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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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In reaction to that the Nazi government arrested pastors, who had read this declaration from their pulpits. The official church ordered to read a declaration demanding the parishioners' obedience to the Nazi government. From then on every Tuesday the brethren councils issued updated lists with the names of the imprisoned. Since the 28 Protestant church bodies in Germany levied contributions from their parishioners by a surcharge on the income tax , collected and then transferred by the state tax offices, the official church bodies denied the confessing congregations their share in the contributions.

Each congregation had its own budget and the official church authorities transferred the respective share in the revenues to the legitimate presbytery of each congregations, be it governed by German Christians or Confessing Christians. The Nazi Reich's government now intended to drain this financial influx by a new decree with the euphemising title Law on the Wealth Formation within the Evangelical Church Bodies 11 March All budgets and remittances were to be confirmed by state comptrollers. On 11 April an ordinance ordered that salaries were only to be remitted to orderly appointed employees and all future appointments of whomsoever, would only take effect with the consent of the financial departments.

He turned out to ignore the rules and to largely use his scope of discretion. Thus Confessing congregations outside of Berlin built up a new network of escrow accounts. Confessing Christians of laity and Covenant pastors, still undisputedly receiving a full salary from the official church, agreed to substantial contributions to maintain the Confessing Church. On 4 to 6 June , two weeks after the Nuremberg Laws had been decreed, the synodals of the Confessing Church convened in Augsburg for the third Reich's Synod of Confession.

Barth, refusing to sign the newly introduced oath of all professors to Hitler, had been dismissed from his chair at the Rhenish Frederick William's University of Bonn and remigrated to Switzerland, where he was appointed professor at the University of Basel. But the synodals did not adopt a declaration, prepared by Supt.

Albertz, condemning the Nuremberg Laws. Wurm was elected speaker of the Confessing Church. Right after this synod the Nazi Reich's government intensified its fight against the Confessing Church. Since the orderly courts often approved litigations against German Christian measurements, because they usually lacked any legal basis, on 26 June the Nazi government passed a law, which would ban all suits about church questions from being decided by orderly jurisdiction. Thus the Nazi government cut off the Confessing Church from appealing to courts. Orderly courts could not overrule its decisions.

In fact the Decision-Taking Office only acted up after the compromises failed in In the following years of compromising Hermann Ehlers became a legal advisor of the old-Prussian brethren council , until he was arrested from June to July , which made him quit his collaboration. On 16 July Hanns Kerrl was appointed Reich's minister for ecclesiastical affairs, a newly created department.

Therefore, he dropped the extreme German Christians and tried to win moderate Confessing Christians and respected neutrals. On 24 September , a new law empowered Kerrl to legislate by way of ordinances within the Protestant church bodies, circumventing any synodal autonomy. On 10 September the old-Prussian brethren council convened preparing the upcoming third old-Prussian Synod of Confession also Steglitz Synod.

Albertz urged the brethren council to discuss the terrible situation of Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent, as it turned by the Nuremberg Laws and all the other anti-Semitic discriminations. While Supt. This was completely denied by the German Christians since , reserving Christianity as a religion exclusively for Gentiles, but also some Confessing Christians refused the baptism of Jews. Kerrl managed to gain the very respected Wilhelm Zoellner a Lutheran, until general superintendent of Westphalia to form the Reich's Ecclesiastical Committee German: Reichskirchenausschuss , RKA on 3 October , combining neutral, moderate Confessing Christians and moderate German Christians to reconcile the disputing church parties.

In the course of November state ecclesiastical committees and provincial ecclesiastical committees were to be formed. Wilhelm Ewald Schmidt Oberhausen und Supt. In November Kerrl decreed the parallel institutions of the Confessing Church to be dissolved, which was protested and ignored by the brethren councils. On 19 December Kerrl issued a decree which forbade all kinds of Confessing Church activities, namely appointments of pastors, education, examinations, ordinations, ecclesiastical visitations, announcements and declarations from the pulpit, separate financial structures and convening Synods of Confession; further the decree established provincial ecclesiastical committees.

The Confessing Church in the Rhenish and Westphalian ecclesiastical provinces blocked in fact the formation of provincial ecclesiastical committees until 14 February The March of Brandenburg provincial ecclesiastical committee est. On 6 January, the members elected Zimmermann their president. On 10 January the Reich's ecclesiastical committee empowered by ordinance the provincial ecclesiastical committees to form ecclesiastical committees on the level of the deaneries, if assumed necessary. This was the case in the deanery of Berlin-Spandau.

As a gesture of reconciliation the state ecclesiastical committee for the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union legitimised all ordinations and examinations of the Confessing Church retroactively for the time from 1 January to 30 November Nevertheless, the Confessing Church refused to accept the new examination office of the state ecclesiastical committee. Thus Kerrl successfully wedged the Confessing Church. On 4 December the March of Brandenburg provincial Synod of Confession agreed to split in two provincial subsections, one for Greater Berlin and one comprising the political Province of Brandenburg with two provincial brethren councils, led by Gerhard Jacobi Berlin, resigned in , but quarrels between the moderate and the Dahlemites continued and by Scharf Brandenburg , who followed the Dahlemite guidelines.

The first Preliminary Church Executive resigned, since its members, representing intact churches , wanted to co-operate with the committees, while its members from destroyed churches , especially the Dahlemites did not. Also the different provincial brethren councils within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union were dissented.

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While most brethren councillors of Berlin wanted to co-operate, the brethren council of Brandenburg without Berlin , of the Rhineland and the overall old-Prussian brethren council strictly opposed any compromises. Albertz, Bernhard Heinrich Forck St. On 18 March the three Lutheran intact churches announced the foundation of the Council of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Germany German: Rat der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche Deutschlands , colloquially Lutherrat , Luther council as their own umbrella organisation.

However, the state brethren councils of the destroyed churches met occasionally in conferences. Under the impression of more foreign visitors in Germany, starting with the Winter Olympics the year of was a relatively peaceful period. Kerrl let the committees do, as they liked. Also the anti-Semitic agitation was softened. However, the Sinti and Roma in Berlin realised the first mass internments, in order to present Berlin zigeunerfrei for the Summer Olympics.

But the less visible phenomena of the police state, like house searches, seizures of pamphlets and printed matters as well as the suppression of Confessing Church press continued. At Pentecost 31 May the second preliminary church executive issued a memorandum to Hitler, also read from the pulpits, condemning anti-Semitism, concentration camps , the state terrorism.

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A preliminary version had been published in foreign media earlier. If the Aryan human is glorified, so it is God's word, which testifies the sinfulness of all human beings. On the next day until the 18th the fourth old-Prussian Synod of Confession also Breslau Synod convened in Breslau, discussing the work of the ecclesiastical committees and how to continue the education and ordinations in the scope of the Confessing Church. Meanwhile, the Olympic close hunting season had ended. The Gestapo increased its suppression, undermining the readiness for compromises among the Confessing Church.

Zoellner concluded that this made his reconciliatory work impossible and criticised the Gestapo activities. He resigned on 2 February , paralysing the Reich's ecclesiastical committee, which thus lost all recognition among the opposition. The open gap in governance of the official Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union was filled by the still existing Evangelical Supreme Church Council under Werner and by the consistories on the provincial level.

Werner now systematically drained the financial sources of the Confessing Church. Werner became the man of Kerrl. However, Kerrl's ministerial bureaucracy also knew what to do without him. From now on the ministry of church affairs subjected also the other Protestant church bodies, which in amounted after mergers to 23, to state controlled financial committees.

Any attempt to impose a union upon all Protestant church bodies was given up. The government now preferred to fight individual opponents by prohibitions to publish, to hold public speeches, by domiciliary arrest, banishments from certain regions, and imprisonment. Since 9 June collections of money were subject to strict state confirmation, regularly denied to the Confessing Church. In the period of the committee policy, unapproved collections were tolerated but now Confessing pastors were systematically imprisoned, who were denounced for having collected money.

On 10—13 May synodals convened in Halle upon Saale to discuss denominational questions of the Reformed, Lutheran and united congregations within the old-Prussian Confessing Church. The fifth old-Prussian Synod of Confession also Lippstadt Synod convened its synodals in Lippstadt on 21—27 August debating financial matters. In autumn the Gestapo further suppressed the underground theological education KiHo and systematically fought any examinations within the Confessing Church.

On 10 December the ministry of church affairs appointed Werner as president of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council. Werner then restaffed the March of Brandenburg consistory, newly appointing Johannes Heinrich as consistorial president after almost a year of vacancy and three further members of German Christian affiliation: Siegfried Nobiling, Fritz Loerzer formerly also Provost of Kurmark and Pastor Karl Themel Luisenstadt Congregation, Berlin. For Hitler's birthday 20 April Werner developed a special gift.

All pastors of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union should swear an oath of allegiance to Hitler. In May the seventh Synod of Confession of the Rhenish ecclesiastical province refused to comply, since it was not the state, which demanded the oath. The sixth old-Prussian Synod of Confession convened twice in Berlin, once in the Nikolassee Church 11—13 June and a second time in the parish hall of the Steglitz Congregation 31 July. At the second meeting in Steglitz a majority of synodals complied to Werner's demand. However, the consistories demanded the oath, but in the Rhenish ecclesiastical province only out pastors refused to swear.

Kerrl failed again. The ever-growing discrimination of Jewish Germans including the special category of Geltungsjuden and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent drove them ever deeper into impoverishment. The project was in a tailspin since the oecumenical partners in the US demanded to exclude persons of Jewish faith, before it definitely failed because the Nazi government expelled Siegmund-Schultze from Germany. Thus that new association had lost its most prominent leaders and faded, having become an organisation of so-called Mischlinge of Nazi terminology. She joined the office of Spiero.

The Bureau was mainly busy with supporting the re-education in other vocations, not yet prohibited for Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent, and with finding nations of exile, who would grant immigration visa. As long as the Nazis' decision, to murder all persons they considered as Jews, had not yet been taken, the Bureau gained some government recognition as an agency, promoting the emigration of the concerned persons. In the night of 9 November the Nazi government organised the November Pogrom , often euphemised as Kristallnacht. The well-organised Nazi squads killed several hundreds, set nine out of 12 major synagogues in Berlin on fire 1, synagogues all over Germany , 1, Jewish Berliners were deported to Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

The Nazis only released the arrested inmates, if they would immediately emigrate. Thus getting visa became the main target and problem. While Bishop George Bell tried and managed to rescue many of the imprisoned pastors, successfully persuading the Church of England to provide them through the British government with British visa, the official Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union did not even try to intervene in favour of its imprisoned clergy.

Thus none of the Protestant pastors of Jewish descent remained in or returned to office. Paul Heinitz, moved into the new location. A welfare department under Richard Kobrak supported the often impoverished victims of persecution and Margarete Draeger organised the Kindertransporte. Erwin Reisner served the victims as chaplain. From 1 March the Nazi Reich's government commissioned the Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden to levy a new tax from Jewish emigrants German: Auswandererabgabe , charging wealthier emigrants in order to finance the emigration of the poorer.

The due was also used to finance the different recognised associations organising emigration. Minister Rust had banned all pupils of Jewish descent from attending public schools from 15 November on. By autumn a new degree of persecution loomed. On 27 February the Gestapo arrested and deported him by end of May to Dachau concentration camp , where he was murdered in August The Family school was ordered to close by the end of June Draeger dived into the underground by the end of , hiding in Berlin and surviving through some undaunted helpers, but was caught later and deported to Auschwitz in August , where she perished.

Persons hiding from deportation used to call themselves submarine German: U-Boot. In three quarters of the fostered survivors were unemployed and poor. In the night between 9 and 10 November the Nazis organised the November Pogrom. The pastors were recommended the following text: "Administer to the needs of all the Jews in our midst, who are losing for the sake of their blood their honour as humans and the opportunity to live.

Help that nobody will act vengefully against them. Especially do not let disrupt the bond of love to those, who are standing with us in the same true belief and who are through Him like us Thy children. Holding Synods of Confession had been forbidden since , but now after the Olympic close hunting season had ended the authorities effectively fought the preparations and holding of the synods.

Thus synods had to be prepared in secret, therefore they were not referred to by the name of their venue any more, keeping the venue as long as possible in secret. On 18 and 20 March Werner, the president of Evangelical Supreme Church Council , severed the dismissal of opposing pastors by new ordinances, which empowered him to redeploy pastors against their will. Walter Grundmann. With the beginning of the war 1 September Kerrl decreed the separation of the ecclesiastical and the administrative governance within the official Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union.

Werner remained administrative chief executive president of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council , an ecclesiastical executive was still to be found. From on the Nazis had tested the reaction of the general public to the murder of incurably sick people by films, articles, books and reports covering the subject. The murder of the handicapped and the incurably sick was euphemised as Euthanasia. However, the so-called mercy killing of the sick did not become popular in the general public.

Nevertheless, the Nazi Reich's government started to implement the murder. On 1 September , the day Germany waged war on Poland, Hitler decreed the murder of the handicapped, living in sanatories, to be carried out by ruthless doctors. After first murders in a testing phase the systematic murder started in On 22 August Hitler gathered the Wehrmacht generals and explained them the archaic character of the upcoming war: "Our strength is our speed and our brutality. Genghis Khan chased millions of women and children to death, consciously and with a happy heart.

History sees him only as a great founder of states. It is of no concern, what the weak Western European civilisation is saying about me. Therefore I have mobilised my Skull Squads , for the time being only in the East, with the command to unpityingly and mercilessly send men, women and children of Polish descent and language to death. This is the only way to gain the Lebensraum , which we need. Who is still talking today about the extinction of the Armenians? In January , urged by the Wehrmacht, Hitler repeated that no wide-ranging actions against the Confessing Church are to be taken, so that the Gestapo returned to selective forms of repression.

Tribes have been resettled just like this, and exactly the Soviet Union has recently given sufficient examples , how one could do that. There [among Wehrmacht members] one is still running to field-services. With the conquest of all the eastern former Prussian territories, which Germany had ceded to Poland after World War I, and their annexation by Nazi Germany the functionaries of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union expected the reintegration of the United Evangelical Church in Poland.

But this conflicted with the Nazi intention to convert the annexed territory, especially the Warthegau under Arthur Greiser , into an exemplary Nazi dictatorship. No prior civilian German administration existed in the Warthegau, so a solely Nazi party-aligned administration was set up. Concerns respected within Germany, played no role in occupied and annexed parts of Poland. German law, as violated as it was, would not automatically apply to the Warthegau, but only selected rules.

Almost all the Catholic, Jewish and Protestant clergy in the Warthegau was murdered or expelled, with the exception of some German-speaking Protestant pastors and few such Catholic priests. In March Greiser decreed an ordinance for the Warthegau, which declared the church bodies not to be statutory bodies, as in Germany, but mere private associations. Minors under 18 years were banned to attend meetings and services, in order to alienate them from Christianity. All church property, except of a prayer hall, was to be expropriated. Pastors, who would dare to speak up for the Jewish heritage within Christianity, such as the ten commandments, the sanctity of life Thou shalt not kill , the commandment of charity Third Book of Moses : "Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.

Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? The reinitiated government murders of the disabled, meanwhile including even war invalids, startled proponents of the Confessing Church bodies. Representatives of the Confessing Church and the Roman Catholic Church protested at the Nazi Reich's government against the murders, which also included inmates of Christian sanatories.

The Nazi Reich's government then stopped the murders only to resume them soon later in a more secret way. The representatives of the official Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union , like its then leader Werner silenced about the murders. Werner continued to streamline the ecclesiastical institutions.

From 1 September on Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent with three or four grandparents, who were enrolled with a Jewish congregation, and the special category of Geltungsjuden had to wear the Yellow badge. Thus the concerned congregants were easily to be identified by others. One of the rare reactions came from Vicar Katharina Staritz, competent for the synodal region of the city of Breslau. In a circular she prompted the congregations in Breslau to take care of the concerned parishioners with special love and suggested that while services other respected congregants would sit next to their stigmatised fellow congregants in order to oppose this unwanted distinction.

The Nazi media heftily attacked her and the Gestapo deported her to a concentration camp she was later released , while the official Silesian ecclesiastical province fired her. In October proponents of the Confessing Church reported about Auschwitz concentration camp , newly opened on 23 September, that Jews were gassed there. The members of the second preliminary church executive could not believe it and did not speak up.

The synod dealt with replacing recruited pastors by female vicars, presbyters and laypersons. On 22 December the official German Evangelical Church called for suited actions by all Protestant church bodies to withhold baptised non- Aryans from all spheres of Protestant church life. The second preliminary church executive of the Confessing German Evangelical Church together with the conference of the state brethren councils representing the destroyed churches including the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union issued a declaration of protest.

The majority of the synodal members voted against the motion to allow women to be ordained as pastors. Until almost all the remaining Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent have been deported to the concentration camps. Thus on 10 June, the Reichssicherheitshauptamt dissolved the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland and deported the tiny rest of its collaborators 6 days later to Theresienstadt. The massive devastations of inhabited areas of course also included church buildings and other church-owned real estate. In the city of Berlin e.

When Soviet soldiers first entered into the territory of the Ecclesiastical Province of East Prussia in late , the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union decided to relocate church archives from endangered East and West Prussia into central parts of Prussia, where more than 7, church registers were finally rescued.

But with the Soviet offensives starting in January see Vistula-Oder Offensive , January—February, with the follow-up of the East Prussian Offensive , January—April, the East Pomeranian Offensive and the Silesian Offensives , February—April the Red Army advanced so speedily, that there was hardly a chance to rescue refugees, let alone archives of congregations in Farther Pomerania , eastern Brandenburg and from most congregations of the Silesian ecclesiastical province, as was recorded in a report about the situation in the ecclesiastical provinces 10 March By the end of the war millions of parishioners and many pastors were fleeing westwards.

With the end of the war the tragedy of church members, the destruction of churches, and the loss of church archives had no end. Thus an ever-growing number of parishioners was expelled. Mary's and St. Mary's Church , only partially cleared from the debris. The representatives of the six still existing ecclesiastical provinces March of Brandenburg, Pomerania, Rhineland, Saxony, Silesia, and Westphalia and the central Evangelical Supreme Church Council of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union used the occasion to take fundamental decisions about the future of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union.

Dibelius and some Middle German representatives the so-called Dibelians could not assert themselves against Koch and his partisans, to maintain the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union as an integrated church body. Get treatment now! Oh, yes, I didn't mean to imply you have to abide by your US insurance coverage and I have also heard much anecdotal evidence that agrees with the idea that seeing a doctor even without any insurance in most of Europe will not cost you very much. I just meant that if the OP is in info-gathering mode, calling the insurance company might provide another data point.

Common knowledge? I was in the US Military in Germany for over four years and this is the first I have ever heard of such a super flu.

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He asked his female traveling companion if she had any Midol, she did and she gave him some, and it fixed him up pretty quickly. If I were to remember this anecdote while traveling, I would probably follow Gringos Without Borders' advice and head to a pharmacy.

This is not "German flu". This is not German flu or any other kind of Delhi belly-type traveller's illness. Having said that, and while I'm sure you're fine, if you're on day three of a stomach bug then you should see a doctor. The German healthcare system is not quite the socialist utopia you might be treated to in this situation in, e.

But even if your insurance doesn't cover it, assuming you only need to see a GP, the full cost to you is likely to be of the order of your GP copay back home. Find someone to help you and don't worry about the insurance for now.

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Generally speaking, health care in Europe is much more focused on helping people in need than it is in the US. If you need care, they will help you. You can work out the details later if necessary. I tried to find the nearest embassy or consulate, because that would have been my first suggestion. Sadly, there's nothing near enough to you anymore to be of use. I don't know whether you speak German, but here is Google Translate's stab at what I would suggest: Ich habe starke Schmerzen in meinem Magen.

  • German school system.
  • Teletrasporto (I blu) (Italian Edition).
  • Harrys Wondrous World - Alto Saxophone;
  • The Christmas Visitor (Village of Ballydara Short Stories Book 2)?

Basically, my advice is just seek the help you need. You've found an urgent care place: go there. Worry about the insurance later Good luck, and feel better! I suggest you go to a pharmacy as pointed out above. Even if the pharmacist doesn't speak English, you should get something over the counter if you can describe your issue: Stomach cramp: Magenkrampf Diarrhea: Durchfall Constipation: Verstopfung Since 3 days: Seit 3 Tagen I already took Ammodium: Ich habe Ammodium genommen and it didn't help und es hat nicht geholfen.

I need something prescription free: Ich brauche nicht verschreibungspflichtige Medikamente. Most doctors will treat you regardless of insurance, as will hospitals though you likely wait a lot longer when going to the emergency room and offer you to write a bill, if at all. Edit: Native speaker - but the google translate above looks fine too. Use that or Bing if you need more phrases; most pharmacists will be able to guess what you need if you describe the main issue.

If you are allergic or resistant to any meds, write a list to show them. If you're still looking, I found this GP who speaks English on arztsuche. Could you help me treat a doctor? I think you should go to a doctor. I have had some practice going to doctors in Germany without good insurance. Here is what you do: Most doctors in Germany have office hours, which means you can go without an appointment during that time and see the doctor.

Office hours are first come, first served, and the hours are usually posted on the practice's website. Find a Hausartzt or an Allgemeinartzt that's a GP in Essen who is not a private practice ask someone at an Apotheke, or look on the internet. Find out their office hours. It never rains, but it pours. Nothing ventured, nothing gained. Time will tell. Such colorful expressions help personalize and individualize a language—rendering it culturespecific.

Although the sense may be the same in both languages, they use different words. Your best bet is to learn these sayings and be proud to sound like a real German! Think your female baby-sitter is female der Babysitter? Not to a German. If you have taken any French or Spanish, you have already dealt with nouns that have two genders. Believe it or not, the English language used to share this fixation on gender with its German cousin. But very early on, even before Chaucer was writing his bawdy Canterbury Tales, English speakers were quite politically correct.

We began referring to everything as a genderless the. All plural nouns are preceded by the plural article die dee. Unlike the English the, these articles show the gender and number of a noun, but both English and German definite articles indicate specificity. Grammatical gender is arbitrary, unpredictable— basically, a matter of rote memorization. Walk on the noun, shake it, turn it upside down, throw it against the wall and still you will be no closer to uncovering its gender. It would, of course, be quicker and more effective to look up the noun in a dictionary; masculine nouns are followed by m.

Scholars have come up with many theories about why some nouns take certain definite articles, but the truth is that in German there are no simple rules or explanations for determining gender. Why is the meat you eat at dinner neuter das Fleisch , the potato feminine die Kartoffel , and the cauliflower masculine der Rosenkohl? Your guess is as good as ours. The only fail-safe way of ensuring that you are about to use the correct gender of a German noun is to learn the gender and plural of a noun along with the noun itself.

The gender of a noun affects its relationship to other words in a sentence, and if you learn the definite articles along with the nouns, it will be easier for you to form sentences correctly later. Nevertheless, a few tricks can help you determine the gender of certain nouns as well as alter the gender of certain other nouns, as in English when you change the word waiter to waitress. Keep reading! Absolutely, Definitely Definite Articles Before you get into German nouns, you must take into account one little diversion: the noun marker that precedes most singular nouns. We use the term noun marker to refer to an article or adjective—something that indicates the gender of the noun— whether it is masculine m.

As a Rule The noun marker for plural nouns die should not to be confused with the feminine singular definite article die. Because of this homophony in form, only the singular noun markers der, die, das clearly indicate the grammatical gender of a noun. Singular Nouns The nouns in the following table are easy to remember. An obvious correspondence exists between the grammatical gender of the noun marker and the natural, biological gender of the noun.

Even the different types of mothers remain predictably feminine, while the different types of fathers are masculine in gender. But for now, become acquainted with family terms. As a Rule Nouns referring to male persons, their professions, and their nationalities—der Deutsche deyR doy-tschuh —are clearly masculine. Most nouns ending in -en are also masculine— der Garten deYr gahR-tuhn —as are the names of all seasons, months, days of the week, and most times of the day—der Montag deyR mohn-tahk , der Januar deyR yah-newahR , der Sommer deyR zo-muhR , and so on.

The following tables group endings that will help you to identify the gender of nouns. Generally, two-syllable nouns ending in -e, such as Sonne zo-nuh and Blume blew-muh , take the feminine article die. Das Berlin, das Deutschland, das Paris—countries, towns, and cities all take the neuter article das. So do the letters of the alphabet: das A, das B, das C, das D, and so on. Here are a few of them. This convention makes sense if you just think back to what an umlaut is all about: When the —in suffix is added to the noun, the i sound, produced in the front of the mouth, coaxes the back vowels of a, o, or u to slide a little forward, as well—hence, sound change!

The following table lists some common nouns that can undergo sex changes. Compound Nouns Meeresgrundforschungslaborauswertungsbericht— pronounced mey-Ruhs-gRoont-foR-shoonks-lah-bohRous-veR-toonks-buh-RiHt—what in the world, you may ask, is that? Believe it or not, that is a word— a compound noun, to be exact. Hmmm … is a pattern is emerging here? Why, yes! German looks to the right end of a noun to determine its gender.

Another way to think of it is that the directional right end governs the entire noun. And, after all, government likes to tell us how to do things, and nouns must abide by these very same rules! But there are plurals that stump learners of our language. How many childs do you have, or rather children?

Are they silly little gooses, uh, geese? German plurals seem to be confusing, too, but there is a method to the madness. As this system of inflecting nouns declined in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, some of the features of these classes were retained as plural endings! This historical curiosity is what makes forming plurals in German such a challenging experience.

Nonetheless, when a noun becomes plural in German, the noun marker becomes plural with it and the articles der, die, and das all become die in their plural forms.

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For now, the best way to be sure that you are forming the plural of a noun correctly is to memorize it along with the noun and the article. The following tables give you some basic rules on how to form plurals. When the nouns in the following two tables become plural, they take either -n or -en. A majority of German nouns fall into this group, including most feminine nouns.

The nouns in this group never take an umlaut in the plural; but if they already have one in the singular, it is retained. When the nouns ending in -e, -el, and -er in the following table become plural, they take -n. All nouns referring to female persons or animals ending in -in double the n in the plural form before adding the plural -en. This convention keeps the i sound short—no mutation here, my friend! The nouns in the following table take no ending in their plural form.

Some of the masculine nouns in the group undergo a vowel modification as they have since lost their ending , as do the only two feminine nouns in this group. When the nouns in the following table become plural, they take the ending -e. All neuter and feminine nouns that end in -nis double the s in the plural form before adding -e, again, ensuring that the i sound remains short. The plurals of the nouns in the following table end in -er. Wherever possible, vowels are modified. Note that all the words that follow have only one syllable. Practice Those Plurals You are spending your first day in Berlin.

Example: You need some peace and quiet. You are looking for parks. Ich suche die Parks. You need to have your wisdom tooth removed. You ask someone where you can find dentists in Berlin. Tell this person that you need the names of a few dentists. You want to relax somewhere and drink a cup of coffee. Stop at a kiosk and ask the man at the counter if all German newspapers have weather forecasts.

Ask where you can find them. You enter the lobby of a hotel. Ask the receptionist for the room rates. As a Rule Compound nouns combine two or more nouns into one. They are written as one word in German and take the gender of the last noun in the compound. Likewise, compound nouns, being governed by the right end of things, take the plural form of the last noun. Because Arzt comes last, it is the only part of the compound noun that becomes plural. In the following ads, which employers are seeking male employees?

Which are seeking female employees? Which ads are open to applicants of both sexes? Eine Ausbildung in diesem Bereich ist erforderlich. Achtung Some nouns in German are used only in their plural forms. They always take the plural article die. Restaurant sucht Koch zur Aushilfe. Wir betreiben ein Apfelweinlokal in Frankfurt und suchen umgehend einen Aushilfskoch. Gehalt nach Absprache. As a Rule A few nouns in German usually words ending in a, i, or o take an -s to form the plural, as in das Lotto die Lottos.

Plural forms of nouns should be learned along with the noun and the definite article. Before we start, we should probably warn you that this chapter introduces some new grammatical concepts and that it just might take some time before you fully understand them. More understanding will come with time and exposure to the language. We all know that learning grammar can be about as exciting as watching grass grow, but lots of people have done it and are now happy, German-speaking individuals.

In English, once you have the subject, the verb, and the direct object, forming a sentence is easy enough; you put the words in the right order and start talking. German nouns, pronouns, articles, adjectives, and prepositions are inflected; that is to say, they have overt markings showing grammatical relations. Cases are the form articles, adjectives, pronouns, and a few nouns take in a sentence depending on their function.

When we speak of cases and nouns, we are speaking of their articles, since the article that precedes a noun is the primary indicator of its gender, number, and—you guessed it—case. German uses four cases to express grammatical relations between sentence parts: nominative, accusative, dative, and genitive. In a nutshell, the nominative case indicates the subject of a sentence, the accusative case indicates the direct object of a sentence, and the dative case indicates the indirect object of a sentence.

In German, cases enable you to vary the order of nouns and pronouns without changing the overall meaning of the sentence, allowing you to place focus on whatever element of the sentence you like! Case The form articles, adjectives, pronouns, and a few nouns in German take depending on their grammatical function in a sentence. Despite the position of the nouns, the noun markers remain the same in both sentences, clearly indicating that the fish is being eaten by the girl, and not that the girl is being eaten by the fish. Starting with the Nominative Case Nominative is the case of the subject of the sentences—that is, of the noun or pronoun performing the action or undergoing the state of being of the verb.

The direct object tells you to whom or what the action of the verb is being directed. You also use the accusative case with time and measuring data that specifies how short, how soon, how often, how much, how old, and so on. Nominative Subject. Indirectly: The Dative Case The dative case can be used instead of a possessive adjective with parts of the body and after certain verbs, prepositions, and adjectives. It is used primarily to indicate the indirect object, however. The indirect object is the object for whose benefit or in whose interest the action of the verb is being performed.

Think of giving, helping, pleasing, and such—an animate object is receiving the action, and usually something else the direct object , to boot! As English lost most of its inflectional endings reflecting this case, it relies on word order and prepositions, such as to and for to express the dative function. Word order The position of words in a sentence contributing to the meaning or sense of a sentence. Declension The pattern of changes occurring in articles, adjectives, pronouns, and a few nouns in each of the four cases.

The genitive case indicates possession. Most of the time, however, German marks possession on both the noun marker the article or adjective preceding the noun and, with neuter and masculine nouns, after the noun with - e s. Why not latch on to that idea in German?!? Paradigm A grammatical chart, organized in a regular way so that new information may be plugged in and easily assimilated. Declension refers to the patterns of change followed by different groups of words in each case.

Declension in German is pretty much limited to articles and a few instances of nouns. True, adjectives take an ending, but it is readily and simply determinable from the word preceding the noun if there is one. In addition, pronouns change form according to their function, but this change is very similar to English: he versus him, and such.

Be sure that when you are looking up a noun, you look for it under its base form— not its plural or possessive form. The nominative singular is the form under which nouns appear in the dictionary. The Case of the Definite Article German has four possible declensions for each definite article remember, definite articles are used when you are speaking about a particular person or thing. In addition, the plurals of der, die, and das have separate declensions. Commit this chart to memory, rewrite it on a card, use a different color for each case, do anything and everything to help yourself conceptualize the case system.

In addition, you will be able to plug in new information as you go along. Masculine Nouns Using the same paradigm—the same setup of cases in descending order of nominative, accusative, dative, followed by genitive—we can plug in actual masculine nouns. Notice the noun endings in the genitive case and with the monosyllabic noun in the dative case. Nothing like a little consistency, eh? Remember those antiquated noun classes that tried really hard to die out? Well, another leftover occurs with a few masculine nouns that take an - e n ending in all cases except the nominative.

Notice that feminine nouns, unlike the masculine ones, do not need endings. They remain unchanged. Neuter Nouns And now for the neuter nouns. Just like the masculine ones, the monosyllabic neuter noun takes that vestigal -e ending in the dative and - e s in the genitive case. Plurals Coming now to the right side of the original paradigm, we can plug in the plural nouns for father and child, only augmenting them with an n in the dative case.

Indefinite articles are used when you are speaking about a noun in general, not about a specific noun. Now look for correspondences in the masIndefinite article Articles culine and neuter. German is simple, after all! Subject Pronouns Before you can form sentences with verbs in German, you have to know something about subject pronouns.

A subject pronoun is, as its name suggests, the subject of a sentence—the who or what that performs the action. You can link this bit of information to what you already know about cases. The case of the subject is nominative, so you can also think about these pronouns as nominative personal pronouns. The German subject pronouns in the following table have a person first person is I, second person is you, third person is he, she, or it just as subject pronouns do in English, and a number singular or plural.

So what is second person all about? It involves directly addressing someone—talking to someone. As a Rule It used to be considered polite in German society to use the third-person plural to refer to someone you were talking to. Hence, the German formal pronouns are exactly the same as the third-person plural pronouns. Less to learn! See whether you can figure out which of the following questions you would address to your teacher and which you would use to initiate a conversation with a fellow student.

What would happen if pronouns were outlawed? Are they meeting you there, or are you meeting them later? We Are Family Stepping back into the not-somythical linguistic past, both English and German used to decline nouns. Our English possessive -s is a remnant. All nouns in German and English used to take an ending. You may thank your lucky stars that in present-day German, only trace vestiges of this complex system remain.

In the fifth century, neuter and masculine monosyllabic nouns were members of the same class of nouns, and reflective of this history, an -e ending remains with neuter and masculine monosyllabic nouns in the dative case. This practice of declension is gradually falling by the wayside, yet fossilized in such fixed expressions as im Jahre, zu Hause. Pronouns streamline your speech. You can also use pronouns to replace the name of a common noun referring to a place, thing, or idea.

Whereas in English we use the blanket pronoun it to refer to anything inanimate, the gender of the pronoun in German must correspond to the gender of the noun. Er, Sie, Es? Imagine that your boss marries a woman young enough to be his granddaughter. You attend the wedding reception with your best friend. Toward the end of the Feier fayuhR , his ex-wife barges in and takes a hatchet to the wedding cake.

Eventually, she is subdued and escorted to the door. The guests recover their poise, and the festivities continue. Which pronouns would you use to talk about the in-laws? Which pronoun would you use to talk about the hatchet? Die Schwiegereltern tanzten. Die Musik war heiter. Die Mutter des Ehemanns weinte. Der Onkel der Ehefrau war betrunken. The verb indicates whether the pronoun sie is being used as third-person singular or thirdperson plural.

The formal Sie pronoun is always capitalized. The gender of the pronoun must correspond to the gender of the noun. In the preceding chapter you learned about determining the gender, number, and case of nouns, and you were introduced to German pronouns. Verbs, the Arnold Schwarzeneggers of the language set, convey action in a sentence. To communicate, you must have a basic understanding of verbs. You sign up for a special travel package to Germany that includes hotel accommodations and airfare. Imperative form The form a verb takes to express a command, request or directive. This form is easily deduced from the conjugated second-person verb.

In the imperative form, the understood subject is always you. You want to take quiet, relaxing strolls through churches and parks. To express what people want to do, you need verbs, and verbs, of course, require a subject: You want to take quiet, relaxing strolls through churches and parks. When a sentence takes the imperative form, the form of a command, the subject you is understood: Go shopping! Subjects can be either nouns or pronouns that replace nouns: The man ate the entire pizza.

He ate the entire pizza. As a Rule Unlike German nouns, which are capitalized no matter where they appear in a sentence, most pronouns take a capital letter only when they begin a sentence. This makes a lot of sense if you think of personal pronouns as representing nouns—not quite achieving noun status, and thus not attaining upper-case orthographic status.

The only exception to this rule is the pronoun Sie the polite form for du and ihr , which is capitalized no matter where it appears in a sentence.

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The upper-case spelling of the formal Sie helps distinguish it from its lower-case twins, sie and sie. The same is true of verbs. Here are some basic things you should know about verbs before you start using them. The stem of a verb refers to what you get when you remove the ending -en from the German infinitive. The stem vowel refers to the vowel within this stem. In English, for example, when you conjugate the verb run I run, you run, she runs , it retains the same stem vowel throughout the conjugation, marking the third-person singular with the addition of the inflectional suffix -s.

Conjugation refers to the changes the verb undergoes, internally and externally by the addition of inflectional endings , which keep the verb in agreement with the subject. Conjugation The changes of the verb that occur to indicate who or what is performing the action or undergoing the state of being of the verb and when the action or state of being of the verb is occurring: in the present, the past, or the future.

Verbs in Motion If you were given a week of absolutely commitment-free time, what would you do with it? Would you go scuba diving? Would you chase butterflies? Or would you ride through Italy on a tandem bicycle? No matter what you do, you need verbs to express action, motion, or states of being. When you acquired English, you very readily discerned the difference between being able to add a little something to a verb to express yesterday, as in pushed and pulled, and changing the verb internally: sing, sang, sung.

Little did you know it then, but you were differentiating between two classes of verbs: weak and strong. Perhaps you learned to refer to them in school as regular and irregular. In German as well, the most common way of grouping verbs is weak schwach , strong stark , or mixed schwark.

When verbs are conjugated, a relatively predictable pattern of endings is attached to the stem of weak verbs, as occurs in English -ed in the past tense. Strong verbs have a relatively predictable pattern of endings when they are conjugated in the present tense the form a verb takes to indicate that action is occurring in the present , but the stem undergoes a sound change in the past tense.

Mixed verbs have features of both weak and strong verbs, hence the term schwark. The rest of this chapter examines schwach and stark verbs in the present tense. Weak verbs are verbs that, when conjugated, follow a set pattern of rules and retain the same stem vowel throughout. Think of them as being too weak to alter the patterns they follow. Most German verbs fall into the category of schwach verbs see the following table.

But schwach or stark, the present-tense inflectional endings remain the same. Only one paradigm to learn, lucky you! Your first step is to determine the stem of the verb. Second, add a little something to this stem, as in adding the -s in English third-person singular. Why add that -e? Free that stem from the infinitive, add an -e to that stem, and then go wild with those same inflectional endings you used with leben. The Endings of Weak Verbs Think of weak verbs as timid, law-abiding creatures that would never cross the street when the light is red.

The great thing for those of you who want to learn German about weak verbs is that they obey grammar laws and follow a predictable pattern of conjugation. To conjugate weak verbs, drop the -en from the infinitive and then add the endings shown in the following table. See whether you can use the correct form of the verbs in the following sentences.

Remember, the verb must agree with the subject! Weak verbs Verbs schwach that follow a set pattern of rules and retain the same stem vowel throughout their conjugation. Compare this pattern with the English verbs that form their past tense with the addition of -ed. In the following table, you will find some of the most commonly used weak verbs in German.

Read the list a few times and try to commit these verbs to memory. The only way you can distinguish between them is to memorize them as such. Of course, as an English speaker,. We Are Family English and German share many features when it comes to strong verbs. The irregular forms—such as take, took, taken or drink, drank, drunk—date back more than 6, years! This pattern becomes readily evident in the past tense recall pushed versus drank. With the sehr starke verbs, vowel alterations occur only in the second and third person in the stem vowel.

Although everything in German might seem to be an exception, all German verbs actually stem from seven older C. So take heart; vowel changes follow a limited number of patterns. The following tables illustrate the stem changing of some sehr starke verbs. Note that the stem -e changes to -ie only in the second- and third-person singular! Other verbs incurring this stem change include lesen, befehlen, empfehlen, and geschehen.

Other verbs incurring this stem change include blasen, fangen, halten, laden, lassen, raten, schlafen, tragen, wachsen, and waschen. Conjugation Although most starke verbs do not incur a sound change in the present tense, you might as well become well versed in the few that do. Accepting the challenge, see whether you can conjugate these very strong verbs in the following sentences: 1.

Achtung The infinitives of a few verbs take -n and not -en. The conjugated form of these verbs in the firstand third-person plural is the same as the infinitive form. Strong verb A verb whose stem vowel undergoes a change or a modification when conjugated in the past tense. Only some strong stark verbs undergo a vowel modification in the present tense sehr stark. The following table lists some commonly used strong verbs. Read through them a few times, as you did with the weak verbs. The very strong verb vowel changes are indicated in parentheses after the infinitive.

There are only three types of stemvowel changes and you have to learn the stem changes associated with strong verbs only once because adding a prefix to a stem does not alter the conjugation. Ask Me Anything Okay, now go back to where you were at the beginning of this chapter, planning a trip. Stick to the easy questions— the ones that can be answered with a simple yes or no.

Making Friends. To do so, speak with a rising inflection. Du denkst an die Reise?

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Dew denkst An dee Ray-zuh Are you thinking about the trip? Nicht Wahr? One easy way of forming questions in German is by adding the tag nicht wahr niHt vahR to your statements. Inversion The final way of forming a question is by inversion. Inversion is what you do when you reverse the word order of the subject nouns or pronouns and the conjugated form of the verb. We use inversion all the time in English with the addition of do as a helper to the verb.

Statement: He eats pie. Question: Does he eat pie? The following examples will give you a feel for how inversion works. Du gehst nach Hause. Remember that whether you are using intonation, nicht wahr, or inversion, you are asking for exactly the same information: a yes or no ja oder nein answer.

See whether you can use inversion to provide the questions for the following statements. Example: Das Flugzeug fliegt um 10 Uhr. The plane leaves at Answer: Fliegt das Flugzeug um 10 Uhr? Das Ticket kostet DM. The ticket costs DM. This is the terminal for international flights. Die Flugnummer steht auf dem Ticket. The flight number is indicated on the ticket. Es gibt Toiletten auf dieser Etage.

There are bathrooms on this floor. Inversion Reversing the word order of the subject, noun, or pronoun and the conjugated form of the verb to make a statement a question. Der Flug dauert zwei Stunden. The flight is two hours long. Das Abendessen ist inklusiv. The evening meal is included. To answer in the affirmative, use ja yah and then give your statement. Sprichst du Deutsch? Or if your time is valuable and you are constantly being harangued to do things you have no interest in doing, you should probably learn to say no. To answer negatively, use nein nayn at the beginning of the statement and then add nicht niHt at the end of the statement.

Rauchen Sie? Rou-Chuhn zee. You can vary the forms of your negative answers by putting the following negative phrases before and after the conjugated verb. Refer to the lists of weak and strong verbs earlier in the chapter for help. Up, Up, and Away! You can use these phrases to start conversations and to expand your vocabulary. In the previous chapter, you learned how to create simple German sentences using subject nouns, pronouns, and verbs and how to ask basic yes or no questions. You are sitting alone on an airplane, admiring the view of clouds and sky through the window.

The person in the seat next to you is German; you want to use this opportunity to test some of your newly acquired language skills. Your question will probably be taken seriously. You may find the following conversation openers useful. It is worth noting, however, that younger generations are tending more and more to use the informal du form. Guten Tag. Guten Abend. Wie geht es Ihnen? Danke, sehr gut. Danke, nicht schlecht.

Danke, es geht so. Good evening. Sir Miss, Mrs. My name is … What is your name? How are you? Thank you, very well. Thank you, not bad. You can now use the following phrases: German. Wie geht es dir? Was machst du so? Ganz gut. Ich kann nicht klagen. Mal so, mal so. Na ja. So so. All right. What Planet Are You From? If, after you have made your initial introductions, you decide to continue the conversation with your seatmate, you will probably wonder about his idiosyncrasies—the peculiar lilt in his voice when he speaks, certain gestures you have never seen anyone make before, and his use of idioms.

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Eventually, you are going to want to know where this person is from. You also are going to want to respond correctly when he asks where you are from.