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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Harvard College Observatory: History in Images. British Library: Medieval manuscripts blog: Written in the stars. Royal Museums Greenwich: Astronomy in the 19 th century. Peccei and Quinn discussing their proposed symmetry with the aid of a sombrero. Ryan Schude for Quanta Magazine. Science Museum: Hindu astrolabe.

Whewell’s Gazette: Year 3, Vol. #44 | Whewell's Ghost

Isolated circular formation with bowl shape and overlapping a rille of Rimae Littrow. Sketch shows hints of Atlas, Hercules,and Posidonius. This sketch is incomplete due to the very low altitude of the Moon, resulting in a battle with trees, electricity cables, and clouds.

Boston was established in on a relatively small piece of land—called Shawmut by Native Americans—that was connected to the mainland by a narrow neck. British Library: Maps: Satirical maps of the world. Mistaking Histories: Imaginary Body Parts. Mistaking History: Gendered flesh, prolapse and sex change: the case of Phaethousa.

Early Modern Medicine: Finding your Feet. Wellcome Images images wellcome. Nouse: The story of leprosy: from BCE to now. Girls in the Philippines identified as having leprosy. Image: National Museum of Health and Medicine. Wellcome Library: Reading and health in the medieval convent. Wellcome Collection: The stranger who started an epidemic. M Sir J. Simpson and two friends, having tested chloroform Credit: Wellcome Library, London. Geek History: Urban legend: I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. Timeline: The largest non-nuclear explosion in U. History of Photography: Editorial.

World Digital Library: Explanation of the Telescope. Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts, where the naturalist Henry David Thoreau lived for two years in the s as an experiment. Photo by the author. AHF: Newsletter. History and Technology: Technology in the South Asian imaginary. Stanford News: Stanford classics student traces history of ancient geometry diagrams.

Space and Space Related Information

Ordered Universe: Grosseteste Manuscripts. Nautilus: The Multiverse of Portrait of Sir Hans Sloane. Chemistry World: The imagineers of war: the untold story of Darpa, the Pentagon agency that changed the world. Actes Sud: Jamais seul: Ces microbes qui construisent les plantes, les animaux et le civilisations. Wellcome Collection: A museum of modern nature 22 June—8 October Medium: Biggest-ever display of fossil hominins opens.

Daguerreotype of J. Hooker by William Edward Kilburn, circa Maria Emma Gray — , was an English conchologist and algologist. Feeling the buzz … advertisement for body lotion. Photograph: Wellcome Collection. Brendel plant models. Image courtesy of Rosamond Purcell. Exhibition open 15 September through Summer Lawrence Demonstrates the Cyclotron Concept. Among these applicants were many names destined for history, including Sally Ride, the first American woman to go into space, and Fred Gregory and Guy Bluford, two of the first African-American astronauts, as well as three astronauts whose lives were cut short in the Challenger disaster: Judith Resnik, Ronald McNair and Ellison Onizuka.

Altogether NASA received over 24, inquiries regarding the thirty to forty available positions. It was October 25, I was in the process of preparing for my first proctosigmoidoscopy. The agency hosted six selections between and , choosing 49 pilots and 17 scientist-astronauts. Many left for greener pastures as it became clear that they faced a long standdown between Skylab and the Space Shuttle. But as the latter program began to make headway, officials started to nurture thoughts of a new group of selectees.

They would be chosen according to new criteria, for the country had changed since the heyday of Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. By the early s plenty of people were ready to view them as pale, male, and stale. Public interest in spaceflight fell to low ebb, while concern for civil rights, defined very broadly, rose to flood tide.

ESA Bulletin 154

Several of them received two weeks of complete bed rest, to simulate weightlessness, and then rode a centrifuge that subjected them to 3-g acceleration, reproducing the stress of a shuttle reentry. The women were allowed to decide for themselves how long they could tolerate the g-forces, and the times were as high as seven minutes, far more than necessary for a return from orbit. Researchers concluded that no inherent problems barred women from flying aboard the shuttle, and Hans Mark, the center director at the time, said that there was a very high probability that women would join the flight crews.

For nearly a year, no Americans had ventured into orbit; nor would they do so for at least four years. The space ambitions of the United States were by no means directionless, but its strong astronaut corps faced a crisis: no missions were available in the foreseeable future, yet more astronauts were urgently required.

By the time the shuttle entered operational service sometime in , NASA optimistically hoped that missions would be launching as often as once every fortnight. In other words, more crews would rocket into the heavens during its first couple of years than had previously ridden every American spacecraft since May Applications will be accepted until June 30, , and all applicants will be informed of selection by December At least 15 pilot candidates and 15 mission specialist candidates will be selected to report to the Lyndon B. Final selection as an astronaut will depend on satisfactory completion of the evaluation period NASA is committed to an affirmative action program with a goal of having qualified minorities and women among the newly selected astronaut candidates.

Therefore, minority and women candidates are encouraged to apply. Pilot applicants must have a bachelor's degree from an accredited institution in engineering, physical science or mathematics or have completed all requirements for a degree by Dec. An advanced degree or equivalent experience is desired.

They must have at least 1, hours first pilot time, with 2, or more desirable. High performance jet aircraft and flight test experience is highly desirable. Height between 64 and 76 inches is desired. Applicants for Mission Specialist candidate positions are not required to be pilots.

Educational qualifications are the same as for pilot applicants except that biological science degrees are included. Height between 60 and 76 inches is desired. Candidates will be compensated based on individual academic achievements and experience. Other benefits include vacation and sick leave and participation in the Federal Government retirement, group health and life insurance plans.

Civilian applicants may obtain a packet of application material from JSC. Military personnel should apply through their respective military departments using procedures which will be disseminated later this year by DOD. Military candidates will be assigned to JSC but will remain in active military status for pay, benefits, leave and other military matters. Currently, 31 persons are available as Space Shuttle crewmen, including nine scientists.


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Twenty-eight of them are astronauts assigned to the Johnson Space Center and three hold government positions in Washington, D. The Space Shuttle is a reusable vehicle that will replace virtually all of this nation's space launch vehicles.

Shuttle missions could include deploying and retrieving satellites, servicing satellites in orbit, operating laboratories for astronomy, Earth sciences, space processing and manufacturing, and developing and servicing a permanent space station. Launched like a rocket, the shuttle will perform Earth orbital missions of up to 30 days, then land like an airplane and be refurbished for another mission. Pilot astronauts will control the shuttle during launch, orbital maneuvers and landings and be responsible for maintaining vehicle systems. Mission Specialist astronauts will be responsible for the coordination of overall orbiter operations in the areas of flight planning, consumables usage and other activities affecting payload operations.

At the discretion of the payload sponsor, the Mission Specialist may assist in the management of payload operations, and may, in specific cases, serve as the Payload Specialist. They will be able to continue in their chosen fields of research and to propose, develop and conduct experiments. Payload Specialists will operate specific payload equipment where their special skills are needed.

Potential users of the Space Shuttle include government agencies and private industries from the United States and abroad. The job, after all, was to be a Mission Specialist, which could entail such diverse tasks as studying the effects of weightlessness on a salamander, repairing a broken computer, launching a payload into space or capturing a failed satellite. Space biographer Michael Cassutt said that pilots military, civilian had applied, as had 5, hopeful mission specialists.

Most military applicants had been screened and nominated by their parent service. Only about half of the applications actually met the stated criteria. Later that year, in groups of less than twenty, the most promising candidates were summoned to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, for a week of interviews and medical tests. One of the first to arrive was a year-old naval officer named Rick Hauck. But then, in , NASA did announce that they were going to select a group of astronauts to augment the corps to fly the shuttle, and I saw that announcement when I was based onboard USS Enterprise.

Dale was a Mission Specialist, which is interesting. Twenty percent of the pilots came from that ship. Hauck said the two talked a lot back then about whether or not they would apply to the astronaut program. Some of the people were rejected immediately. What do you think about him?

I know.


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Thank you very much. The only ones I met were the ones in my little group of We spent a week going from briefing to briefing, from dinner to medical evaluations, psychological exams and individual interviews with the astronaut selection committee. Air Force test engineer named John Fabian and a year-old physician and former enlisted U.

Important Dates in Aviation History

For Ride, though, the media attention at becoming one of six female candidates was especially intense. There was a lot of press attention surrounding all six of us. Stanford arranged a press conference for me on the day of the announcement. I was a PhD physics student. Press conferences were not a normal part of my day! A lot of newspaper and magazine articles were written, primarily about the women in the group, even before we arrived. The media attention settled down quite a bit once we got to Houston. There were still the occasional stories and we definitely found ourselves being sent on plenty of public appearances.

Not that I expected to be picked. Far from it. But Sally Ride and five other women were. NASA had announced the newest group of astronauts, including the first women astronauts. There was video and newshounds jostling for positions in front of their homes. Vans with brightly colored TV call letters crowded the streets. Curious neighbors circled the houses. When did you want to be an astronaut?

Did you cry when you heard the news? Will you be scared when you ride the shuttle? No vans. No frothing press. No neighbors. I was alone to dwell on my rejection. The winners were on TV. The losers were watching them.

I drove to my Mt. Abbey at NASA called this morning and wants you to call him back. After a moment of holding more proof of rejection he came on the line. I would definitely be interested in coming to JSC. What the hell was I saying?! I would kill to be an astronaut. I was blind, deaf, and dumb with joy.

A later class would call themselves Ashos for astronaut hopefuls. NASA had learned the hard way that the title astronaut by itself had some significant cachet. In one of the Apollo-era astronaut groups, a disillusioned scientist had quit the program before ever flying into space and had written a book critical of the agency. Since his official title had been astronaut, his publisher had been able to legitimately promote the book with the impressive astronaut byline. For two years we would be candidates on probation with the agency.

If one decided to quit and go public with some grievance, NASA would be able to dismiss us as nothing more than a candidate, not a real astronaut. Personally, I felt the titling was an exercise in semantics. There were Catholics and Protestants, atheists and fundamentalists. Truth be known, there were probably gay astronauts among us. The group included three African Americans, and six females.

Every press camera was focused on this rainbow coalition, particularly the females. I could have mooned the press corps and I would not have been noticed. The white TNFG males were invisible. Military pilots, the mainstream of prior astronaut selections, were almost always politically conservative.

But the reign of the right ended with the large number of civilian astronauts. For the first time in history, the astronaut title was bestowed on tree-huggers, dolphin-friendly fish eaters, vegetarians, and subscribers to The New York Times. We had. For us, it had been a life quest