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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Describe the connection issue. SearchWorks Catalog Stanford Libraries. Imaging diagnostico [electronic resource] : Casi dalla pratica clinica. Responsibility R. Ribes, A. Luna, P. Ros Eds. Uniform Title Learning diagnostic imaging. Imprint Milan : Springer-Verlag, c Physical description 1 online resource : ill. Online Available online. More options. There ischemic heart disease: general pathogenetic mechanisms. Ischemic heart disease atherosclerotic-pathophysiology and clinical-pathological stable angina pectoris and unstable, sub-endocardial infarction and transmural, and sudden death chronic cardiomyopathy.

Complications infarct. The myocarditis: etiology and classification; clinico-pathological. Cardiomyopathy: etiology and paintings morphological of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated, restrictive and arrhythmogenic. Paintings clinicopathological of valvular defects. The illness rheumatic and bacterial endocarditis: epidemiology, etiology and clinicomorfologici paintings. Pathology of the pericardium. Deposits and pericarditis: classifications, etiology and outcomes. Cardiac sudden deaths g.

Three good reasons to perform in postmortem examination in all cases of juvenile sudden death. The normal lymph nodes: anatomy and physiology. Lymphoma Concepts indolent and aggressive. The lymphoma Hodgkin: classification, general features of histologic, and immunophenotypic molecular.

The molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation lymphomas Lymphomas B peripheral. Epidemiological aspects, clinico-pathological, immunophenotypic and molecular lymphoma in small lymphocytes, follicular lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic, marginal and mantle, lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell GC and ABC , Burkitt's lymphoma.

THE molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation of lymphomas T. The peripheral T lymphomas: classificativi Background. Epidemiological aspects, clinico-pathologic, immunophenotypic and molecular anaplastic lymphoma and mycosis fungoides. Lymphomas of T and B precursor: the lymphoblastic lymphoma.


The plasma cell neoplasms. Hodgkin lymphoma: epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunophenotypic and clinical-pathological pictures of classical Hodgkin lymphoma and lymphocyte predominance. Diagnostic approach to the disease of the lymph node. Pathology of the spleen.

Classification of splenomegaly d. Pathology of the thymus. Classification of thymoma. Pathology of the bone marrow. Classification and clinical-pathological pictures of myelodysplasia and myeloproliferative diseases. Brief classificativi of acute leukemias. There nell'inquadramento marrow biopsy of bone marrow diseases. Monographs: Ronchi et al. The digestive endoscopic biopsy. Congenital anomalies.

Pathology of motor impairment. The esophageal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Pathology of the stomach. Classification and etiopathogenesis of gastritis; alterations Basic morphological. Peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer: clinical and pathological. The results of the tumors Stomach: classification. Gastric cancer: epidemiology, etiology and pathogenesis; paintings clinicopathological of precancerous, of early gastric cancer and the Advanced gastric cancer. The predictive pathology in gastric cancer and molecular classification.

The MALT lymphoma: clinico-pathological and molecular frameworks. Role of endoscopic biopsy in diagnosing gastric disease. Bowel Disease. Malformation Disease: megacolon aganglionic and diverticulum Meckel. Framing the intestinal malabsorption; clinico-pathological pictures of celiac disease.

Paintings clinicopathological disease inflammatory bowel: Crohn's disease, colitis and indeterminate RCU; complications. Types of intestinal polyps. The adenoma-carcinoma sequence. The adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum; clinico-pathological. The predictive pathology in intestinal cancers: ras and microsatellite instability. Gastro-intestinal tumors rare. Monograph: The Panarese, Predictive biomarkers along gastric cancer pathogenetic pathways. Liver disease and gallbladder.

Liver biopsy in the approach to the patient with Liver disease: role, directions, possibilities and limitations in the diagnosis; applications of histochemical staining. The elementary lesions of the liver: necrosis, fibrosis, inflammation, cholestasis, steatosis.

Infectious Hepatitis: general overview. Acute Viral Hepatitis, fulminate, chronic. Cirrhosis: morphogenesis, classification. Tumors of benign and malignant liver with particular reference hepatocellular carcinoma. Gallbladder: gallbladder and gallbladder cancer. Pathology of the pancreas.

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Paintings of the histopathological diabetes mellitus, type 1 and 2. General framework and pathophysiology of endocrine dysfunction. Pituitary: Maformazioni. Alterations regressive and inflammatory. Malignancies and dell'adenoipofisi the neurohypophysis. Pituitary syndromes. Thyroiditis: classification; Hashimoto's thyroiditis. THE goiter, euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid.

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Peculiarities of Graves' disease: clinicopathological paintings. Thyroid tumors: clinical and pathological pictures of papillary carcinoma, neoplasms follicular, anaplastic carcinoma, medullary carcinoma. Diagnostic approach of thyroid nodule: fine-needle aspiration, usefulness and limitations. Biomolecular aspects of thyroid carcinoma. Maformazioni, inflammatory disease, hyperplasia. Paintings clinicopathological adenoma and carcinoma of the cortical and medullary cancer Pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and neuroblastoma.

The MEN. Pathology of the kidney. Rene: Congenital Pathology with particular reference to diseases cystic: morphological pictures. The glomerulonephritis in immunological pathogenesis: pathogenesis and Basic glomerular lesions. Paintings morphological pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis immunological and secondary.

Classification of tubulointerstitial diseases. Pathology transplant. End Stage Disease. Kidney cancer: the pediatric age tumors Wilms tumor and adult adenomas and oncocytomas, clear cell carcinoma, papillary, chromophobe, of collecting ducts, sarcomatoid, the renal pelvis : clinico-pathological; and grading principles immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis. Pathology of the bladder. Urothelial cancer epidemiology, etiology, natural history paintings morphological and stadiums action Pathology of the penis. Epidemiology, etiology, clinical and morphological pictures of cancer penis.

Pathology of the prostate. The prostatitis. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinicomorfologici paintings. Prostate cancer: epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical morfogici paintings. Management of the patient with suspected carcinoma of the prostate: the prostate biopsy-mode ' Sampling. Management of prostate samples. Outline of malformation. The concept of testicular dysgenesis. Classifications of infertility 'male. Tumor Pathology: Principles for classification of tumors Germ: seminomas, non-seminomas age 'prepubertal and postpubere: clinico-pathological; the tumors of the gonadal stroma: clinico-pathological.

Management of patients with nodules Testicular. Vulvar Pathology. The vulvar cysts. Conditions and pre-neoplastic lesions of the vulva. The vulvar cancer: epidemiology, etiology and clinical-pathological. Pathology of the uterine cervix. The cervical cancer and its precursors: epidemiology, etiology and clinical-morphological pictures.

The PAP test as a screening tool. Normal endometrial changes and uterine bleeding Abnormal: dysfunctional bleeding, endometritis, endometriosis and adenomyosis, polyps endometrial, endometrial hyperplasia, with anatomocliniche correlations. The uterine tumors: endometrioid carcinomas, papillary serous and clear cell: clinical-morphological pictures.

Overview on mesenchymal neoplasm and trophoblastic tumors. Pathology of the ovary and fallopian tubes. The results of the gonadal stromal tumors and germ cells: epidemiology, etiology and pathological pictures. Ovarian metastases. The pseudo myxoma peritonei. The extemporaneous examination on the ovarian masses. The salpingitis and tubal pregnancy. Mammary Pathology. The fibrocystic disease breast: clinical and pathological. The concept of DIN. Breast cancer: epidemiology, risk factors. The role of BRCA1 and 2.

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The carcinoma in situ: paintings clinicopathological. The conventional invasive carcinoma: ductal and lobular; Special histological types: tubular, medullary, mucinous, papillary, metaplastic, apocrine, Paget's disease.

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There predictive diagnosis of breast cancer: Classic receptor profile, MammaPrint. There Molecular classification. Diagnostic path patient with breast lump: August aspirate, core biopsy, Mammotome. Classification of cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and brain herniation.

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Cerebrovascular disease. Intracranial hemorrhages epidural hematoma, subdural, sub arachnoid hemorrhage, hemorrhage intraparenchymal c. Infectious pathology. General overview. Meningitis, bacterial and meningoencephalitis brain abscesses. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalitis; CreutzfeldtJacob of disease is.

Degenerative diseases: General overview. Alzheimer's Disease. Brain tumors, pathological clinical pictures; predictive pathology elements MGMT Framing benign bone disease; metabolic disease. The osteomyelitis. The bone neoplasms: the osteogenic tumors osteoma, osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma chondrogenic exostosis, chondroma, chondrosarcoma and chondroblastoma and not osteocondrogeniche T.

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  • GCA, fibroids do not ossificanti, Ewing's sarcoma b. The tumors of the soft tissues: general overview of soft tissue tumors according to differenziazone istotipica: fibro-myofibroblastic tumors, fibroistiocitici, fat, muscle, vascular, neural, nerve sheaths, indefinite istogenenesi epithelioid sarcoma, synovial sarcoma General prognostic factors.

    General criteria for the use of biology Molecular for the differential diagnosis of the most common soft tissue tumors. Pathology of the nasopharynx. Tumor Pathology: polyps; squamous cell carcinoma; undifferentiated carcinoma; rare cancers. Pathology of the oral and oropharyngeal cable. The inflammatory diseases, infectious and non-infectious.

    The granulomas of the oral cavity. Squamous cell carcinoma and its precursors: epidemiology, etiology and clinical-pathological. Role of HPV in the pathogenesis of cancer nasopharynx. The cancer-like tumors and lesions ameloblastoma and odontogenic the odontoma; odontogenic cysts. Disorders of the salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands, benign adeoma pleomorphic and monomorphic and malignant c. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author.

    Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. For commercial re-use, please contact journals. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Telemedicine has deeply innovated the field of emergency cardiology, particularly the treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

    Introduction Definition of telemedicine Telemedicine is defined as a mode of delivering health care services, through the use of innovative technologies, in particular the Information and Communication Technologies, in situations where the health professional and the patient or two professionals are not in the same place. Utility of telemedicine Telemedicine can be used in different contexts and by different operators: general practitioners, hospital specialists, any health care worker, including non-physicians, and patients may benefit from the use of telemedicine in several aspects better management, simplification of procedures, reduction in transfer.

    Telemedicine in cardiovascular emergencies: acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction The guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology ESC on the treatment of STEMI recommend primary angioplasty pPCI as the preferred treatment strategy when performed in due time. Telemedicine in arrhythmic emergencies The applications of telemedicine have been classified into three categories in relation to the place where the service is carried out: pre-hospital, in-hospital, and post-hospital.

    In-hospital In-hospital telecardiology is often used for electrocardiogram sharing between different departments or between peripheral hospitals to central hospitals. Post-hospital The post-hospital management of patients with arrhythmias can be articulated in two points: the teleconsultation between general practitioners and specialists, the use of telemedicine in chronic cardiovascular disease. Table 1 Reduction of time to treatment of acute myocardial infarction thanks to pre-hospital electrocardiogram by telemedicine.

    Study authors N telemedicine vs. Open in a separate window.

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    PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention. Telemedicine and cardiovascular emergency networks in Italy Several networks for cardiovascular emergencies with telemedicine support, mainly based on lead pre-hospital electrocardiogram, have been implemented so far in Italy. Figure 1. Table 2 Telemedicine experience on cardiovascular emergency reported on the national Ministry of Health website www. Figure 2. Pre-hospital lead electrocardiogram 12 IMAWeb 1 survey — Figure 3.

    Despite the implementation of information systems with fast connectivity, there are still existing problems that mainly consist of: still suboptimal implementation of the fast track paths EMS-cathlab ; improvable timing between first medical contact and cathlab admission; delays in the time to balloon of patients with STEMI accessing the network through spoke centres.

    Table 3 Management, administration, and system service modules. Log and security Module including all the application security functions such as authentication and user profiling, and the users' tracing and access logs function Requirements Authorization system through user profiling and definition of distinct privileges for profile Configuration and encodings Module collecting all the management functions of the encoding tables and registers necessary for the application system Reporting Drawing, execution, and publication of the reports both standard and custom component used by the process modules of the application system.

    It also includes the applicative cooperation layer with external systems. Availability of an appropriate application designed to determine the most suitable dispatch centre Re-addressing function of reporting requests, with activation of the alert system, in the case of transmission of the application to the competent dispatch centre error Ability to interface with external systems via standard HL7 protocol Intervention management in emergency cardiology The module containing the functions dedicated to the health emergency personnel. It manages the work lists of the dispatch centre and transmits the alarm signal.

    Electrocardiogram and pre-hospital diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction The EMS should be staffed with personnel able to perform a lead electrocardiogram. Referral centres and direct referral paths Any network protocols must clearly identify the referral cathlab where EMS ambulance should transfer subjects with suspected ACS.

    Emergency room Direct presentation to the nearest emergency department is another modality to access the STEMI network. Figure 4. Organizational telemedicine model for cardiovascular emergency. Table 5 Telecardiology and urgent care centres of the hub-and-spoke. Table 6 The telemedicine and the haemodynamic laboratories of hub centres. Cardiology care units The CCU of the hub centres have to manage patients with STEMI after treatment with primary angioplasty, awaiting the activation of the cathlab, as well as those for which PCI reperfusion is not feasible late arrival, patient refusal, contraindications to anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy, lack of arterial access, etc.

    Indicators and measurable standard with an advanced telemedicine system The following list represents the set of indicators and reference standards that will serve as a reference for performance evaluations of health facilities and the planning of any audits and corrective actions. Signal transmission requirements All electrocardiograms should follow the guidelines for the electrocardiogram standardization 56 and comply with bandwidth of at least 0. Training The telemedicine for cardiovascular emergency requires skills that are often not part of the know-how of the clinical cardiologist.

    Professional liability in telemedicine Telemedicine revolutionized the classic relationship between doctor and patient and introduced more actors and more places: from this point of view, then the professional responsibility does not fall only on the physician interpreting the remote electrocardiogram, but also on the operator recording the electrocardiogram. Procedures and guidelines Internal procedures are required to adapt international guidelines to local networks and technological resources.

    Privacy in telemedicine The obligation to respect the privacy pertains to telemedicine in the same way as any other field in medicine, with some variants. National law for emergency networks and regional statements In the field of networks for emergency, the latest regulations issued by the Ministry of Health is represented by the 2 April Decree No.

    Conflict of interest: none declared. References 1. Diagnostic performance and system delay using telemedicine for prehospital diagnosis in triaging and treatment of STEMI. Heart ; — Prospettive della telemedicina e del monitoraggio mediante dispositivi nel paziente con scompenso cardiaco cronico: luci e ombre. HRS Expert Consensus Statement on remote interrogation and monitoring for cardiovascular implantable electronic devices.

    Heart Rhythm ; 12 :e69—e J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; doi: Effects of remote monitoring on clinical outcomes and use of healthcare resources in heart failure patients with biventricular defibrillators: results of the MORE-CARE multicentre randomized controlled trial. Eur J Heart Fail ; 19 — A retrospective analysis of a pediatric tele-echocardiography service to treat, triage, and reduce trans-Pacific transport. J Telemed Telecare ; doi: Diagnosis of congenital heart disease in neonates by videoconferencing: an eight-year experience.

    J Telemed Telecare ; 14 — Eur Heart J ; 37 — The usefulness of a predictive instrument to reduce inappropriate admissions to the coronary care unit. An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: a report from a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group.

    Ann Emerg Med ; 29 — Fedele F, Scalvini S. Modelli di telecardiologia attualmente in uso. Prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias in pre-hospital tele-cardiology electrocardiograms of emergency medical service patients referred for syncope. J Electrocardiol ; 45 — A prospective evaluation of prehospital lead ECG application in chest pain patients. J Electrocardiol ; 24 Suppl :8— The diagnostic impact of prehospital lead electrocardiography. Ann Emerg Med ; 19 — Sable C.

    Telecardiology: potential impact on acute care. Scalvini S, Glisenti F. Centenary of tele-electrocardiography and telephonocardiography—where are we today? J Telemed Telecare ; 11 — Circulation ; — Eur Heart J ; 33 — Transmission of electrocardiograms from a moving ambulance. J Telemed Telecare ; 4 :5—7. Telemedicine used for remote prehospital diagnosing in patients suspected of acute myocardial infarction. J Intern Med ; — Reduction of treatment delay in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: impact of prehospital diagnosis and direct referral to primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Eur Heart J ; 26 — Effect on treatment delay of prehospital teletransmission of lead electrocardiogram to a cardiologist for immediate triage and direct referral of patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction to primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol ; — Urban and rural implementation of pre-hospital diagnosis and direct referral for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Eur Heart J ; 32 — Telecardiology applied to a region-wide public emergency health-care service.