country, and will bear a comparison with heathen in any country in the world. The Negroes are destitute of the gospel, and ever will be under the present state of things. In the vast field extending from an entire state beyond the Potomac, [i. In the present state of feeling in the South, a ministry of their own color could neither be obtained nor tolerated. But do not the Negroes have access to the gospel through the stated ministry of the whites?

We answer, no. The Negroes have no regular and efficient ministry: as a matter of course, no churches; neither is there sufficient room in the white churches for their accommodation. We know of but five churches in the slaveholding states, built expressly for their use. These are all in the state of Georgia. We may now inquire whether they enjoy the privileges of the gospelin their own houses, and on our plantations? Again we return a negative answer. They have no Bibles to read by their own firesides.

They have no family altars; and when in affliction, sickness or death, they have no minister to address to them the consolations of the gospel, nor to bury them with appropriate services. The Presbyterian Synod of Kentucky, in , said:. The law, as it is here, does not prevent free access to the scriptures; but ignorance, the natural result of their condition, does.

The Bible is before them. But it is to them a sealed book. Very few of them enjoy the advantages of a regular gospel ministry. The Synod of South Carolina and Georgia returned to the subject, in , and declared:. The galleries or back seats on the lower floor of white churches are generally appropriated to the Negroes, when it can be done without inconvenience to the whites. When it cannot be done conveniently, the Negroes must catch the gospel as it escapes through the doors and windows. If the master is pious, the house servants alone attend family worship, and frequently few or none of them, while the field hands have no attention at all.

So as far as masters are engaged in the work [of religious instruction of slaves], an almost unbroken silence reigns on this vast field. In the Methodist Conference of South Carolina appointed a missionary to labor among the colored people, but the enterprise was soon suppressed by the principal citizens. The Greenville S. Mountaineer of November 2, , contained the particulars: A committee was appointed, who addressed a note to the missionary, requesting him to desist.

This was backed up by James S. Pope and others. The document argues at length the incompatibility of slavery with the "mental improvement and religious instruction" of slaves. We know of upwards of a dozen Negroes in the neighborhood of Cambridge who can now read, some of whom are members of your societies at Mount Lebanon and New Salem. Of course, when they see themselves encouraged, they will supply themselves with Bibles, hymn books, and catechisms! Open the missionary sluice, and the current will swell in its gradual onward advance.

We thus expect that a progressive system of improvement will be introduced, or will follow, from the nature and force of circumstances, and, if not checked though they may be shrouded in sophistry and disguise , will ultimately revolutionize our civil institutions. We consider the common adage that 'knowledge is power,' and as the colored man is enlightened, his condition will be rendered more unhappy and intolerable.

Intelligence and slavery have no affinity with each other. Bishop Capers testifies about this time that there was the most urgent need for preaching among Negroes. Of the Negroes around Wilmington, N. Conscience was not believed to be concerned. As the result of such appeals a reaction set in about , and the Methodists and Baptists especially were active among the slaves.

A minister in Mississippi testified that he had charge of the Negroes of five plantations and three hundred slaves; another in Georgia visited eighteen plantations every two weeks. Adger and the session of the Second Presbyterian church. From the first the great building was filled, the blacks occupying the main floor, and the whites the galleries, which seated two hundred and fifty persons.

Girardeau, one of the greatest preachers in the South, was for years Page 29 the pastor of this church. The close of the war found it with exactly five hundred colored members, and nearly one hundred white. There were thirteen colored churches in Baltimore in , supported largely, but not altogether, by free Negroes.

In one-fourth of the slaves of South Carolina were said to be Methodists; one-third of the Presbyterians of that state were black, and one-half of the Baptists of Virginia. In there were , Negro church members reported in the South, of whom , were Methodists and , Baptists. Ingle Side Lights, pp. Even at this time many restrictions on Negro religion remained. In Maryland camp-meetings were forbidden, and all meetings save at regular churches and with the consent of white preachers.

There were also many local laws restricting worship. In other states the laws of the thirties remained in force or were strengthened. Moreover, even the church organizations working among Negroes were careful in their methods. The North Carolina Baptist Convention adopted a report concerning the religious instruction of the colored people, with a series of resolutions, concluding as follows:. Moreover, the masters clung to the idea that the chief use of religion among slaves was to make them "obey their masters.

An intelligent Negro, Lundsford Lane, thus describes the religious instruction of slaves:. It was there I received much instruction, which I trust was a great benefit to me. I trusted, too, that I had experienced the renewing influences of divine grace. I looked upon myself as a great sinner before God, and upon the doctrine of the great atonement, through the suffering and death of the Savior, as a source of continual joy to my heart.

After obtaining from my mistress a written permit, a thing always required in such cases, I had been baptized and received into fellowship with the Baptist denomination. Thus in religious matters I had been indulged in the exercise of my own conscience; this was a favor not always granted to slaves. There was one hard doctrine to which we as slaves were compelled to listen, which I found difficult to receive.

We were often told by the ministers how much we owed to God for bringing us over from the benighted shores of Africa and permitting us to listen to the sound of the gospel. In ignorance of any special revelation that God had made to master, or to his ancestors, that my ancestors should be stolen and enslaved on the soil of America to accomplish their salvation, I was slow to believe all my teachers enjoined on this subject.

How surprising then, this high moral end being accomplished, that no proclamation of emancipation had before this been made! Many of us were as highly civilized as Page 30 some of our masters, and as to piety in many instances their superiors. I was rather disposed to believe that God had originally granted me temporal freedom, which wicked men had taken from me--which now I had been compelled to purchase at great cost.

There was one kind-hearted clergyman whom I used often to hear; he was very popular among the colored people. But after he had preached a sermon to us in which he urged from the Bible that it was the will of heaven from all eternity that we should be slaves, and our masters be our owners, many of us left him, considering, like the doubting disciple of old, 'This is a hard saying; who can hear it?

So, too, Dr. Caruthers says although many of the slaves were pious they owed for this "no thanks to slavery or the slave laws. The Earlier Churches and Preachers, by Mr. The original colored churches in different sections of the country came about in one of the following ways:.

The establishment of these churches took place about the same time in sections more distant from each other then than now, for it was before the time of the railroad, the use of the steamboat or the telegraph; so that their coming into existence at the same time must be attributed to a correspondence of general causes. Louis, So far as the establishment is concerned of those colored Methodist Churches which evolved the A.

Zion denominations, persecution by the whites was the moving cause. They were compelled to protect themselves against the yoke sought to be imposed on them, by worshipping among themselves. The one movement in Philadelphia, the other in New York, moved in parallel, often in rival lines. New York and Philadelphia were soon in free states and their methods were those of free men, in name at least, while the establishment of colored Methodist Churches in the South, as in Maryland, under the direction of the whites, illustrated one of the instances of special missionary effort.

The colored Baptist Church in the South came mostly into existence mainly through the third inciting cause mentioned. The Presbyterian Church, as found among the colored people, came about through the operation of two causes: the desire of the colored people to be by themselves and that of the whites to strengthen their denomination among this class.

The first colored Episcopal Churches, both in New York and Philadelphia, resulted directly from causes similar to those which gave rise to the Methodist Churches in the same localities. Of the men mainly instrumental by reason of their position as pioneers in organizing these first churches in the different colored denominations a word is needed.

First in order came Richard Allen. He was one of the leaders in the free African Society. From the members of this body came the leaders, almost the organization itself, both of the Bethel Methodist and the St. Thomas Episcopal Churches in the city of Philadelphia. Richard Allen was born February 12, , old style, a slave in Philadelphia. At an early age he gave evidence of a high order of talent for leadership. He was converted while quite a lad and licensed to preach in In he was ordained a deacon by Bishop Francis Asbury, who had been entrusted by John Wesley with the superintendence of the work in America.

The Egyptian

April 11, , at the general conference of the African Methodist Churches, held in the city of Philadelphia, he was elected their first bishop. Under his administration the work was vigorously prosecuted in all directions. He died in , universally lamented. He possessed talents as an organizer of the highest order. He was a born leader and an almost infallible judge of human nature. He was actively identified with every forward movement among the colored people, irrespective of denomination, and died, leaving a greater influence upon the colored people of the North than any other man of his times.

He was one of the promoters, as well as one of the chief actors, in the first national convention of colored men in the United States ever held, which was in Philadelphia in the year Absalom Jones, who certainly comes next in point of time, was born a slave in Sussex, Del. At the age of sixteen he was taken to Philadelphia. He was married in , purchased his wife, and afterward succeeded in obtaining his own liberty. Like his co-laborer, Richard Allen, with whom he was associated in the African Society, he was quite thrifty and became the owner of several pieces of real estate.

His education was quite limited, so much so that a dispensation was necessary to admit of his ordination, to which a condition was annexed that this church St. Thomas should not have the power of sharing in the government of the Episcopal Church in the diocese of Pennsylvania. Douglass, subsequently a rector of this church, in his "Annals of St. Thomas Episcopal Church," says of Absalom Jones, that he was impressive in his style of preaching, though his forte was not in the pulpit.

It was his mild and easy manners, his habits as a pastor, his public spirit, that strengthened him in public estimation. He says that "he was of medium height, dark complexion, with stout frame, bland and open countenance, yet indicative of firmness. Whenever he appeared in public he donned the costume of the profession, black dress coat, breeches and vest of the same color, with top-boots or shoes with buckles and black stockings. John Gloucester, the first colored minister to act as pastor of the first colored Presbyterian Church, was a man thoroughly consecrated to his cause. He possessed a fair English education, which he received from private sources.

He was a pioneer of Presbyterian ministers; four of his own sons, Jeremiah, John, Stephen, and James, became Presbyterian ministers, and from the Sunday-school of his church three other well known ministers went forth--Rev. Amos to Africa, Rev. Wilson to New York, and Rev. Jonathan C. Gloucester, like Allen and Jones, was born a slave, in Kentucky, about the year Such was his intelligence that he was purchased by Rev.

Gideon Blackburn, one of the leaders of the Presbyterian denomination in Kentucky. The records show that when Rev. Gloucester was ordained, Dr. Blackburn was the moderator of the presbytery. On the appointment of Rev. Gloucester to the first African Presbyterian church his master liberated him. One of the attractions of Rev. Gloucester was his rich musical voice that was pronounced as something phenomenal. In prayer his power was manifest. His character was so simple and Christian that he won many friends of both races.

He was not only preacher, but pastor and adviser of his people in their temporal matters. He traveled extensively North and South and in nearly every city, raising the money with which he liberated Page 33 his wife and children. He even crossed the ocean, where he met with great success. After fifteen years of service in the church, during which time it rapidly increased in members, from 22 to , he died May 2, , a victim of consumption, in the forty-sixth year of his age. Now it is not to be inferred that these were the only men deserving of special notice as pioneers.

By no means. We allude to them because of their relation to the historical churches. There were Harry Hosier, who travelled with Bishop Asbury, and who often filled appointments for him; Rev. Daniel Coker of Baltimore, and Rev. Peter Spencer of Delaware, who organized the Protestant branch of colored Methodism. Circumstances were somewhat similar in other parts of the country. With the increase of the colored population and its distribution to other centers, other religious societies sprang up, so that wherever you find any number of these people in the earlier decades of the republic you find a church, often churches, out of all proportion to the population.

In the West, it may be stated, that colored churches were not the result of secessions or irregular wholesale withdrawals from the white churches as in the East. They sprang up directly in the path of the westward migration of colored people from the South and the East. In the South the whites were in complete and absolute control, in church as in state.

Colored people attended and held membership in the same church as the whites, though they did not possess the same rights or privileges. They either had special services at stated times or they sat in the galleries. There may have been deep protests against such un-Christian treatment, but we may rest assured that these were by no means loud, however deep. It was when this membership increased to very large numbers that separate churches for colored people, rather than of the colored people, were established. In the South, as in the North, this membership was principally in the Baptist and Methodist churches, and to these denominations did these separate colored churches belong, with exceptions so rare that they may be named as to cities or districts where it was otherwise.

Outside of the few ministers of the A. Zion churches in the border states, it is doubtful if there were a score of colored pastors in full control of colored churches in the South before the war. Nevertheless, there were a few colored ministers so very conspicuous by their work as pioneers as to deserve special notice here.

It is possible to refer briefly only to a few. Taking them in the order of time there was the Rev. George Lisle, a native of Virginia, the slave or body servant of a British officer. Throughout that struggle he preached in different parts of the country. As one of the results of his labors we find one of the very first colored churches of any denomination in the country organized, especially that Page 34 in at Savannah, Ga. Andrew Bryan, whom Lisle had baptized.

Compelled to leave the United States at the close of the war, Lisle went to Jamaica, where he organized a church with four members in By he had baptized more than persons on that island. In he built there the very first non-Episcopal religious chapel, to which there were belonging, in , 3, members. That white Baptist missionaries subsequently went to the West Indies is to be attributed to Rev.

Lisle's work, for they were brought there as a direct result of his correspondence with ecclesiastical authorities in Great Britain. His father was a Baptist. In Lott removed to Richmond, where he worked in a tobacco factory and from all accounts was very profligate and wicked. In , being converted, he joined the First Baptist Church, learned to read, made rapid advancement as a scholar, and was shortly afterwards licensed to preach.

The Legion

That Lott Carey was evidently a man of superior intellect and force of character is to be evidenced from the fact that his reading took a wide range--from political economy, in Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, to the voyage of Captain Cook. Remember, that this was over eighty years ago. Carey was not seduced by such a flattering offer, for he was determined.

His last sermon in the old First Church in Richmond must have been exceedingly powerful, for it was compared by an eye-witness, a resident of another state, to the burning, eloquent appeals of George Whitefield. Fancy him as he stands there in that historic building ringing the changes on the word "freely," depicting the willingness with which he was ready to give up his life for service in Africa. He, as you may already know, was the leader of the pioneer colony to Liberia, where he arrived even before the agent of the Colonization Society. In his new home his abilities were recognized, for he was made vice governor and became governor, in fact, while Governor Ashmun was absent from the colony in this country.

Carey did not allow his position to betray the cause of his people, for he did not hesitate to expose the duplicity of the Colonization Society and even to defy their authority, it would seem, in the interests of the people. While casting cartridges to defend the colonists against the natives in , the accidental upsetting of a candle caused an explosion that resulted in his death. Carey is described as a typical Negro, six feet in height, of massive and erect frame, with the sinews of a Titan.

He had a square face, keen eyes, and a grave countenance. His movements were measured; in short, he had all the bearings and dignity of a prince of the blood. His father was an African, his mother a white woman. He received the honorary degree of A. After completing a theological course he preached in various places and settled in West Rutland, Vt. He was characterized by subtle intellect, keen wit, and eager thirst for knowledge. His noted sermon from Genesis was published and passed through nine or ten editions.

Cooley, New York, Bureau of Edacation, , p. He found the Negroes there, about , without religious instruction. He began preaching and the town council ordered him away; he continued and whites came to hear him. Finally the white auditors outnumbered the black, and sheds were erected for Negroes at the side of the church.

The gathering became a regular Methodist Church, with a white and Negro membership, but Evans continued to preach. He exhibited "rare self-control before the most wretched of castes! Henry Evans did much good, but he would have done more good had his spirit been untrammelled by this sense of inferiority. His dying words uttered us he stood, aged and bent beside his pulpit, are of singular pathos:. It is this: None but Christ. Three times I have had my life in jeopardy for preaching the gospel to you.

Three time I have broken ice on the edge of the water and swam across the Cape Fear to preach the gospel to you; and, if in my last hour I could trust to that, or anything but Christ crucified, for my salvation, all should be lost and my soul perish forever. Early in the nineteenth century Ralph Freeman was a slave in Anson county, N. He was a full-blooded Negro, and was ordained and became an able Baptist preacher.

He baptized and administered communion, and was greatly respected. When the Baptists split on the question of missions he sided with the anti-mission side. Finally the law forbade him to preach. Lunsford Lane was a Negro who bought his freedom in Raleigh, N. He later became a minister and was intelligent, and had the confidence of many of the best people. The story of Jack of Virginia is best told in the words of a Southern writer:. He was converted under the occasional preaching of Rev. Hill and Dr. Archibald Alexander of Princeton, then young theologues, and by hearing the scriptures read.

Taught by his master's Page 37 children to read, he became so full of the spirit and knowledge of the Bible that he was recognized among the whites as a powerful expounder of Christian doctrine, was licensed to preach by the Baptist Church, and preached from plantation to plantation within a radius of thirty miles, as he was invited by overseers or masters.

His freedom was purchased by a subscription of whites, and he was given a home and a tract of land for his support. He organized a large and orderly Negro church, and exercised such a wonderful controlling influence over the private morals of his flock that masters, instead of punishing their slaves, often referred them to the discipline of their pastor, which they dreaded far more.

For over forty years, and until he was nearly a hundred years of age, he labored successfully in public and private among black and whites, voluntarily giving up his preaching in obedience to the law of , the result of 'Old Nat's war. Says his biographer, Rev. White: 'He was invited into their houses, sat with their families, took part in their social worship, sometimes leading the prayer at the family altar.

Many of the most intelligent people attended upon his ministry and listened to his sermons with great delight. Indeed, previous to the year , he was considered by the best judges to be the best preacher in that county. His opinions were respected, his advice followed, and yet he never betrayed the least symptoms of arrogance or self-conceit. His dwelling was a rude log cabin, his apparel of the plainest and coarsest materials.

He refused gifts of better clothing, saying, 'These clothes are a great deal better than are generally worn by people of my color, and besides if I wear them I find I shall be obliged to think about them even at meeting. White: The African Preacher. From the Eleventh United States Census. There were in the United States in , 23, Negro churches. Outside of these there were numbers of Negroes who are members of white churches, but they are not distinguished from others:.

Church Edifices. Approximate Seating Capacity. Halls, etc. Seatiing Capacity. Value of Church Property. Communicants or Members. Seating Capacity. We may now consider these organizations by denominations:. The colored Baptists of the South constitute the most numerous body of Regular Baptists. Not all colored Baptists are embraced in this division; only those who have separate churches, associations, and state conventions. There are many colored Baptists in Northern States, who are mostly counted as members of churches, belonging to white associations.

None of them are included in the following tables. The first state convention of colored Baptists was organized in North Carolina in , the second in Alabama, and the third in Virginia in , the fourth in Arkansas in , and the fifth in Kentucky in There are colored conventions in fifteen states and the District of Columbia.

In addition to these organizations the colored Baptists of the United States have others more general in character: The American National Convention, the purpose of which is "to consider the moral, intellectual, and religious growth of the denomination," to deliberate upon questions of general concern, and to devise methods to bring the churches and members of the race closer together; the Consolidated American Missionary Convention, the General Association of the Western States and Territories, the Foreign Mission Convention of the United States, and the New England Missionary Convention.

All except one are missionary in their purpose. The Regular Baptists colored are represented in fifteen states, all in the South, or on the border, and the District of Columbia. In Virginia and Georgia they are very numerous, having in the latter ,, and in the former , communicants. In Alabama they have ,, in North Carolina ,, in Mississippi ,, in South Carolina ,, and in Texas , members. There are associations, of which 66 are in Alabama, 63 in Georgia, 49 in Mississippi, and 39 in North Carolina.

This branch of American Methodism was organized in Baltimore in by a number of colored members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. They withdrew from the parent body in order that they might have larger privileges and more freedom of action among themselves than they believed they could secure in continued association with their white brethren. Richard Allen was elected the first bishop of the new church by the same convention that organized it. In the year Mr.

Allen had been made the leader of a class of forty persons of his own color. A few years later he purchased a lot at the corner of Sixth and Lombard streets, Philadelphia, where the first church erected in this country for colored Methodists was occupied in In doctrine, government, and usage, the church does not essentially differ from the body from which it sprang. It has an itinerant and a local or non-itinerant ministry, and its territory is divided into annual conferences.

No girl ever willingly goes to bed alone: something there is that desire forces us all to search for. Mine was nearly stolen away like that. That god corrupts families, separates friends, and makes sad calls to arms to those in happy agreement. Lynceus , you traitor, then, how could you lay hands on my darling? Could you have lived with the shame? Kill me with daggers or poison: just take yourself off, away from my mistress. But the frown of strict morality will never fool me: everyone knows by now how good it is to love.

My Lynceus, himself, insane at last with love! What use now the wisdom of Socratic works, or being able to talk of the nature of things? Old men are no help with a great love. Stop composing tragic Aeschylean verse, stop and let your limbs go, in soft choric dancing. Begin to turn your verse on a tighter lathe, and come to your own flames, hardened poet. You shall not go more safely than Homer , or than Antimachus : a virtuous girl even looks down on the gods. Nor will you be able to suffer harsh love on your own.

First, your truculence must be quelled by me. Look at me, with hardly any wealth left to my family, with no ancestral triumphs long ago, but here I rule the fun, among the crowd of girls, by the intellect you disparage! Give way you Roman authors! Give way you Greeks! Under the pine-trees of shadowed Galaesus , you sing, of Thyrsis and Daphnis , with the practised flute, and how the gift of ten apples, or an un-weaned kid, can corrupt a girl.

Happy who buys their love cheaply with apples! Tityrus herself, the unkind, might sing for that. Happy that Corydon who tries to snatch virgin Alexis , delight of his master, the farmer! And you sing the precepts of old Hesiod , the poet, what plains crops grow well on, what hills should grow vines. You make such music as Apollo mingles, fingers plucking his cunning lyre. The swan dies, melodious, with no less spirit, though with less effrontery than the ignorant song of the goose. And but now, in the waters of Hell, dead Gallus washed multiple wounds, from lovely Lycoris!

Book III. Ghosts of Callimachus , and shrines of Coan Philetas , I pray you, allow me to walk in your grove. I am the first to enter, a priest of the pure fountain, to celebrate Italian mysteries in the rhythms of Greece. Tell me in what valley did you both spin out your song? On what feet did you enter? Which waters did you drink? Away with the man who keeps Phoebus stuck in battle! Let verse be finished, polished with pumice — because of it Fame lifts me high above Earth, and, born of me, a Muse goes, in triumph, with flower-hung horses, and young Loves ride with me in a chariot, and a crowd of writers hangs at my wheels.

Why struggle, vainly, against me, with slack reins? Muses grant your poet gentle garlands: a hard crown would never suit my head. Their own soil would scarcely know Deiphobus , Helenus , Pulydamas , or Paris embracing any kind of arms. Nor would Homer , himself, who wrote your fall, not feel his work made greater by posterity.

And Rome will praise me among later generations: I foresee that day myself, after the fire. Let me return, meanwhile, to the world of my poetry: let my girl take delight, moved by familiar tones. No wonder if, befriended by Bacchus and Phoebus , a crowd of girls cherish my words? My poems are so many records of your beauty. Who asked you to meddle with epic song? Why is your page wrenched from its destined track? He said it, and showed me a place with his ivory plectrum, where a new path had been made in mossy ground.

This one chose ivy for a wand, that one tuned the strings for a song, and another planted roses with either hand. And one of this crowd of goddesses touched me it was Calliope , I think, by her face , saying:. So Calliope said, and, drawing up liquid from her fountain, sprinkled my lips with the waters of Philetas. Caesar , our god, plots war against rich India , cutting the straits, in his fleet, over the pearl-bearing ocean.

Men, the rewards are big: far lands prepare triumphs: Tiber , and Euphrates will flow to your tune. Go, get going, prows expert in battle: set sail: and armoured horses do your usual duty! I sing you auspicious omens. And avenge that disaster of Crassus! Go and take care of Roman history! O primal earth shaped badly by Prometheus!

He set to work on the heart without enough care. He laid the body out with art, but forgot the mind: the right road for the spirit should have been first. It pleases me too to cloud my mind with much wine, and always have spring roses round my head. Every messenger should be without deceit: a fearful servant should be even truer. So, did you see her weep with dishevelled hair, vast waters pouring from her eyes?

Did you see no mirror, Lygdamus, on the covers, on the bed? No rings on her snow-white fingers? And a mourning-robe hanging from her soft arms, and her letter-case closed lying by the foot of the bed. Was the house sad, and her servants sad, carding thread, and she, herself spinning among them, and pressing the wool to her eyes, drying their moisture, and going over our quarrel in querulous tones? If that pleases him, let him mock at my death, Lygdamus. The spider will weave corruption in his empty bed, and Venus will sleep, herself, on their nights together.

While he was chasing you, the poor man was cut down in his prime, and floats an alien food for far-off fish. Paetus, the seabirds hover over your bones, and you have the whole Carpathian Sea now for a tomb. Cruel North-Wind , whom ravished Orithyia feared, how great are the spoils to be won from him? Why do you find joy in shipwreck, Neptune? That ship carried righteous men. The waves have no gods. Though your cables were fastened to rocks, the storms in the night fell on them: frayed them all: tore them away. Return his body to earth: his spirit is lost in the deep.

Worthless sands, of your own will, cover Paetus. Go, and shape curving keels, and weave the causes of death: these deaths come from the actions of human hands. Earth was too small for fate, we have added the oceans: by our arts we have added to the luckless paths of fortune. Can the anchor hold you, whom the household gods could not? Nature lying in wait has paved the watery paths of greed: and it can scarcely be that you can, even once, succeed. The cliffs of Caphareus shattered a triumphant fleet, when the Greeks were shipwrecked drawn down by the salt mass. Ulysses wept for his comrades hurled down one by one: his wiliness was worth nothing confronting the sea.

From him, still living, the surge tore away his nails, and unwillingly, poor man, his throat swallowed the waters: then the wild night saw him carried on a piece of plank: so many evils gathered for Paetus to perish. Are these guilty hands I bring to your seas? Alas for me, the sharp cliffs of the halycon will tear me!

The dark-green god has struck me with his trident. At least let the tide hurl me on Italian shores: what is left of me will suffice if it only reaches my mother. Our quarrel by lamplight last night was sweet to me, and all those insults from your furious tongue, when frenzied with drinking you pushed the table back, and threw full glasses over me, with an angry hand. Truly bold, attack my hair, you, and mark my face with your lovely nails, threaten to scorch my eyes with a flame beneath them, rip my clothes and bare my chest!

You give me certain signs of love: no woman is in pain unless out of deep passion. Let my friends see the wounds in my bitten neck: let the bruises show my girl has been with me. I hate those sighs that never shatter sleep: I would always wish to turn pale for an angry girl. The passion was dearer to Paris when he could cut his way through Greek ranks to bring pleasure to his daughter of Tyndareus. As for you, a Vulcan , who wove a net for our bed, may your father-in-law be immortal, and your house never lack her mother! You who were granted the wealth of one stolen night, it was her anger against me, not love of you that gave it.

Maecenas , knight of the blood of Etruscan kings, you who are keen to achieve success: why set me adrift on such a vast literary sea? Apelles claims highest place for paintings of Venus : Parrhasius deserves his for art in miniature. Though an officer of the Roman state, allowed to set up the axes of law, and judge in the midst of the Forum ; though you pass through the fierce spears of the Medes , and burden your house with weapons on nails; though Caesar grants you power to achieve things, and easy money slithers in all the time; you hold back, and, humbly, crouch in the lowly shadows: and draw in your bellying sails yourself.

Let these poems inflame our youths, and our girls: let them celebrate me as a god, and bring me sacrifice! Gentle patron seize the reins of my fresh undertakings, and give the sign with your right hand when my wheels are let loose. I wondered what the Muses had sent me, at dawn, standing by my bed in the reddening sunlight. Let this day pass without a cloud, the winds still in the air, and threatening waves fall gently on dry land. And oh, you, my dearest girl, born to happy auguries, rise, and pray to the gods who require their dues. First wash sleep away with pure water, and dress your shining hair with deft fingers.

And ask that the beauty that is your power may always be yours, and that your command over my person might last forever. Submit the strident flute to nocturnal dancing, and let your wantonness be free with words, and let sweet banqueting stave off unwelcome sleep, and the common breeze of the neighbouring street be full of the sound. And let fate reveal to us, in the falling dice, those whom the Boy strikes with his heavy wings. Why do you wonder if a woman entwines my life and brings a man enslaved under her rule? The sailor can best foretell his future fate, the soldier is taught by his wounds to nurture fear.

I once boasted like you when I was young: now let my example teach you to be afraid. Amazon Penthesilea once dared to attack the Danaan fleet with arrows fired from horseback: she whose bright beauty conquered the conquering hero, when the golden helmet laid bare her forehead. Semiramis built Babylon , the Persian city, so that it rose a solid mass with ramparts of baked brick, and two chariots might set out on the walls, in opposite directions, without their axles touching and sides scraping: she diverted the River Euphrates through the centre of the city she founded, and commanded Bactra to bow its head to her rule.

Why should I seize on heroes, why gods who stand accused? Jupiter shames himself and his house. Why Cleopatra , who heaped insults on our army, a woman worn out by her own attendants, who demanded the walls of Rome and the Senate bound to her rule, as a reward from her obscene husband? Noxious Alexandria , place so skilled in deceit, and Memphis so often bloody with our grief, where the sand robbed Pompey of his three triumphs. Rome, no day will ever wipe away the stain.

Better for you Pompey, ill at Naples, if your funeral procession had crossed the Phlegraean Plain, or that you had bowed your neck to Caesar , your father-in-law. Celebrate a triumph Rome , and saved by Augustus beg long life for him! I saw your arms bitten by the sacred asps, and your limbs draw sleep in by a secret path. The gods founded them, may the gods protect these walls: with Caesar alive, Rome need scarcely fear Jove. Apollo of Actium will speak of how the line was turned: one day of battle carried off so vast a host.

But you, sailor, whether leaving or making for harbour, be mindful of Caesar through all the Ionian Sea. She in the meantime will pine away at each idle rumour, for fear your courage will cost you dear, or the arrows of Medes enjoy your death, or the armoured knight on a golden horse, or some bit of you be brought back in an urn to be wept over. Your morals deserve a different wife! What shall a girl do with no fear to guard her, with Rome to instruct her in its voluptuousness?

But rest secure: gifts will not win Galla, and she will not recall how hard you were. On whatever day fate sends you safely home, modest Galla will hang about your neck. Not in vain, since his wife had stayed chaste at home. The reason for such ruin is clear and certain: the path to voluptuousness has been made too easy. These weapons take sheltered modesty by storm: even those who show disdain like yours Penelope.

Happy that singular custom at the funerals of Eastern husbands that the reddening dawn colours with her chariot! The winners are inflamed and offer their breasts to the fire and rest their scorched faces on their husband. Happy were the young country folk, once, peaceable: whose wealth was in orchards and harvests. With such blandishments as these the kisses of girls were won, given to sylvan youths in secret hollows. The pine leaned over them and threw its rich shadows round them: and it was not a sin to see the goddesses naked.

The horned ram, head of the flock, led back his sated ewes himself to the empty fold of Pan the shepherd god. But now the shrines decay in deserted groves: all worship money now piety is vanquished. Money drives out loyalty, justice is bought for money, money rules the law, and, without the law, then shame. For money, vile Polymestor of Thrace , reared you, Polydorus , in impious hospitality. Amphiaraus is lost, and his horses swallowed up, so that you Eriphyla can cover your shoulders with gold. I speak truth, but no one will believe. Her frenzies were fitting for her father and her house: in vain her tongue experienced the true gods.

You yourself can speak about things without a go-between: no long waiting rebuffs you. No Tyrian garments beguile roving eyes, no affected toying with perfumed hair. So let me know, now, no more storms in my love, and let the night not come to me when I lie awake without you! While three years have passed it is not much less I can barely remember ten words between us. Your love has buried everything, no woman, since you, has thrown a sweet chain about my neck. Dirce is evidence, made jealous by a true reproach that Antiope had slept with her Lycus. How often she loaded the servant girl with unreasonable tasks, and ordered her to sleep on the hard ground!

Often she suffered her to live in filth and darkness, often she refused her foul water for her thirst. Heavy chains scar her wrists. Yet on her own, with whatever strength was in her body, she broke the royal manacles with both hands. It was night and her sad couch was scattered with frost. Driven from her house their mother tested her hard-hearted son Zethus and her son Amphion easily moved to tears.

And as the sea ceases its vast heaving, when the East wind leaves its assault on the South-West , and the coast is quiet, and the sounds of the shore diminish, so the girl sank on her bended knees. Still piety came though late: her sons knew their error. But be careful of tormenting Lycinna who does not deserve it: your headlong anger knows no retreat.

May no story about us strike your ears: you alone I will love, though burned by the funeral pyre. What to do? Commit myself to covering darkness, and fear audacious hands on my members? Yet if I were to ignore her message from fear, her weeping would be worse than an enemy in the night. The Moon helps him on his way; the stars light the ruts; Love shakes the blazing torch up ahead; raging wild dogs avert their gaping jaws. But if I knew my certain death followed the event, perhaps such a fate would be worth more to me.

Now, O Bacchus , I prostrate myself humbly in front of your altars: father, give me tranquillity: prosper my passage. Lovers are joined by you, by you set free. Bacchus wash this trouble from my soul. That you also are not innocent of love, Ariadne bears witness, drawn through the sky, by lynxes of yours, to the stars. This disease that has kept the flame in my bones from of old, the funeral pyre or your wine will heal. A sober night is always a torment for lonely lovers, and hope and fear strain their spirits this way and that.

Your white neck burdened with trailing clusters of ivy-berries, Bassareus , a Lydian turban crowns your hair. Your smooth throat will glisten with scented olive oil, and the flowing robe will brush your naked feet. Dircean Thebes will beat the soft drums, and goat-footed Pans will play on unstopped reeds. Nearby the Great Goddess, Cybele , with turreted crown will clash harsh cymbals in the Idaean dance.

The mixing bowl will stand in front of your temple doors, for wine to be poured over your sacrifice from the golden ladle. Only do you set me free from this despotic servitude, and conquer this anxious mind with sleep. He is dead, and his twentieth year is left ruined: such a bright day confined in such a small circle. Though a cautious man sheathe himself in iron or bronze, death will still drag out his hidden head. You often taunt me with my passion: believe me, it commands you more.

The fire in burning corn will sooner be stamped out, the rivers return to the founts where they were born, the Syrtes offer quiet harbour, and savage Cape Malea offer the sailor kind welcome on its shore, than any man be able to restrain your course, or curb the spurs of your impetuous wantonness.

Witness Pasiphae who suffered the disdain of the Cretan bull, and wore the deceptive horns of the wooden cow. Myrrha too is a reproach, on fire for her aged father, buried in the foliage of a new-created tree. Why need I mention Medea , who, in her time as a mother, satisfied her fury by the murder of her children? Or Clytemnestra through whom the whole House of Mycenean Pelops remains infamous for her adultery? That was the dowry the virgin pledged to his enemy! Nisus , treacherous love opened your city gates.

And you, unmarried ones, burn torches of happier omen: the girl clutches the Cretan ship and is dragged away. Still Minos does not sit as a judge in Hell without reason: though he conquered, he was merciful to his foe. Cruel the man who could exchange his girl for wealth! Was all Africa worth as much as those tears? But you, foolish girl, think idle words are gods. Perhaps he wears out his heart on another passion. Your house is fortunate, if only your lover is true. My first night has come! Grant me the space of a first night: Moon linger longer over our first couch.

You also Phoebus , who prolong the fires of summer, shorten the path of your lingering light. First the terms must be laid out, and the pledges sealed, and the contract written for my new love. Amor with his own seal binds these tokens: the witness, the whirling crown of Ariadne the starry goddess. How many hours must give way to my discourse, before Venus urges sweet battles on us! Let the first omens keep us loyal. For love for my girl grows with constant gazing: love offers itself as its greatest nourishment. Towers of Rome , and you, my friends, farewell, and farewell you too, girl, whatever you meant to me!

Either the passage of years, or the long spaces of the deep will heal the wounds in my silent breast: or if I die, fate will crush me, not shameful love: and that day of death will be an honour to me. And Cybele of Dindymus fashioned from carved tusks; and the path taken by the horses of Dis the rapist?

Though the cities of Helle , daughter of Athamas , delight you, perhaps, Tullus, still be moved by my longing. Since our power is established by loyalty as much as weapons: our wrath restrains victorious hands. But no horned snakes slithering on scaly bellies, Italian waters are not seething with strange monsters. No savage Bacchantes hunt Pentheus through the trees, nor are Greek ships set free by the substitution of a doe. This place gave you birth, Tullus, this is your sweetest home, here is honour to seek, worthy of your people. Here are citizens for your oratory: here is ample hope of offspring, and the fitting love of a future wife.

So, my clever writing-tablets are lost, then, and so many good texts too! They were worn away by my hands former usage, and they required good faith by not being sealed. Moreover without me they knew how to pacify my girls, and how to speak eloquent words without me. Such as they were they stayed faithful always to me, and always produced a good effect. Or did someone else seem lovelier to you? Or did you spread some unkind slander about me?

Oh well, now some miser writes his accounts on them, and places them with his dire ledgers!

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Whoever gives me them back can have gold: who would keep pieces of wood and not have money? Go boy, and quickly stick these words on some column, and write that your master lives on the Esquiline. I often praised the many beauties combined in you, because love thought you were what you are not. This I confessed, in truth, not compelled by knife or flame, wrecked on Aegean waters. Behold, my wreathed boats reach harbour, the Syrtes are past, and I cast anchor.

I come to my senses now at last, weary of the wild surge, and my wounds are closed and healed. Good Sense , if there is such a goddess, I dedicate myself to your shrine! Jupiter was deaf to all my prayers. I was laughed at among the guests seated for the banquet, and whoever wished was able to gossip about me. Tears have no effect on me: I was ensnared by those wiles: Cynthia you only every wept with guile.

I will weep, departing, but insult overcomes tears: you do not allow the yoke to move in harmony. Now goodbye to the threshold weeping at my words: to the entrance never hurt by my hand in anger. May you long then to tear out white hairs by their roots, ah, when the mirror rebukes you with your wrinkles, and may you in turn, rejected, suffer proud arrogance, and, changed to an old woman, regret what you have done! These are the dread events my pages prophesy for you: learn to fear the fate of your beauty!

Book IV. These golden temples sprang from earthly gods: there was no disgrace in houses made without art: Tarpeian Jupiter thundered from a bare cliff, and Tiber was foreign to our cattle. The Curia that shines up there robed with the purple hem of the Senate, held the Fathers, dressed in animal skins, to its rustic heart.

Vesta , poor, delighted in garlanded donkeys, and skinny cattle pulled cheap emblems. Their raw soldiers did not gleam with threatening armour: they joined in battle naked, with fire-hardened pikes. So were the Titienses , heroic Ramnes , and the Luceres of Solonium , so Romulus drove four white triumphal horses.

For certain Bovillae was hardly a suburb of the tiny city, and Gabii was greatly crowded, that now is nothing. And Alba stood, powerful, founded through the omen of a white sow, when it was a long journey from there to Fidenae. Here, Troy , for the best, you sent your exiled household gods. Here, at such auguries, the Trojan vessel sailed!

You win in vain! Wolf of Mars , the best of nurses to our State, what towers have sprung from your milk! Now to try and set out those towers in patriotic verse, ah me, how puny the sound that rises from my mouth! But however thin the streams that flow from my chest, it is all in the service of my country. Let Ennius crown his verse with a shaggy garland: Bacchus , hold out to me leaves of your ivy, so that my books might make Umbria swell with pride, Umbria fatherland of the Roman Callimachus!

Whoever sees the towers of Assisi climbing from the valley, honour those walls according to my genius! Rome , favour me, the work soars up for you: citizens grant me good omens, and let a bird on the right sing at my inception! I will sing rites and days, and the ancient names of places: my horses need to strain towards that goal. The threads you spin are not from a true distaff. Orops of Babylon , child of Archytas , fathered me, Horos , and my house is descended from Conon as ancestor.

My prophecy touched on truth, though unwillingly. The track of the heavens must be examined, and the path of truth among the stars, and knowledge looked for from the five zones. Nauplius raises his fires by night in vengeance, and Greece sails weighed down by her spoils. Victorious Ajax , son of Oileus , rape, then love, your prophetess, Cassandra , though Minerva forbids her to be stripped of her robe! So much for history: now I turn to your stars: prepare yourself impartially to witness new grief. Ancient Umbria gave birth to you, at a noble hearth: am I lying? Or has my mouth revealed your country?

Where misty Mevania wets the open plain, and the summer waters of the Umbrian lake steam, and the wall towers from the summit of climbing Assisi , that wall made more famous by your genius? Since though many bullocks ploughed your fields, the merciless measuring-rod stole your wealth of land.

But you create elegies, deceptive art: — this is your battlefield — that the rest of the crowd might write by your example. Since whatever victories your labour wins you, one girl will escape your grasp: and though you shake the deeply fixed hook from your mouth, it will do no good: the fishing-spear will spike your jaw.


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  3. Books by Aaron Evans.

Now whether your ship is tossed about in mid-ocean, or you go unarmed among armed men, or the trembling earth yawns in a gaping chasm: fear the avaricious back of the Crab, eight-footed Cancer. Learn the native tokens of the god Vertumnus. The first grape changes hue, for me, in darkening bunches, and hairy ears of corn swell with milky grains. Here you see sweet cherries, autumn plums, and mulberries redden through summer days.

Here the grafter pays his vows with apple garlands, when the unwilling pear stock has borne fruit. Give me a scythe and tie twists of hay on my forehead: you can swear the grass was cut by my hand. I can bend like a shepherd over his crook, or carry baskets of roses through the dust. Dark-green cucumbers, gourds with swollen bellies, and the cabbages tied with light rushes mark me out: no flower of the field grows that is not placed on my brow, and fittingly droops before me.

Because the single shape became vertebar all, my native tongue from that gave me my name. I saw the broken ranks, the abandoned weapons, and the enemy turn their backs in shameful flight. Six lines are to be added: you, who hurry to answer bail, I will not delay you: this is the last mark on the way. I was a maple stock, cut by a swift sickle: before Numa , I was a humble god in a grateful city. But, Mamurius , creator of my statue in bronze, may the rough earth never spoil your skilful hands, that were able to cast me for such peaceful use.

The work is alone, but the honour the work is given is not. Still, if any part you wish to read is smeared, that blot will have been made by my tears: or if any letter puzzles you by its wavering outline, it will be the sign of my now fading hand. A moment ago Bactra saw you in the east again, now the Neuric enemy with armoured horses, the wintry Getae and Britain with its painted chariots, and the dark-skinned Indians pounded by the eastern waves.

Was this the marriage oath and the night sealed with kisses, when, an innocent, I yielded to the urgency of your conquering arms? The ill-omened torch, carried before me by those who led, drew its dark light from a ruined pyre: and I was sprinkled with Stygian waters, and the headband was not set right among my hair: the god of marriage was not my friend.

Oh, my harmful vows hang from every gate: and this is the fourth cloak I weave for your camp. Let him perish who tore a stake from an innocent tree, and made mournful trumpets from shrill horns, he is more worthy than Ocnus to lean on, and twist the rope, and feed your hunger, mule, to eternity! Tell me, does the breastplate cut your tender shoulders? Does the heavy spear chafe your unwarlike hands? They say your face is lean and drawn: but I pray that pallor is from desire for me.

Full text of "The Boomer Bible"

While I, when evening leads on the bitter night, kiss the weapons you have left behind. Fortunate Hippolyte! With naked breasts she carried weapons, and barbarously hid her soft hair under a helmet. If only the Roman camps were open to women! I would have been a loyal burden for your campaign. Scythian hills would not hinder me when the mighty god turns the waters to ice with deeper cold.

Every love is powerful, but greater in an acknowledged partner: this fire Venus herself fans into life. Why then should robes of Phoenician purple gleam for me now, or clear crystals decorate my fingers? The whimpering of the little puppy Craugis is dear to me: she is the only one to claim your share of the bed. I roof over the shrines with flowers, cover the crossroads with sacred branches, and the Sabine herb crackles on ancient altars. Tatius encircled this hill with a maple-wood palisade, and ringed his camp securely with mounds of earth.

The hills were walls: where the Curia is hedged in, the war-horse drank from the self-same spring. There was a pleasant grove hidden in an ivied hollow and many a tree filled the native streams with rustling. Here Tarpeia drew water for the Goddess: and the jar of earthenware burdened her head.

And could one death be sufficient for that wicked girl, who wanted to betray your flames, Vesta? She saw Tatius practising manoeuvres on the sandy plain, and lifting his ornate spear among the yellow crests. She often feigned that the innocent moon was ominous, and said she must wash her hair in the stream.

And sitting on that Tarpeian Hill of hers, she sobbed out, from there, her wound that nearby Jupiter would not forgive:. Hills of Rome , and Rome that crowns the hills, and Vesta shamed by my wickedness, farewell! That horse, will carry my passions to his camp, whose mane is dressed to the right, by Tatius himself!

So rumour says, tomorrow, there will be a purging of the whole city: you must seize the dew-wet spine of the thorny hill. The whole track is slippery and treacherous: since it always hides silent water on its deceptive path. O if only I knew the incantations of the magical Muse! Then my tongue would have brought help to my lovely man. The ornate robe is worthy of you, not him without honour of a mother, nourished by the harsh teats of a brutal she-wolf.

Stranger, as your queen, shall I give birth so in your palace! Rome betrayed comes with me, no poor gift to you. If not, so that the raped Sabine women are not un-avenged, rape me, and choosing one after the others repay in kind! I can separate the warring armies: you brides, strike a peace treaty my wedding-robe intervening. Hymenaeus add your measure: trumpeter cease your wild sounds: believe me my bed will soften your warfare. Now the fourth bugle-call sings out the coming of day, and the stars themselves fall slipping into the Ocean.

I will try to sleep, I will search out dreams of you: let your kind shadow come before my eyes. She spoke, and let her arms fall in uneasy sleep, not knowing alas that she had lain down among fresh frenzies. She ran, like a Thracian by swift Thermodon , tearing at her clothes, with naked breasts. Romulus decreed that the watch should be free to rest, and the camp be silent, the trumpets cease. Tarpeia determined this was her chance, and met with the enemy: she struck a deal, she herself to be a partner to that deal.

The hill was difficult to climb, but unguarded due to the feast: suddenly he struck down with his sword the dogs that were liable to bark. All displayed sleep: but Jupiter alone resolved to keep watch to your ruin. This was your dowry, virgin, fitting for your services. O, watcher, unjustly you win a reward from fate. Earth cover your grave with thorns, Procuress, and let your shadow feel what you do not wish for, thirst: and may your ghost not rest among your ashes, and vengeful Cerberus terrorise your shameful bones with famished howling!

Clever at winning even adamant Hippolytus to love, and always darkest omen to a peaceful bed, she could even force Penelope to be indifferent to rumours of her husband, and wed with lascivious Antinous. If she wishes it, the magnet will be unable to attract iron, and the bird will play the stepmother to her nestlings. She dared to set rules for the spellbound moon, and disguise her shape as a nocturnal wolf, so that by art she could blind watching husbands, and tear out the innocent eyes of crows with her nails, and considered with owls concerning my blood, and for me collected the fluids produced by a pregnant mare.

Pretending to have a husband raises the price: employ excuses! Always have fresh bite-marks on your neck, that he might think were given in the to and fro of love-quarrels. Alter your style for the man: if he boasts of his singing, go along with him, and join in with your tipsy words. Let your doorman look out for the bringers of gifts: if they knock empty-handed, let him sleep on, with the bolt slid home.

Consider the gold, and not the hand that offers the gold! Yet we think of the incidents of boyhood as having occurred to the Ego, forming part of its character. Now since this Ego is only conscious by virtue of having formulated itself, or the Universe as it happens to view the case , in the form of Duality, and since all the experiences of the Ego are necessary to it, as all phenomena soever are necessary, it is permissible to regard the totality of the experience of the Ego as the presentation in duality of a single simultaneous fact. The man who fails to recognize it as such is hopelessly bewildered by the irrational character of the universe, which he takes to be real; and he cannot but regard it as aimless and absurd.

The adventures of his body and mind, with their desires for material and moral well-being, are obviously as foredoomed to disaster as Don Quixote's. He must be a fool if he struggles on against inexorable fate to obtain results which he knows can only end in catastrophe, a climax the more bitter as he clings the more closely to his impossible ideals.

But once he acquiesces in the necessity of the course of events, and considers his body and mind as no more than the instruments which interpret himself to himself by means of dualistic presentation, he should soon acquire a complete indifference to the nature of the incidents which occur to him.

It is not surprising that these incidents should occur in an apparent disorderly sequence any more than that the colours of a picture, or the words of a story, should not be disturbed according to an a priori classification, as in a Lexicon or a colourman's catalogue. His task as a connoisseur is to recognize the idea of the artist, and this he can only do by appreciation of the complete work. It will be said that nobody can realize himself so long as the presentation is imperfect, that is, so long as he is incarnated. This is no doubt true in all rigour; but one can obtain an approximation to the intended self-knowledge by withdrawing for a time to the monistic form of self-consciousness, which does not distinguish between the Ego and the Non-Ego; in other words, by attaining Samadhi.

But the first experience of Samadhi will then naturally be an ecstasy devoid of name or form, and containing no elements distinguishable as such; and we know this to be the case. One has simply deprived oneself of the means of expression, and all dual consciousness disappears, together with its forms, time and space. One concludes from this that the Universe is identical with the Ego, and all things dissolve into a formless essence characterized by knowledge and bliss.

But this early stage of Samadhi is an illusion, a sort of drunken dizziness. So in sexual love, the ecstasy abolishes the Ego, apparently; it forgets that duality was its cause, and must be equally real with itself, in one sense or another. But subsequent Samadhi teaches the adept that his universal instantaneous Unity exists as "None and Two"; and he learns that his Samadhi is peculiar to himself as well as common to all. He becomes able to experience the truth of the statements in the Book of the Law , the nature of Nuith and Hadith, and of himself as a Star, unique, individual, and eternal, but yet a part of the Body of Nuith, and therefore identical with all other stars in that respect.

He realizes himself as the "bed in working" of Nuith and Hadit, as a particular form assumed by the latter for the sake of Variety in his "play" with the former; and he partakes in this play by his self-realization, which he synthesizes from the "events of his life". He understands that these events are the resultant of the Universe as applied to him, so that his experience is equally unique and universal, each star being the centre of the cosmos, and the Cosmos applicable as a whole to each star.

The experiences of each angle of a triangle are common to all, for one can express any relation as a function of any angle, at will. Each may be taken as the starting-point of the study of the properties to the triangle. But each angle is necessary to the triangle, and each is equally important to its existence. Each is bound to the others, and moreover each is in a sense illusory in respect of the triangle, which is an idea, simple and ideal, whose unity is compelled to express itself and manifest its properties by extension as a plane figure.

For no triangle can express the idea of a triangle. Any triangle must be either equilateral, isosceles or scalene, either acute, right-angled, or obtuse; and no one triangle can be all these at once; while the idea of a triangle includes all these, and infinite other, possibilities. In a similar way, Nuith and Hadith include all possible forms of existence; they can only realize Themselves by creating an infinite variety of forms of Themselves, each one real as it is Their image, illusory as it is a partial and divided aspect of Them. Each such Star is intelligible to Them, as a poem is to its author as a part of this soul mirrored by his mind.

But it is not intelligible to itself, because it has no relation with any other ideas; it only knows itself as the babe of its mother Nuith, to whom it yearns, being stirred by its father Hadith to express that instinctive attachment by inarticulate cries. To know itself, each such Star, or Soul, must eat of the Fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, by accepting labour and pain as its portion, and death as its doom.

That is, it must reveal its nature to itself by formulating that nature as duality. It must express itself by a series of symbolic gestures ostensibly external to it, just as a painter reveals one facet of his Delight-Diamond by covering a canvas with colours in such a way that the picture seems at first sight to represent something outside himself. It must, in fact, repeat for itself the original Magick of Nuith and Hadith which created it.

As They made Themselves visible piecemeal by fashioning particular Souls, expressing the Impersonal and Absolute Homogeneity by means of Personal Relative Heterogeneity, so, not forgetting their true nature as forms of the Infinite, whereby they are one with all, must the stars devise methods of studying themselves. They must make images of themselves, apparently external, and they must represent their highly complex qualities in a duality involving space and time. For each Star is of necessity related to every other star, so that no influence is alien to its individuality; it must therefore observer its reaction to every other star.

Just so are most chemical elements possessed of but few qualities directly appreciable by our senses; we must learn their natures by putting them into relation with the other Elements in turn. Note well that this knowledge were impossible unless there were a variety of elements; so also the fact of our self-consciousness proves the existence of individual souls; all related, all parts of the One Soul, in one sense, but none the less independent in themselves, eternal entities expressing particular elements of existence.

Each star is in itself immune and innocent; its proper consciousness is monistic; it must therefore employ a body and mind as the instruments for interpreting its relations with other souls, and comparing its nature with theirs. For the mind perceives the contrast of the Self and the not-Self, and presents its experiences, classified and judged, to the soul as documents for the dossier; and the body reports to the mind the impressions received from its contact with alien forms as the senses receive them. It must naturally require many incarnations for the soul to begin to know itself with any degree of perfection; and one may recognize advanced souls by their minds, which understand the a nature of their work, are indifferent to the body's preference for any special forms of experience, and seek eagerly after novel adventures like a philatelist after rare stamps to complete the collection.

They are also as a rule both very careful and very careless about their bodily welfare, taking pains to preserve their powers for the purpose of gaining new experiences, but utterly indifferent to them as valuable in themselves. They rule them with a rod of iron, and train them like pugilists; but they risk them recklessly whenever the Work demands it.

It is important to understand the necessity of our present Universe. Perfection could do not otherwise than create Imperfection. But was there not original Imperfection? No; for Perfection is hardly more than that original state, since we cannot conceive the total as susceptible of addition. But is not all this based on the accident that I personally am bored by omniscience on any given matter? Yes, but Imperfection is a fact, and a God whom Perfection did not bore would not have created Imperfection.

But why not suppose a wicked God, or a foolish God? Things which seem to me wrong, or stupid, are so because I am the sole judge. But these things are not my creations, but those of other Gods. True, but those Gods are all part of me, so far as I know them. So then, in my own nature are these contrary Gods, which as above said I have created in myself to give variety.

This verse is written for men who are still in division, and sore about it; the pain is only in their idea of it. One should compare this thought with the Freudian psychology, which regards all separation from the 'Mother' as heroic but painful. But has a hero really no compensations? Besides, separation is itself a relief, just so soon as the strain becomes irksome, as in parturition. As to "the joy of dissolution" the reference is to Samadhi , the trance in which Subject and Object become one. In this orgiastic ecstasy is experienced at first; later, the character of the consciousness changes to continuously calm delight, and later still, the delight deepens in a manner wholly indescribable.

The technical terms used by Oriental Initiates to denote these conditions are untranslatable; in any case, they serve rather to darken counsel. There is a qabalistic aphorism concerning the words 'nothing' and 'all'; for this and similar matters see the Appendix. They feel little; what is, is balanced by weak joys; but ye are my chosen ones.

All this talk about 'suffering humanity' is principally drivel based on the error of transferring one's own psychology to one's neighbour. The Golden Rule is silly. If Lord Alfred Douglas for example did to others what he would like them to do to him, many would resent his action. The development of the Adept is by Expansion -- out to Nuit -- in all directions equally.

The small man has little experience, little capacity for either pain or pleasure. The bourgeois is a clod. I know better at least than to suppose that to torture him is either beneficial or amusing to myself. This thesis concerning compassion is of the most palmary importance in the ethics of Thelema. It is necessary that we stop, once for all, this ignorant meddling with other people's business. Each individual must be left free to follow his own path. America is peculiarly insane on these points.

Her people are desperately anxious to make the Cingalese wear furs, and the Tibetans vote, and the whole world chew gum, utterly dense to the fact that most other nations, especially the French and British, regard 'American institutions' as the lowest savagery, and forgetful or ignorant of the circumstance that the original brand of American freedom -- which really was Freedom -- contained the precept to leave other people severely alone, and thus assured the possibility of expansion on his own lines to every man.

Then the joys of my love will redeem ye from all pain. This is so: I swear it by the vault of my body; by my sacred heart and tongue; by all I can give, by all I desire of ye all. The rule and purpose of the Order; the promise of Nuit to her chosen. But it is necessary for the development of Freedom itself to have an organization; and every organization must have a highly-centralized control. This is especially necessary in time of war, as even the so-called 'democratic' nations have been taught by Experience, since they would not learn from Germany. Now this age is pre-eminently a 'time of war', most of all now, when it is our Work to overthrow the slave-gods.

The injunction "seek me only" is emphasized with an oath, and a special promise is made in connection with it. By seeking lesser ideals one makes distinctions, thereby affirming implicitly the very duality from which one is seeking to escape. Law, in the common sense of the word, should be a formulation of the customs of a people, as Euclid's propositions are the formulation of geometrical facts. But modern knavery conceived the idea of artificial law, as if one should try to square the circle by tyranny. Legislators try to force the people to change their customs, so that the "business men" whose greed they are bribed to serve may increase their profits.

The first demand is refused, or, it may be, is to be communicated by another means than writing. Those who are accepted by Him for initiation testify that these Ordeals are frequently independent of His conscious care. They are not, like the traditional ordeals, formal, or identical for all; the Candidate finds himself in circumstances which afford a real test of conduct, and compel him to discover his own nature, to become aware of himself by bringing his secret motives to the surface.

Some of the Rituals have been made accessible, that is, the Magical Formulae have been published. The instruction to write for three days from noon to one o'clock each day had already been given to The Beast. See the Preface to this Commentary. The comment is to be written "by the wisdom of Ra-Hoor-Khuit", i. The Beast is here definitely identified with the priest of the 26th Dynasty whose Stele forms the Pantacle so to speak of the new Magick.

He is moreover identified with the scribe. It is of immense importance to the stability of the Law to have a Book not merely verbally but literally inspired, so that even errors in spelling and grammar have a secret significance. That this must be so is guaranteed by the literary preeminence and impeccable orthography of the Beast as a man. But the great thing is the Standard to which all disputes may be referred.

It is also necessary to give weight to the authority of The Beast, lest ignorance, folly, or cunning misinterpret the text. An entirely new system of magic is to be learnt and taught, as is now being done. Mantras may be defined as sentences proper to concentration of the mind by virtue of their constant repetition. Spells are methods of communicating the will to other beings.

The Obeah is the Magick of the Secret Light with special reference to acts; the wanga is the verbal or mental correspondence of the same. The work of the wand is that of Union; of the sword, Division; these correspond to the two Phases of the Cosmic cycle described above. The "obeah" being the acts, and the "Wanga" the words, proper to Magick , the two cover the whole world of external expression. The Equinox and Book 4 are full of instruction on all these matters in great detail, and the student must make them his guide.

But I feel bound to observe that they must be studied merely as classics, just as a musician studies Bach and Others. He cannot compose by copying or combining their works; they serve him only as indications of the art of expression. He must master the technique, theory and practice, of music, til the general principles are absorbed, and he has command of the language, to use it to express his Will. So with Magick ; the student must understand and assimilate the basic propositions, and he must be expert in the drill of the practical details. But that is merely ground-work: he must then conceive his own expression, and execute it in his own style.

Each star is unique, and each orbit apart; indeed, that is the corner-stone of my teaching, to have no standard goals or standard ways, no orthodoxies and no codes. The stars are not herded and penned and shorn and made into mutton like so many voters! I decline to be bellwether, who am born a Lion! I will not be collie, who am quicker to bite than to bark. I refuse the office of shepherd, who bear not a crook but a club. Wise in your generation, ye sheep, are ye to scamper away bleating when your ears catch my roar on the wind!

Are ye not tended and fed and protected -- until word come from the stockyard? Now one more point about the obeah and the wanga , the deed and the word of Magick. Magick is the art of causing change in existing phenomena. This definition includes raising the dead, bewitching cattle, making rain, acquiring goods, fascinating judges, and all the rest of the programme. Good: but it also includes every act soever? Yes; I meant it to do so. It is not possible to utter word or do deed without producing the exact effect proper and necessary thereto. Thus Magick is the Art of Life itself.

Magick is the management of all we say and do, so that the effect is to change that part of our environment which dissatisfies us, until it does so no longer. We "remould it nearer to the heart's desire. Magick ceremonies proper are merely organized and concentrated attempts to impose our Will on certain parts of the Cosmos. They are only particular cases of the general law. But all we say and do, however casually, adds up to more, far more, than our most strenuous Operations.

The "ninety and nine that safely lay in the shelter of the fold" have no organized will at all; and their character, built of their words and deeds, is only a garbage-heap. Remember, also, that, unless you know what your true will is, you may be devoting the most laudable energies to destroying yourself. Remember that every word and deed is a witness to thought, that therefore your mind must be perfectly organized, its sole duty to interpret circumstances in terms of the Will so that speech and action may be rightly directed to express the Will appropriately to the occasion.

Remember that every word and deed which is not a definite expression of your Will counts against it, indifference worse than hostility. Your enemy is at least interested in you: you may make him your friend as you never can do with a neutral. Remember that Magick is the Art of Life, therefore of causing change in accordance with Will; therefore its law is "love under will", and its every movement is an act of love. Remember that every act of "love under will" is lawful as such; but that when any act is not directed unto Nuith, who is here the inevitable result of the whole Work, that act is waste, and breeds conflict within you, so that "the kingdom of God which is within you" is torn by civil war.

Furnish your mind as completely as possible with the knowledge of how to inspect and to control it. Unite the conscious will with the true Will, and the conscious Ego with the Silent Self. You must be utterly ruthless in discarding any atom of consciousness which is hostile or neutral. Let this work freely from within, but heed not your environment, lest you make difference between one thing and another. Whatever it be, it is to be made one with you by Love. Why am not I to learn and teach the work of the Cup and of the Disk? Is it because they are the feminine weapons?

Shall the Scarlet Woman attend to these? The Book does not say so; the passives are ignored. I feel the omission as a lack of balance, the only case of the kind in the Book. This makes me certain that there is a special meaning. This wand and sword may not be the wand and sword, or rather dagger, of the elemental weapons.

We may also take them as simple symbols, the one as that of Love, the other as that of War. But, looking back over sixteen years, what have I learnt and taught? Surely the work of the wand, the free use of the Will to create, and the way to give power to the Will. I have set it up and caused men to worship it, for its name is God-in-action. As to the work of the sword, I have fought, I have shorn shams asunder, I have anatomized my mind as no man has done since Gautama.

Last, I have shown how pure analysis leads to the highest Trance, and unveils the absolute Truth. If this text imply more than this, I know not of it; I ask pardon of Them that fashioned me and chose me for Their minister. The usual charge in a work of this kind. Every man has a right to attain; but it is equally the duty of the adept to see that he duly earns his reward, and to test and train his capacity and strength.

These ordeals are prepared by the Magical Power of The Beast. It is however not necessary for Him to know consciously what He is doing, and it is a very alert young Magician who knows what he is undergoing, and why. Compare Rabelais. Also it may be translated, "Let Will and Action be in harmony. Liber Aleph has also much wisdom upon the Will. After absorbing Berashith , and seeing that Will has come by Chance, the question arises, is Chance in any way bound by Necessity? Is there a limit to possibility? See Comment on verse I only put forward this suggestion to exhibit the profundity of thought required to deal even with so plain a passage.

All the meanings are true, if only the interpreter be illuminated; but if not, they are false, even as he is false. There was a sub-intention in the above paragraphs for the benefit of -- Dwarfs! It is explained in Liber that: "The man of earth is the adherent. The lover giveth his life unto the work among men. The hermit goeth solitary, and giveth only of his light unto men. Thus we have in the Order, the Mystic, the Magician, and the Devotee. This last sentence of this paragraph is in a sense the sum of this whole Book; for it is the threefold Book of Law.

It will be well therefore to reprint the substance of the Message which he first promulgated on his formal initiation into that Grade. There are many other mysteries in this Word, so that it is impossible to write a full commentary. The Book Aleph Wisdom or Folly is almost wholly devoted to its explanation. O man! O lover, if thou wilt, depart! There is no bond that can unite the divided but love: all else is a curse. Accursed be it to the aeons! Interference with the will of another is the great sin, for it predicates the existence of another.

In this duality sorrow consists. I think that possibly the higher meaning is still attributed to will. The first paragraph is a general statement or definition of Sin or Error. Anything soever that binds the will, hinders it, or diverts it, is Sin. That is, Sin is the appearance of the Dyad.

Sin is impurity. The remainder of the paragraph takes a particular case as an example. There shall be no property in human flesh. The sex-instinct is one of the most deeply-seated expressions of the will; and it must not be restricted, either negatively by preventing its free function, or positively by insisting on its false function. What is more absurd than to seek to interpret this holy instinct as a gross animal act, to separate it from the spiritual enthusiasm without which it is so stupid as not even to be satisfactory to the persons concerned?

The sexual act is a sacrament of Will. To profane it is the great offence. All true expression of it is lawful; all suppression or distortion is contrary to the Law of Liberty. To use legal or financial constraint to compel either abstention or submission, is entirely horrible, unnatural and absurd. Physical constraint, up to a certain point, is not so seriously wrong; for it has its roots in the original sex-conflict which we see in animals, and has often the effect of exciting Love in his highest and noblest shape.

Some of the most passionate and permanent attachments have begun with rape. Similarly, murder of a faithless partner is ethically excusable, in a certain sense; for there may be some stars whose Nature is extreme violence. The collision of galaxies is a magnificent spectacle, after all.

But there is nothing inspiring in a visit to one's lawyer. Of course this is merely my personal view; a star who happened to be a lawyer might see things otherwise! Yet Nature's unspeakable variety, though it admits cruelty and selfishness, offers us no example of the puritan and the prig! However, to the mind of Law there is an Order of Going; and a machine is more beautiful, save to the Small Boy, when it works than when it smashes.

Now the Machine of Matter-Motion is an explosive machine, with pyrotechnic effects; but these are only incidentals. Laws against adultery are based upon the idea that woman is a chattel, so that to make love to a married woman is to deprive the husband of her services. It is the frankest and most crass statement of a slave-situation. To us, every woman is a star. She has therefore an absolute right to travel in her own orbit.

There is no reason why she should not be the ideal hausfrau, if that chance to be her will. But society has no right to insist upon that standard. It was, for practical reasons, almost necessary to set up such taboos in small communities, savage tribes, where the wife was nothing but a general servant, where the safety of the people depended upon a high birth-rate.

But to-day woman is economically independent, becomes more so every year.

List of characters in mythology novels by Rick Riordan

The result is that she instantly asserts her right to have as many or as few men or babies as she wants or can get; and she defies the world to interfere with her. More power to her -- elbow! The War has seen this emancipation flower in four years. Primitive people, the Australian troops for example, are saying that they will not marry English girls, because English girls like a dozen men a week. Well, who wants them to marry? Russia has already formally abrogated marriage. Germany and France have tried to 'save their faces' in a thoroughly Chinese manner, by 'marrying' pregnant spinsters to dead soldiers!

England has been too deeply hypocritical, of course, to do more than "hush things up"; and is pretending 'business as usual', though every pulpit is aquake with the clamour of bat-eyed bishops, squeaking of the awful immorality of everybody but themselves and their choristers. Englishwomen over 30 have the vote; when the young 'uns get it, good-bye to the old marriage system. America has made marriage a farce by the multiplication and confusion of the Divorce Laws.

A friend of mine who had divorced her husband was actually, three years later, sued by him for divorce!!! But America never waits for laws; her people go ahead. The emancipated, self-supporting American woman already acts exactly like the 'bachelor-boy'. Sometimes she loses her head, and stumbles into marriage, and stubs her toe.

She will soon get tired of the folly. She will perceive how imbecile it is to hamstring herself in order to please her parents, or to legitimatize her children, or to silence her neighbours. She will take the men she wants as simply as she buys a newspaper; and if she doesn't like the Editorials, or the Comic Supplement, it's only two cents gone, and she can get another. Blind asses! The Easterns know better; all the restrictions of the harem, of public opinion, and so on, are based upon the recognition of the fact that woman is only chaste when there is nobody around.

She will snatch the babe from its cradle, or drag the dog from its kennel, to prove the old saying: Natura abhorret a vacuo. It is to be well noted that the Great Women of History have exercised unbounded freedom in Love. But, even on that showing, the sex-life was intense, for the writings of such women are overloaded with sexual expression passionate and perverted, even to morbidity and to actual hallucination. Sex is the main expression of the Nature of a person; great Natures are sexually strong; and the health of any person will depend upon the freedom of that function.

So with thy all; thou hast no right but to do thy will. My personal will to cross the Atlantic, for example, is made effective by co-operation with others on agreed terms. But the forced association of slaves is another thing. A man who is not doing his will is like a man with cancer, an independent growth in him, yet one from which he cannot get free.

The idea of self-sacrifice is a moral cancer in exactly this sense. Similarly, one may say that not to do one's will is evidence of mental or moral insanity. When "duty points one way, and inclination the other", it is proof that you are not one, but two. You have not centralized your control.

This dichotomy is the beginning of conflict, which may result in a Jekyll-Hyde effect. Stevenson suggests that man may be discovered to be a "mere polity" of many individuals. The sages knew it long since. But the name of this polity is Choronzon, mob rule, unless every individual is absolutely disciplined to serve his own, and the common, purpose without friction.

It is of course better to expel or destroy an irreconcilable. It has been read: If thine eye offend some artificial standard of right, cut it out. The curse of society has been Procrustean morality, the ethics of the herd-men. One would have thought that a mere glance at Nature would have sufficed to disclose Her scheme of Individuality made possible by Order. No other shall say nay may mean -- NO-Other Nuit shall pronounce the word No, uniting the Aspirant with Herself by denying and so destroying that which he is. The general meaning of this verse is that so great is the power of asserting one's right that it will not long be disputed.

For by doing so one appeals to the Law. In practice it is found that people who are ready to fight for their rights are respected, and let alone. The slave-spirit invites oppression. Recommends "non-attachment. It is a bond and the aim is freedom. I recommend serious study of the word unassuaged which appears not very intelligible. This verse is best interpreted by defining 'pure will' as the true expression of the Nature, the proper or inherent motion of the matter, concerned. It is unnatural to aim at any goal. II, v.


  1. Die Vernichtung der europäischen Juden - der Holocaust (German Edition);
  2. Log in to Wiley Online Library.
  3. H. Rider Haggard - Wisdom's Daugther.
  4. Emerson: Poems (Everymans Library Pocket Poets Series)?

One is not to do Yoga, etc. The pure student does not think of the result of the examination. Perhaps means that adding perfection to perfection results in unity and ultimately the Negativity. But I think there is much more than this. Here begins one of the characteristically difficult passages of this Book.

The author, Aiwaz, is careful to identify Himself at intervals by such Speech. The interpretation, when thoroughly grasped, is invariably quite overwhelming by its simplicity. It is for this reason that this Book should be studied with all assiduity; at any moment the answer to your own deepest problem may be signalled to you from the Stars. I think that the surface meaning of this verse is to answer the unspoken criticism of the scribe, who did not see how to find a zero value for such an equation. It assured him that it was only necessary to find a Unity Value.

But they are not of me. Let Asar be the adorant, Isa the sufferer; Hoor in his secret name and splendour is the Lord initiating. Declares a New System of Magic, and initiation. Asar-Isa is now the Candidate, not the Hierophant. Hoor -- see Cap. III -- is the Initiator. It rested on the ignorant belief that the Sun died every day, and every year, and that its resurrection was a miracle. This formula is then to be based upon these facts. Our "Evil", "Error", "Darkness", "Illusion", whatever one chooses to call it, is simply a phenomenon of accidental and temporary separateness.

Marcus Aurelius - Meditations - Audiobook

If you are "walking in darkness", do not try to make the sun rise by self-sacrifice, but wait in confidence for the dawn, and enjoy the pleasures of the night meanwhile. The general illusion is to the Equinox Ritual of the G. The gross must pass through fire; let the fine be tried in intellect, and the lofty chosen ones in the highest.

Our system of initiation is to be triune. For the outer, tests of labour, pain, etc. For the inner, intellectual tests. For the elect of the A. Further the Order is not to hold Lodges, but to have a chain-system. It would be improper to make extended commentary on this verse, since the nature of the ordeals is not to be written. It is only necessary to say that these ordeals are singularly thorough in all ways, and cannot be dodged.

They are real, not formal, tests of the candidate.