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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Bénin : Patrice Talon, un nouveau président empoisonné par une affaire d'assassinat

The research shows that the effect of monitoring by outside blockholders is clear, leading to related diversification at the expense of unrelated diversification strategies. However, an increase in managerial ownership, far from leading to alignment, leads to managerial behaviour that goes against the interests of shareholders and more precisely to unrelated diversification strategies. Several meta-analyses highlight the benefits of market orientation for organizational performance.

However, results diverge regarding its impact on new product performance. This fact calls for investigation of new moderators for this causal relationship. We hypothesize a moderation effect of competency diversity in new product development teams. We indeed observe this moderation and its specific effects on each dimension of market orientation customer orientation, competitors and technology.

Researchers and entrepreneurship education stakeholders alike public institutions, academic authorities, teachers, etc. The authors of this paper propose to operationalize the concept of entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents in an attempt to answer this question. A study to measure the effects of an entrepreneurship education programme EEP and the factors that may influence the participants in this type of programme is presented. Our main research results show that the positive effects of an EEP are all the more marked where previous entrepreneurial exposure has been weak or inexistent.

Conversely, for those students who had previously been exposed to entrepreneurship, the results highlight significant counter-effects. Does market orientation affect new product performance? Due to the strategic importance and the high failure rates of new product introduction, the link between market orientation and new product performance has been largely investigated. All studies do not lead to a conclusive link and it seems difficult to generalize observed results.

This meta-analysis 1 clearly establishes the positive and significant effect of market orientation on new product performance, 2 presents some methodological moderators of this relationship, 3 induces a set of managerial recommendations relative to market orientation implementation. Vol22 - 2 Positive affect, the entrepreneurial process, and the entrepreneurial success of sole proprietors Indy Bernoster , Anis Khedhaouria , Roy Thurik. Despite its widely researched role in individual success in many life domains, there is little evidence of how positive affect that is, the extent to which an individual subjectively experiences positive feelings and emotions plays a role in entrepreneurial success.

Our findings show that positive affect is indirectly and positively associated with the entrepreneurial success of sole proprietors through this entrepreneurial process. Indeed, sole proprietors who express generally positive feelings and emotions are more likely to succeed due to their increased capacity to recognize opportunities, develop broad social networks, respond effectively to rapid change in highly dynamic environments and tolerate intense levels of stress.

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Our findings have important implications for theory and practice. This paper examines the specific impacts of market-oriented coopetition on product commercial performance. Indeed, most contributions have focused on technology-driven coopetition with cooperation on activities that are far from the market e. We first present the specificities of market-oriented coopetition and distinguish horizontal and vertical market-oriented coopetition. We then focus on the performance implications of market-oriented coopetition. Building on social network exchange theory, we elaborate a theoretical framework detailing the mechanisms through which market-oriented coopetition affects product commercial performance.

Using a database from the real estate brokerage industry, we validate our hypotheses that horizontal market-oriented coopetition enhances product commercial performance compared to competition, whereas vertical market-oriented coopetition does not. Furthermore, we highlight the existence of a learning effect for horizontal market-oriented coopetition. This research contributes to coopetition theory by defining market-oriented coopetition and studying its performance implications. Agentic attributes are stereotypically masculine while communal attributes are stereotypically feminine.

Using a sample of employees and their 65 immediate supervisors from French organizations, the results of multilevel structural equation modeling suggest that female leaders who self-describe as highly communal are perceived by followers as more transformational than male leaders.

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Our findings develop role congruity theory by demonstrating the influence of gendered stereotypes not only for female but also male leaders. Research on organizational injustice has recently begun to endeavor to understand the conditions in which a witness who is not directly affected by such a situation can be encouraged to react. This article contributes to this emerging and mainly theoretical literature by empirically testing the influence of three witness characteristics: one instrumental just world belief , one moral cynical hostility and one relational personal experience of injustice.

Using a synthesis of the three theoretical explanations currently available and an experiment involving employees and how they attribute responsibility for an act of denigration in the workplace, we reveal the intra-psychic and inter-group conditions in which the predisposition of the witness to offer help to the person responsible for the act, if needed, is weak.

The findings alert managers to the dangers for the smooth running of the organization of allowing a climate of denigration to develop. The results support and extend recent work on apologies, suggesting that ethical leaders suffer more than unethical leaders from extra-role sex scandals, and that meaningful apologies are effective for personal responsibility but not for violations involving an official abuse of power.

In his seminal publication, March illustrates the continuum conception of exploration and exploitation by an organizational learning metaphor. Exploration involves allocating resources to experimentation. Exploitation involves doing known things better and focusing on execution. Collective human capital CHC is constituted by the aggregate beliefs of members, some of which are correctly aligned with respect to an objective external reality while others are neutral or misaligned. Organizational knowledge—constituting the validated knowledge in an organization—resides in the databases, rules, forms, norms, operating procedures and other artifacts in an organization.

Instead, the level of CHC determines whether it is rewarding to focus on exploration or exploitation. Thus, the formal model supports managerial intentionality towards exploratory and exploitative innovation through appropriate choice of the level of CHC. Despite abundant research, the relationship between strategy formalization and innovation remains unclear. Some acknowledge a positive impact of strategy formalization on innovation while others consider it an impediment to novelty and creation.

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Going beyond the conflicting views over the influence of formalization, we combine open innovation and socio-material perspectives. This study aims to contribute to the debate by considering the possibility that formalization is a means of benefiting from openness with respect to innovation. Therefore, we predict that formalization might positively moderate the impact of openness on innovation.

Relying on a unique sample of SMEs, we investigate the effects of strategy formalization and openness—according to their various facets and interactions—on new product innovation. We find a positive influence of formalization whether it is approached as a process or as a strategic tool on product innovation.

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Our findings also support the idea that formalization increases the effectiveness of openness on innovation performance. Implications are discussed, and future research directions are outlined at the end. Research has become a key success factor for academic institutions in a growing and increasingly globalized market. In the past, many business schools appear to have had little involvement in research, but are now strategically positioned in international rankings. We investigate in some depth the case of French business schools, and explore their research networks, focusing on the relationships between academic institutions.

We use bibliometric and clustering techniques. We find that, during the last decade or so, French business schools have significantly broadened their research network—at not only the national but also the international level, meaning they have participated in the globalization of research.

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Exploring the structure of the research networks of these business schools, we highlight two core structuring mechanisms: status and competition. Second, it appears that they tend to prefer to collaborate with foreign partners on the international scene rather than with other institutions with which they are in direct competition in their home country.

The article discusses the strategies implemented by business schools to help and motivate their professors to enter some existing communities of established scientists invisible colleges , and the consequences of these trends for the organization of business education.

This research examines information exchange within exportfirm networks. The authors draw upon relational contract theory and the network approach to better understand the role played by information exchange in business networks. The empirical study is based on a survey conducted among French exporters. The results, obtained using structural equation modeling, show that sense of belonging to a network and socialization between members influence information exchange between export managers.

They also reveal that socialization acts as a variable that mediates the link between sense of belonging and information exchange. Last, the results identify the antecedents of three constructs drawn upon by the authors. We address the question of the visibility of management research for practitioners by measuring scientific journal citations in nonscientific publications.

While the social and economic relevance of research in management has been largely commented, it has been more rarely measured. This is due to the fact that management research is mostly aimed at the production of knowledge rather than at giving direct prescriptions for actions. Consequently, the relevance of management research is often of a conceptual, rather than instrumental, nature.

While conceptual relevance is not easily measurable, the visibility of management research in managerial publications might give some insight into the perceived interest of management research to managers. We estimate the yearly number of citations in the press of a panel of 63 topranked journals in all fields of management over a years period. The visibility of management research seems to have, on average, significantly increased over the period We also report strong field specificities.

In particular, the visibility of World Elite Journals in Marketing has increased dramatically over the last decade, while the visibility of Accounting journals has decreased. Recent literature has explored the determinants of environmental innovation EI but has rarely addressed obstacles to this innovation. To our knowledge, no previous study accounts for the antecedents of EI to explore the various perceived barriers to EI for small- and medium-sized enterprises SMEs. Noting the importance of SMEs in European economies, this article identifies the extent to which SMEs perceive there to be barriers to EI and considers their type, number, and intensity.

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With a merged data set of French SMEs, we investigate different perceptions of environmentally innovative SMEs, compared with those of technologically innovative SMEs and non-innovative ones, using a multiple treatment model that integrates the antecedents. The barriers are not only more numerous but also more important for SMEs that engage in EI activity compared with those that introduce only technological innovation TI or those that do not undertake any innovation activity NI — non-innovation. When do firms derive value from investing in environmental initiatives CEIs?

We examine stock market responses to the announcements of CEIs by 71 Fortune firms during the period to We also find that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between the timing of a CEI and the abnormal stock market return following its announcement.

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Overall, this study shows that timing is a relevant explanatory factor for the value firms derive from investing in environmental action.. Although a firm benefits from the resource endowment of the partners in its alliance portfolio, research has so far concentrated on partners.

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In an attempt to explain why some new organizations are established faster than others, we have adopted the perspective that the timely emergence of an organization can be understood and predicted if it is viewed as being conditioned by the initial decisions of its entrepreneurs regarding their opportunities. Using a large dataset of individuals who are in the process of building their ventures in the United States, and who have been followed up on an annual basis as they go through this process, we have found empirical evidence to conclude that the characteristics of an initial opportunity have an effect on the time taken to create new organizations.

Given the novelty of the relationships investigated in this study, coupled with the empirical support for some of our hypotheses, we believe our findings can shed new light on the understanding of imprinting forces for timely organization creation. Work-life balance has become a topic of great relevance in today's business world.

In this work we present both a theoretical review on the state of art in this issue and an analysis testing the validity of the positive impact of worklife balance policies in firm performance. For the empirical analyses of these policies on performance we evaluated a sample composed of firms listed in IBEX Findings provide support for the idea that introducing work-life balance practices benefits the company with respect to talent retention and higher employee engagement, as well as achieving a positive impact on productivity, costs and business results.

Decision-makers involved in sustainable development thus need to ascertain who is affected by their decisions and who has the power to influence the outcome of those decisions, i. Methodologies for carrying out SA in organizational contexts like those found in sustainable development, where neither the organization nor its stakeholders have any clear idea of the problems involved or the most appropriate means of tackling them, are still lacking.

More specifically, we adapt the well-known repertory-grid technique to represent practices on qualitative scales. Using several working groups dealing with rural sustainability issues, this method has proved effective in collectively building repertories of practices and stakeholder categories. We show that the method is helpful to participants in that it extends their representations of stakeholders and helps them to reframe sustainability.

While contributing to practice-based studies, this paper also contributes methodologically to empirical studies on collective problem structuring concerning sustainability issues. Our results show that the characteristics of the resources held by the firms, and the ex-ante allocation of control rights, can influence joint patenting activity. This paper examines the mediating role of trust for leadership effectiveness in a crisis and a non-crisis context. Data from employees was collected before and after the collapse of Lehman Brothers leading to the most severe crisis since the Great Depression.

The findings indicate significant differences in the role played by trust for the relationships between leadership and follower selfefficacy and work effort. Trust was found to play a greater role during times of stability than during times of high uncertainty, providing a great number of questions for future research. Empirical data was collected from manufacturing small and medium size enterprises SMEs in Quebec that outsource, using a web-based questionnaire.

A linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between outsourcing and IFLP. The findings also demonstrate that offshore outsourcing enhances the economic, social, and strategic performances of manufacturing SMEs, which enables them to thrive in the current volatile business environment.

However, managers need to identify carefully functions that could be outsourced in order to determine trade-offs between outsourcing and internalization. The broadness of the IFLP concept and the intrinsic complexity of offshore outsourcing tasks call for further study with larger samples. A number of studies have found that the performance of NPD projects greatly depends on the support they get from top management. However, research into why some projects get more support than others has been limited. Mobilizing the bridging perspective of social capital, we argue that project leaders need both strong ties to high-ranking others and sparseness in their networks.

Vertical strong ties bring direct support and solidarity, resulting in improved access to resources and priority over other projects; sparseness provides exposure to the full range of information and interpretations in the organization, resulting in a more accurate picture of the political landscape and thus enabling the implementation of an appropriate influence strategy.

Hence, we contribute to a very recent stream of research showing that the structural and relational dimensions of social capital are complementary. Resource-based research sustains that organisations and thus teams create value through internally developed and complementary acquired resources, through the management of resources and the development of routines.

In this study, we advance the understanding of the impact of resources and capabilities by investigating the role of moderators on the key factors of team performance and address the question of when the whole is more than the sum of its parts. We develop and test hypotheses as to how managerial experience helps to foster the development of internal resources and group routines, to extract more value from bought resources, how internally developed resources reinforce group routines and how financial resources influence group routines, the acquisition of resources and the development of internal resources.

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