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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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It contains a comprehensive list of CE terms and definitions, describes the core CE principles, and presents a flexible management framework for implementing CE strategies in organizations. Little concrete guidance on circular economy monitoring and assessment is given, however, as there is no consensus yet on a set of central circular economy performance indicators applicable to organizations and individual products. While the initial focus of academic, industry, and policy activities was mainly focused on the development of re-X recycling, remanufacturing, reuse, To leverage this technology for the transition towards a Circular Economy, various stakeholders have to work together.

This shifted attention towards business-model innovation as a key leverage for 'circular' technology adaption.

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Circular business models can be defined as business models that are closing, narrowing, slowing, intensifying, and dematerializing loops, to minimize the resource inputs into and the waste and emission leakage out of the organizational system. This comprises recycling measures closing , efficiency improvements narrowing , use phase extensions slowing , a more intense use phase intensifying , and the substitution of products by service and software solutions dematerialising.

A circular economy within the textiles industry refers to the practice of clothes and fibers continually being recycled, to re-enter the economy as much as possible rather than ending up as waste. It is argued that by following a circular economy, the textiles industry can be transformed into a sustainable business. The Ellen MacArthur Foundation is at the top of the list as it focuses on the benefits of a circular economy.

We need to make less and sell less…you get to use your creativity but you also get to sell more but not create more stuff. Both China and Europe have taken the lead in pushing a circular economy. The textiles industry has a long way to go to reach a sustainable future. A circular economy could be the answer to the social and environmental issues that the current linear, fast fashion model has created. The Circular Economy appears as a helpful solution to diminish an environmental impact of the industry.

Construction is very important to the economy of the European Union and its state members. Decision making about the Circular Economy can be performed on the operational connected with particular parts of the production process , tactical connected with whole processes and strategic connected with the whole organization levels.

Eurex Exchange - Circulars

It may concern both construction companies as well as construction projects where a construction company is one of the stakeholders. As a good case that fits the idea of Circular Economy in construction sector on the operational level, there can be pointed walnut husks, that belong to hard, light and natural abrasives used for example in cleaning brick surfaces. Abrasive grains are produced from crushed, cleaned and selected walnut shells.

They are classified as reusable abrasives. A first attempt to measure the success of Circular Economy implementation was done in a construction company. The logistics industry plays an important role in the Dutch economy because the Netherlands is located in a specific area where transit of commodities takes place on a daily basis. The Netherlands is an example of a country from the EU that has increasingly moved towards incorporating a circular economy given the vulnerability of the Dutch economy as well as other EU countries to be highly dependable on raw materials imports from countries such as China, which makes the country susceptible to the unpredictable importation costs for such primary goods.

Some of the areas are chemical industries, wholesale trade, industry and agriculture, forestry and fisheries because they see a potential reduction of costs when reusing, recycling and reducing raw materials imports. In addition, logistic companies can enable a connection to a circular economy by providing customers incentives to reduce costs through shipment and route optimization, as well as, offering services such as prepaid shipping labels, smart packaging, and take-back options.

Several statistics have indicated that there will be an increase in freight transport worldwide, which will affect the environmental impacts of the global warming potential causing a challenge to the logistics industry, however, the Dutch council for the Environment and Infrastructure Dutch acronym: Rli provided a new framework in which it suggests that the logistics industry can provide other ways to add value to the different activities in the Dutch economy, such as, an exchange of resources either waste or water flows for production from the different industries, in addition, to change the transit port concept to a transit hub.

Moreover, the Rli studied the role of the logistics industry for three sectors, agriculture and food, chemical industries and high tech industries which can be found detailed in "Towards a Circular Economy: The Role of Dutch Logistics Industries and Governments". The CE does not aim at changing the profit-maximization paradigm of businesses. Rather, it suggests an alternative way of thinking how to attain a Sustained Competitive Advantage SCA , while concurrently addressing the environmental and socio-economic concerns of the 21st century.

Indeed, stepping away from linear forms of production most often leads to the development of new core competencies along the value chain and ultimately superior performance that cuts costs, improves efficiency, meets advanced government regulations and the expectations of green consumers. But despite the multiple examples of companies successfully embracing circular solutions across industries, and notwithstanding the wealth of opportunities that exist when a firm has clarity over what circular actions fit its unique profile and goals, CE decision-making remains a highly complex exercise with no one-size-fits-all solution.

The intricacy and fuzziness of the topic is still felt by most companies especially SMEs , which perceive circular strategies as something not applicable to them or too costly and risky to implement. The book Strategic Management and the Circular Economy defined for the first time a CE strategic decision-making process, covering the phases of analysis, formulation, and planning.

Theories of Change

Although yet to be verified, it is argued that all standard tools for strategic management can and should be calibrated and applied to a CE. This manifesto clearly stated that "In a world with growing pressures on resources and the environment, the EU has no choice but to go for the transition to a resource-efficient and ultimately regenerative circular economy. The European environmental research and innovation policy aims at supporting the transition to a circular economy in Europe, defining and driving the implementation of a transformative agenda to green the economy and the society as a whole, to achieve a truly sustainable development.

Research and innovation in Europe are financially supported by the programme Horizon , which is also open to participation worldwide. The European Union plans for a circular economy are spearheaded by its Circular Economy Package. Historically, the policy debate in Brussels mainly focused on waste management which is the second half of the cycle, and very little is said about the first half: eco-design. To draw the attention of policymakers and other stakeholders to this loophole, the Ecothis, an EU campaign was launched raising awareness about the economic and environmental consequences of not including eco-design as part of the circular economy package.

Initiated by former Ecover CEO and Belgian entrepreneur Gunter Pauli , derived from the study of natural biological production processes the official manifesto states, "using the resources available Created by Walter R. Stahel and similar theorists, in which industry adopts the reuse and service-life extension of goods as a strategy of waste prevention, regional job creation, and resource efficiency in order to decouple wealth from resource consumption.

Industrial Ecology is the study of material and energy flows through industrial systems. Focusing on connections between operators within the "industrial ecosystem", this approach aims at creating closed loop processes in which waste is seen as input, thus eliminating the notion of undesirable by-product. Resource recovery is using wastes as an input material to create valuable products as new outputs. The aim is to reduce the amount of waste generated, therefore reducing the need for landfill space and also extracting maximum value from waste. The ability to understand how things influence one another within a whole.

Elements are considered as 'fitting in' their infrastructure, environment and social context. The Biosphere Rules is a framework for implementing closed loop production processes. They derived from nature systems and translated for industrial production systems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Main article: Biomimicry. Main article: The Blue Economy.

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Main article: Cradle to cradle design. Main article: Industrial ecology. Main article: Resource recovery. Main article: Systems thinking. Main article: The Biosphere Rules. Business and economics portal Ecology portal. Retrieved Journal of Cleaner Production. Ellen MacArthur Foundation. Archived from the original on August Resources, Conservation and Recycling. Journal of Business Ethics. Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry.

November March 8, Jarrett ed. Retrieved 26 August , or dieoff. Squaring the Circular Economy. Handbook of Recycling.

The EIB Circular Economy Guide - Supporting the circular transition

Kerry Turner Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Johns Hopkins University Press. Sustain Sci. Retrieved 23 January Circle Economy. Which country is leading the circular economy shift? Which country is winning the race to a circular economy? The motivations can vary, from creating a more competitive economy or What is the goal of economics?

Kate Raworth is the author of the The machines that predict the future. Project partners Take a look at the project partners. Over the course of 24 months running from October to September , the project team: Collected an evidence base of reliable datasets and projections and made the evidence base available for the development of impact assessments; Pointed out innovative approaches based on the circular-economy concept in Member States; Assessed the economic, societal and resource-efficiency impacts of selected transitions on existing or new markets over time; Compiled model-based estimates and assessments of macroeconomic, societal and environmental costs and benefits of circular-economy transitions; and Described market and societal impacts of resource and waste flows and changes to those flows CIRCULAR IMPACTS was a two-year EU-funded research project involving three European research institutions.

The project team created three infographics, which cover different topics : 1. Methods for measuring impacts of circular-economy transitions They can be found in the gallery below.