Your Gay Friend

The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online England During the Dark Ages file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with England During the Dark Ages book. Happy reading England During the Dark Ages Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF England During the Dark Ages at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF England During the Dark Ages Pocket Guide.

English began to be used as a second language of the court during the reign of Edward I. It saw a change in the composition of armies, with the lower ranks identifying with a national cause and responding to a call to arms and the development of near permanent taxation that made the general population investors in a national enterprise. There was also the growth of chivalric orders like that of the Garter and the increasing central role of the monarchy and parliament in English life. New religious orders began to be introduced into England in this period. The French Cluniac order became fashionable and their houses were introduced in England from the late eleventh century.

Pilgrimages were a popular religious practice throughout the Middle Ages in England. In the s several challenges emerged to the traditional teachings of the Church, resulting from the teachings of John Wycliffe , a member of Oxford University. England had a diverse geography in the medieval period, from the Fenlands of East Anglia and the heavily wooded Weald , through to the upland moors of Yorkshire. For much of the Middle Ages, England's climate differed from that in the twenty-first century.

The English economy was fundamentally agricultural , depending on growing crops such as wheat , barley and oats on an open field system , and husbanding sheep , cattle and pigs. Economic growth began to falter at the end of the thirteenth century, owing to a combination of overpopulation , land shortages and depleted soils.

Rodney Hilton and other scholars have argued that those peasants who survived famine, plague and disease, found their situation to be much improved. The period was for them a golden age of prosperity and new opportunities. Land was plentiful, wages high, and serfdom had all but disappeared. It was possible to move about and rise higher in life. Younger sons and women especially benefited. Conditions were less favourable for the great landowners. The agricultural sector shrank rapidly, with higher wages, lower prices and diminishing profits leading to the final demise of the old demesne system and the advent of the modern farming system centring on the charging of cash rents for lands.

The English cloth industry grew at the start of the fifteenth century, and a new class of international English merchants emerged, typically based in London or the South-West, prospering at the expense of the older, shrinking economies of the eastern towns. Technology and science in England advanced considerably during the Middle Ages, driven in part by the Greek and Islamic thinking that reached England from the twelfth century. The period produced some influential English scholars. Roger Bacon c. Technological advances proceeded in a range of areas.

Watermills to grind grain had existed during most of the Anglo-Saxon period, using horizontal mill designs; from the twelfth century on many more were built, eliminating the use of hand mills, with the older horizontal mills gradually supplanted by a new vertical mill design. England's maritime trade benefited from the introduction of cog ships , and many docks were improved and fitted with cranes for the first time. In the late thirteenth century Edward I expanded the familia regis , the permanent military household of the king, which was supported in war by feudal levies, drawn up by local nobles for a limited period of service during a campaign.

It formed the core of much larger armies up to 28, strong, largely comprising foot soldiers, for campaigns in Scotland and France. English fleets in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries typically comprised specialist vessels, such as galleys and large transport ships, and pressed merchant vessels conscripted into action; the latter increasingly included cogs , a new form of sailing ship. During the twelfth century the Normans had begun to build more castles in stone, with characteristic square keeps that supported both military and political functions.

By the fourteenth century, castles were combining defences with luxurious, sophisticated living arrangements and landscaped gardens and parks. A wide range of materials were used, including gold, glass and ivory, the art usually drawing overt attention to the materials utilised in the designs.

Competition from a strong French industry also eclipsed English ivory-carving. Poetry and stories written in French were popular after the Norman conquest, and by the twelfth century some works on English history began to be produced in French verse. Music and singing were important in England during the medieval period, being used in religious ceremonies, court occasions and to accompany theatrical works. By the late fourteenth century, these had been extended into vernacular mystery plays which performed annually over several days, broken up into various cycles of plays; a handful have survived into the twenty-first century.

During the twelfth century the Anglo-Norman style became richer and more ornate, with pointed arches derived from French architecture replacing the curved Romanesque designs; this style is termed Early English Gothic and continued, with variation, throughout the rest of the Middle Ages. By the fourteenth century grander houses and castles were sophisticated affairs: expensively tiled, often featuring murals and glass windows, these buildings were often designed as a set of apartments to allow greater privacy. In the sixteenth century, the first academic histories began to be written, typically drawing primarily on the chroniclers and interpreting them in the light of current political concerns.

They produced a progressive account of political and economic development in England. By the s, older historical analyses were challenged by a range of neo-positivist , Marxist and econometric approaches, supported by a widening body of documentary, archaeological and scientific evidence. Many studies focused on particular regions or groups, drawing on new records and new scientific approaches, including landscape and environmental archaeology.

The period has also been used in a wide range of popular culture. William Shakespeare 's plays on the lives of the medieval kings have proved to have had long lasting appeal, heavily influencing both popular interpretations and histories of figures such as King John and Henry V. Film-makers have drawn extensively on the medieval period, often taking themes from Shakespeare or the Robin Hood ballads for inspiration.

Tolkien 's stories of Middle-earth. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: House of Plantagenet. Main article: Second Barons' War. Main article: Edward I of England. Main article: Conquest of Wales by Edward I. Main article: First War of Scottish Independence. Main article: Edward II of England. Main article: Great Famine of — Main article: Second War of Scottish Independence. Main article: Hundred Years' War — Main article: Black Death in England. Main article: Richard II of England. Main article: Peasant's Revolt. Main article: House of Lancaster.

Main article: Henry IV of England. Main article: Henry VI of England. Main article: Wars of the Roses. Main article: House of York. Main article: Edward IV of England. Main article: Social history of the Late Middle Ages. Main article: Women in the Middle Ages. Main article: English national identity. Main article: Religion in Medieval England. Main article: Church and state in medieval Europe. Main article: Geography of England.

Main articles: Science in the Middle Ages and Medieval technology. Main article: Medieval warfare. Main article: Medieval naval warfare. Main article: Medieval art. Main article: English Gothic architecture. Main article: Depiction of the Middle Ages in popular culture. Ackroyd, Peter Aberth, John Airlie, Stuart The Medieval World.

London: Routledge. Alexander, Jonathan In Alexander, Jonathan; Binski, Paul eds. Age of Chivalry, Art in Plantagenet England, — Alexander, Jonathan; Binski, Paul, eds. Allmand, C. Cambridge University Press. Ashley, Mike Aston, Margaret; Richmond, Colin In Aston, Margaret; Richmond, Colin eds. Lollardy and the Gentry in the Later Middle Ages. Stroud, UK: Sutton. Aurell, Martin Paris: Tempus. Bailey, Mark In Given-Wilson, Chris ed. Baker, John English Stained Glass of the Medieval Period. London: Thames and Hudson. Barber, Richard a.

The Chivalric Background". Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. Barber, Richard b. Bartlett, Robert England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings, — Oxford: Clarendon Press. Benedictow, Caroline Bevington, David Brown, R. Allen English Castles. London: Batsford. Burton, Janet E. Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain, — Campbell, B. Manchester University Press. Cantor, Leonard In Cantor, Leonard ed. The English Medieval Landscape. London: Croon Helm. Carlton, Charles Pearson Education. Carpenter, David Carter, A. A History of English Legal Institutions.

Churchill, Winston A History of the English Speaking Peoples. Cobban, Alan B. London: Methuen. Contramine, Phillipe Coppack, Glyn Medieval Merchant's House, Southampton. London: English Heritage. Handbook to Life in the Medieval World. Coss, Peter The Presence of Feudalism. Cowie, Jonathan Climate Change: Biological and Human Aspects.

Creighton, Oliver Hamilton London: Equinox. Creighton, Oliver Hamilton; Robert, Higham Stroud, UK: Tempus. Crofton, Ian The Kings and Queens of England. Crouch, David Harlow: Pearson. Danziger, Danny; Gillingham, John Davies, Norman Davies, R. Deaux, George The Black Death, London: Hamilton. DeVries, Kelly Woodbridge: Boydell. D'haen, Theo In Bak, Hans ed. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Rodopi.

Dolan, Terrence In Wallace, David ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Driver, Martha W. In Driver, Martha W. Jefferson, US: McFarland. Dyer, Christopher Everyday Life in Medieval England. London: Hambledon and London. Emery, Anthony Discovering Medieval Houses. Risborough, UK: Shire Publications. Favier, Jean Forey, Alan Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan. Gardiner, Juliet Goodman, Anthony Grant, Alexander Uniting the Kingdom? Grant, Lindy Architecture and Society in Normandy, — Yale University Press.

Geddes, Jane In Blair, John; Ramsay, Nigel eds.

The Romans leave Britain

London: Hambledon Press. Getz, Faye Marie Gillingham, John The Wars of the Roses. Green, David In Given-WilsonI, Chris ed. Fourteenth Century England VI. Hackett, Jeremiah In Hackett, Jeremiah ed. Roger Bacon and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays. Hamilton, J. The Plantagenets: History of a Dynasty. Hanawalt, Barbara In Schlatter, Richard ed.

Rutgers University Press. In Beadle, Richard ed. Hebditch, Felicity Evans Brothers. Hicks, Michael Hill, Donald Routledge Hilton, Rodney Howard Clarendon Press. The English Rising of Hinton, David Abingdon, UK: Routledge. Hooper, Nicholas The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare. Hodgett, Gerald Horrox, Rosemary Hughes, Malcolm K. In Hughes, Malcolm K. The Medieval Warm Period. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hulme, Richard — The Castle Studies Group Journal 21 : — Jacobs, Joseph In Singer, Isidore ; et al. The Jewish Encyclopedia. Johns, Susan M. Johnson, Matthew Agency in Archaeology. Jones, Dan Jordan, William Chester Kessler, Herbert L. Seeing Medieval Art. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. Lauterpacht, Hersch Volume 20 of International Law Reports. Lawless, Emily The Story of Ireland. Puttnam's Sons. Liddiard, Robert Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism and Landscape, to Macclesfield, UK: Windgather Press.

MacDougall, N An Antidote to the English: the Auld Alliance, — Tuckwell Press. Maddicott, J. Thomas of Lancaster, — Oxford University Press. Marks, Richard Mate, Mavis Boydell Press. McKisack, M. The Fourteenth Century: — Morillo, Stephen Warfare Under the Anglo-Norman Kings — Morgan, Nigel J. Mortimer, Ian Thomas Dunne Books. Mundill, Robin R. England's Jewish Solution: Experiment and Expulsion, — Myers, A. English Society in the Late Middle Ages, — 8th ed. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.

Neville Figgis, John The Divine Right of Kings. Normore, Calvin G. In Spade, Paul Vincent ed. The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. O'Brien, Jay; Roseberry, William University of California Press. Ormrod, W. Mark Edward III. Ortenberg, Veronica London: Hambledon Continuum. Page, Christopher Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music. Park, David Plant, John S. Pollack and Maitland Pantin, W. Medieval Archaeology. Pounds, Norman John Greville Prestwich, J. In Strickland, Matthew ed.

Anglo-Norman Warfare. Prestwich, Michael Edward I. Plantagenet England: — Plantagenet England — Prior, Stuart Raban, Sandra Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Ramsay, Nigel Redknap, Mark Re-Creations: Visualising Our Past. Reid, Stuart Castles and Tower Houses of the Scottish Clans, — Botley, UK: Osprey Publishing.

Medieval England History | Life in England in the Middle Ages

Rose, Susan Medieval Naval Warfare, — Rotherham, Ian D. Ruling England, — Harlow, UK: Pearson. Mate, Mavis E. Women in Medieval English Society. Myers, A. English Society in the Late Middle Ages, — 8th ed. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin. Rubin, Miri Stenton, Doris Mary English Society in the Early Middle Ages, — White, Graeme J.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Whitelock, Dorothy The Beginnings of English Society 2nd ed. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books. Aurell, Martin Paris: Tempus. Henry II: New Interpretations.

England in the Middle Ages

Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. Barber, Richard a. The Chivalric Background". Barber, Richard b. Bradbury, Jim Stephen and Matilda: the Civil War of — Chibnall, Marjorie Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Davis, Ralph Henry Carless King Stephen 1st ed. London: Longman. Doherty, P. London: Robinson. Douglas, David Charles Hollister, C. Warren Henry I Yale ed. New Haven, U. King, Edmund King Stephen. Mortimer, Ian London: Vintage. Prestwich, J. In Strickland, Matthew ed. Anglo-Norman Warfare. Prestwich, Michael Edward I. London: Routledge. Raban, Sandra Stringer, Keith J. Turner, Ralph V.

King John: England's Evil King? Stroud, UK: History Press. Vincent, Nicholas Warren, W. Lewis King John. London: Methuen. Henry II Yale ed. Baker, John English Stained Glass of the Medieval Period. London: Thames and Hudson. Brown, R. Allen English Castles. London: Batsford. Cantor, Leonard In Cantor, Leonard ed.

The English Medieval Landscape. London: Croon Helm. Coppack, Glyn Medieval Merchant's House, Southampton. London: English Heritage. Creighton, Oliver Hamilton London: Equinox. Creighton, Oliver Hamilton; Robert, Higham Stroud, UK: Tempus. Emery, Anthony Discovering Medieval Houses. Risborough, UK: Shire Publications. Gilchrist, Roberta Hill, Donald Routledge Hulme, Richard — The Castle Studies Group Journal 21 : — Liddiard, Robert Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism and Landscape, to Macclesfield, UK: Windgather Press.

Marks, Richard In Blair, John; Ramsay, Nigel eds. London: Hambledon Press. McClendon, Charles B. D Nilson, Ben Cathedral Shrines of Medieval England.

England in the Middle Ages

Pantin, W. Medieval Archaeology. Pounds, Norman John Greville The Medieval City. Westport, US: Greenwood Press. Prior, Stuart Reid, Stuart Castles and Tower Houses of the Scottish Clans, — Botley, UK: Osprey Publishing. Rotherham, Ian D. In Liddiard, Robert ed. The Medieval Park: New Perspectives. Steane, John The Archaeology of the Medieval English Monarchy. Aberth, John Airlie, Stuart The Medieval World. Alexander, James W. The Journal of British Studies. Aston, Margaret; Richmond, Colin In Aston, Margaret; Richmond, Colin eds.

Lollardy and the Gentry in the Later Middle Ages. Stroud, UK: Sutton. Bachrach, Bernard S. In Parker, Geoffrey ed. The Cambridge History Of Warfare. Bailey, Mark In Given-Wilson, Chris ed. Barlow, Frank Thomas Becket. Barron, Caroline Bevington, David Blanchard, Ian In Britnell, Richard; Hatcher, John eds.

Burton, Janet E. Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain, — Cobban, Alan B. Coss, Peter The Presence of Feudalism. Cowie, Jonathan Climate Change: Biological and Human Aspects. Crouch, David Harlow: Pearson. Danziger, Danny; Gillingham, John London: Hodder and Stoughton. Davidson, Hilda Ellis Davies, R. Driver, Martha W. In Driver, Martha W. Jefferson, US: McFarland. Duggan, Charles Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research.


  1. The Social Life of Climate Change Models: Anticipating Nature (Routledge Studies in Anthropology).
  2. The Dark Ages ( - ) - Introduction - History of England!
  3. The Dark Ages (450 - 1066) - Introduction & Summary;

Dyer, Christopher Everyday Life in Medieval England. London: Hambledon and London. Forey, Alan Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan. Geddes, Jane Getz, Faye Marie Hackett, Jeremiah In Hackett, Jeremiah ed. Roger Bacon and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays. Halsall, Guy Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, In Beadle, Richard ed.

Hicks, Michael The Wars of the Roses. Hillaby, Joe In Skinner, Patricia ed. Hooper, Nicholas a. Hooper, Nicholas b. Hughes, Malcolm K. In Hughes, Malcolm K. The Medieval Warm Period.

Cookies on the BBC website

Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Humphrey, Chris In Humphrey, Chris; Ormrod, W. Time in the Medieval World. Johns, Susan M. Johnson, Matthew Agency in Archaeology. Jones, Dan Summer of Blood: The Peasants' Revolt of London: Harper Press.

Britain AD ~ The Not So Dark Age ~ Francis Pryor

Jordan, William Chester Kessler, Herbert L. Seeing Medieval Art. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. Kowalski, Maryanne Lavelle, Ryan Morillo, Stephen Warfare Under the Anglo-Norman Kings — London: Pimlico Press. Normore, Calvin G. In Spade, Paul Vincent ed. The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Ortenberg, Veronica London: Hambledon Continuum. Page, Christopher In Knighton, Tess; Fallows, David eds. Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music. Rahtz, Philip; Watts, Lorna In Carver, Martin ed. Ramsay, Nigel Rose, Susan Medieval Naval Warfare, — Sawyer, P.

Skinner, Patricia Spade, Paul Vincent Thomas, Hugh M.