Note that a later White is much better after Qb5 Nxd6 while Qc3 lO. Rbl followed by Rb3 forces the win of material. Qxc3 ll. Rcl Qb4 Rbl Qc3 Rb3 and Black loses his Queen. Nc6 Placing pressure on d4, but this backfires horribly. Na6 ll. Nd2 followed by Nxc2 ll. Rcl wins material since the Knight on c2 is trapped. Nbd7 7. Nxe5 ll. Qxd8 Rxd8 Bxe5 when White has won a pawn.
Bh2 Many players feel that ll. White almost never wants to take on e5, and will only do so if it brings him some sort of immediate gain. Nd2 and suddenly the h2-Bishop has turned into a monster. The threat of This system was named the Boring Opening by a player who realized that White is actually keeping enemy counterplay to a minimum, thus boring his opponent to death. After l. White has many ways to continue, but the most popular method is 4.
Bf4 Nc6 5. Nbd2 intends to give the pawn back in return for the two Bishops and a slight but safe positional plus. This line runs as follows: Qe7 7. Nd3 mate! Nc3 holds onto the pawn but gives Black real com- pensation in the form of active pieces and a superior pawn structure: Qd5 f6 9-exf6 Nxf6 The typical pawn structures resulting from this opening are: 1 White exchanges on d5 and then places his c-pawn on c3 via 3-exd5 cxd5 4. Bd3 Nc6 5.
Black will support this point with Nf6 and e6, making sure to avoid the early development of his light-squared Bishop Why? Nf6 5. Nc3 e6 6. Nf3 Be7 7. Nxd5 8. For a more detailed discus- sion of the correct plans associated with Isolated Pawns, turn to that topic in the Middlegame section page French formation with freed light-squared Bishop White seeks a firm center and the spatial plus that it bestows.
He may also play for kingside pressure, thanks to the presence of his e5-pawn. Black will get his Bishop outside the pawn chain by Bf5 or Bg4 followed by He may then play for an immediate Qb6 and only then Nc3 or 3-Nd2. After 3-Nc3 dxe4 4. Nxe4 we get a position see diagram 22 which offers adequate play to Black due to his ability to get his Bishop outside the pawn chain Black will often strive to bring his Bishop to f 5 or g4 before playing Re- capturing with Nbd7 see diagram 24 followed by Black hopes to develop his pieces in a quiet manner after Nbd7 and Ngf6 with Bf5 see diagram 25 followed by Nf6, and Nbd7 a further Bd6 and American Grandmaster Yasser Seirawan has al- ways been fond of this classical main line.
The problem with the opening is that Black will lose some time anyway in recapturing on d5 with his Queen or Knight. Qxd5 when White gains some initiative with 3. Nc3 Gaining a tempo by attacking the Black Queen. Nf3 Bf5 followed by Bd6 etc. Also possible is the interesting 3. Nxc6 gives Black too much central control and development. Better, after 3. Nf3 holds off on c2-c4 for a little while, instead opting for calm development via Be2 and Nf3 Nf6 3-e3 White intends to play for e3-e4 which frees the Bishop on cl by placing his pieces on posts that control that square.
One typical sequence is: 3—e6 4. Bd3 c5 5. Be7 7. Play might proceed: 8. Qe2 Qc7 Black is threatening to beat White to the punch with Kxh7 Qxg4 , and Nxe4 frees the Bishop on cl the subtle reply Nf3 g6 , many players combine this system to be used against l. Nf3 d5 with the Boring Opening after l.
NB g6 3. The position after l. Nc3 d6 5. Black must try the same ideas with One typical sequence is 6. Bd3 Also popular is 6. Nge2 Ne8 Development is npt very important when the center is closed. Bh6 with Ng7 and Other ideas are an eventual This latter idea is critical because the opening of the e-file might easily lead to the unveiling of central weaknesses created by Main lines run as follows: 2-g3 Also interesting is 2. Nc3, intending an immediate e2-e4. Nf6 3-Bg2 and now Black usually chooses between the Leningrad Variation Nf3 Bg7 5.
Nf3 d5 5. Of course, both these systems have drawbacks. The Leningrad Variation creates a weakness on e6 see diagram White can try to exploit this by playing for e2-e4 via Nc3 followed by Qc2 and e4 , when the open e-file would make e6 stick out like a sore thumb. Aside from this direct central advance which may not be so easy to achieve , White can also hit at e6 by d4-d5 followed by Nd4.
With l. He will back this up with Nc3 developing and aiming another piece at d5 , g2-g3 and Bg2 yet another unit strikes at the big square. Black has many ways to combat this opening, but we will only take a quick look at the two most principled replies: 1 l Both sides can then follow one of two basic plans: l. Nf3 Nf6 6. Nxd4 Nxd4 8. Qxd4 when White owns a bit of extra space in the center. Rbl Rb8 7. With this move Black hits the d4-square and takes more space on the kingside. This can easily lead to a position where White plays for a queenside attack while Black strikes out against the enemy King: 2.
Nf3 d6 6. Rbl followed by b2-b4-b5 see diagram This loosens up the g2-a8 diagonal for the g2-Bishop, gains space, and chases the Black Knight away from c6. Placing the Rook on bl avoids this danger before it becomes real. The positional reason is that placing the b-pawn on b5 via b2-b4-b5 hopes for Black to eventually play Then bxc6 would open the b-file and make White look like a genius for placing his Rook on that file in the first place! Bh3, etc. The sharp game that results will offer both sides chances of success. Positional in nature, White seeks simple development before embarking on any adventures.
The main line of the Four Knights comes about after l. Nf3 Nc6 3-Nc3 Nc6 4. Bb5 when Black usually chooses be- tween two continuations: 33 The Four Knights Opening 1 Black keeps playing in a symmetrical vein by Bb4, The key structure comes about after 5. Bg5 Bxc3 8. Since Qe7 9-Rel Nd8 followed by Ne6 known as the Metger Unpin. See diagram Can Black keep the center blocked a blocked center snuffs out the strength of Bishops? When White plays d3-d4, Black must never exchange by The intention is to sacrifice a pawn in exchange for a lead in development and very active pieces.
The best moves are acknowledged to be 5. Nxe5 7. Black is willing to make these concessions in exchange for a solid central pawn chain his pawn on e6 defends the pawn on d5 and the possibility of central and queenside counterplay by The two structures that occur are: 1 White has pawns on d4 and e5, Black has pawns on d5 and e6 this can appear after 3-e5 or after 3-Nc3 Nf6 4.
A closed pawn center as in diagram 36 usually calls for play on the wings. An effective alternative, though, is to seek a pawn break by f2-f4-f5. Another common French Defense center This formation diagram 37 comes about after 3-Nc3 dxe4 4. White logically places his Bishop on an active diagonal and eyes the vulnerable pawn on f7. This opening was very popular in the s but better defensive techniques, and the advent of the more subtle Ruy Lopez ; took away some of its luster. Nf3 Nc6 3. White continues slowly with , c2-c3, Nbl-d2, eventually hoping to expand in the center with d3-d4.
White sacrifices a pawn to gain time and get his pieces out rapidly after Bxb4 5. It was then thought to be rather dubious until Kasparov dusted if off and showed that it still contains a lot of life. Naturally, playing a gambit carries a good deal of risk since the extra material gives the defender a long-term advantage.
If Black can solidify his position, complete his development and get his King castled, White might find himself a pawn down and in desperate trouble. White takes control of the d4- square and prepares to grab the center with a d2-d4 advance. Black has to take active measures against this; indecisive play will allow White to carry out his plan, with all the spatial gains and perks that go along with a successful annexation of the center. Best play is Nf6 Striking at the White e-pawn.
Nbxd2 d5! Though Black has many ways to answer this opening, the most popular is l Then 2. Bg2 but As Black, let out a cheer if your opponent pushes his g-pawn to g4! Bg5, 4.
Bf4 and 4. Nxd5 5. This position gives us a real battle of philosophies! White will give his center as much support as possible, since, if he can succeed in making it indestructible, Black will find himself with- out space and without counterplay. Black would also like to force a pawn advance by d4-d5 or e4-e5 when squares will suddenly make themselves available to the Black army the pawns on e4 and d4 control all the key central squares.
As soon as one of these pawns steps forward, White gains some more space but hands a square or a diagonal to his opponent. The following sequence gives an excellent illustration of the critical themes: Bg7 Now Black has two pieces hitting d4. Bc4 7. Nf3 is a critical alternative. Bg4 with f3. Be3 White defends d4 and Black attacks it.
The flow of this position is easy to understand Qc7 This creates tactical threats against the c4- Bishop and simultaneously prepares to place the Rook on d8, where it will continue the fight against d4. Rcl A mysterious looking move that gives c4 some support since ll Rd8 Qd2 and White will follow up with The position in diagram 42 reached after l. Nf3 Nf6 3.
King And Pawn - Corresponding Squares
Nc3 e6 4. Bg2 Bb7 6. Qxd4 d6 9. Qe3 ll. Nd4 Nbd7 His tight structure keeps the White forces out of b5, c5, d5, e5 and f5, while pawn breaks based on Once this prophylactic work is taken care of note how most of the White forces aim at the b5 and d5 squares , White will gain more space and play for a kingside attack by f2-f4 and g3-g4-g5.
If Black takes the f4-pawn, White succeeds in gaining a majority of center pawns, and he will use these by grabbing the center with d2-d4. In this case Black is the one who gives up a pawn in order to grab the initiative. Bc5 3. Nf3 White loses after 3. Bc4, 5. Easy to learn and very aggressive, the main position can be reached by l. Nf3 l. Nf3 d5 2. Nbd2 Be7 7.
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Ngf3 c5 5. Bg2 Be7 7. The further moves Nfl Qc7 ll. Bf4 a5 Black intends to continue annexing queenside space with For a further look at this position, see Overprotection, page Black develops his kingside pieces and castles, allow- ing White to build a large center l. Nc3 Bg7 4. A detailed description of pointing pawns can be found in the middlegame section. A typical sequence is: 5. Be2 6. Bg5 This is known as the Averbakh Variation.
Nb8-a6-c7 followed by Rb8 and finally Note that a move like Qa5 Threatening Bd2 e6, opening the e-file for his Rooks. The most common sequence for this plan is: 5. Nf3 6. Be2 e5 7. These pawn advances give them more space and open files for their Rooks. Nd3 f5 ll. Bd2 Nf6 The immediate Though this lets Black take an immediate spatial edge with l Bb2 The first strike against this pawn. Now White must react aggres- sively or he will be overrun in the middle. Bb5 Pinning the Knight and renewing the threat against e5. Bd6 and now moves like 5.
Nf3 and 5. The moves l. Nc3 exd5 5. White has a pawn majority in the center while Black has a pawn majority on the queenside. All further play will relate directly to these imbalances.
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Black will try to expand on the queenside getting his pawn majority into motion by Rb8 and White will counter with a central strike based on f2-f4, Ngl-f3 and e4-e5. Naturally, as both sides rush to employ their majorities, they will also take a bit of time out to stop the opponent from achieving his own goals. For example: Be2 a6 Na6 followed by Nc7 is also possible. Qc2 Nbd7 when both sides will experience some difficulty in employing their pawn majorities. White has gained control over b5 while Black has gained control over e5. The battle for these points will rage on, of course, and a particularly difficult game is in store for both players.
Nc3 Bb4 — the Bishop move pins the Knights and fights for control of the square has been played, at one time or another, by just about every top Grandmaster. Nf3 Nc6 6. Another line, sometimes called the Capablanca Variation and at other times called the Classical Variation, shows the Bishops in a better light after 4. Qc2 White is willing to waste some time to prevent the doubling of his pawns. Black scoffs at all this and will take aim at the weak c4-pawn with Ba6 and Other moves like Rc8 and even Nd6 can easily finish the poor c4- pawn off.
Trying to come up with a proper name for l. On the negative side, White has ignored the center and will eventually lose time defending his b-pawn, which is hanging out to dry on b4. Black has lots of playable answers, but the most promising is the obvious and logical l After the further 2. Bb2 Bxb4 3. Bxe5 Nf6 we can take stock of the plans for both sides. This exchange makes White happy, since he now owns a central majority of pawns. Due to this, White will eventually try to push these pawns down the board and grab space in the middle.
Black will gain further time by Re8 when White can easily fall prey to a quick attack. Nf3 Nf6 is played to avoid any huge structural differences in the position and, as a result, to keep things as equal as possible. Some openings, like the Sicilian Defense and the French Defense, are counterattacks that strive to wrest the initiative from White. Bd3 d5 5. Nxe5 Bd6 the popular Nxe5 d6 Avoiding the old trap Qe2 when White wins at least a pawn. Nf3 Nxe4 5. Qe2 Qe7 6. If you are in a must-win situation, this opening would not be a good choice. Though the moves l.
In the present case, Black will develop in a calm manner, get his King safely castled, and only then lash out in the middle with either This is a dangerous plan, but Black gets adequate play with Bg7 5. Qd2 e5. Qd2 b5, when Black maps out his own territory on the queenside. Nf3 This greedy plan White gains all the space he can puts maximum pressure on Black, but the second player has a couple ways to seek central counterplay after 5.
Nc6 This Knight move mixed with a later Bg4 also places pressure on the d4-pawn. In all lines of the Austrian Attack , Black must seek counterplay against the huge White center as quickly as he can, or risk getting squashed by a lack of space and the rampaging pawns. Nf3 This is called the Classical Variation. After Bg4 preparing to put pressure on d4 via Nc6 , Nc6 hitting d4 and preparing Nbd7 preparation for Bc8-b7 , Na6 preparing for Chigorin , was known for his preference of Knights over Bishops.
Though l. Nc6 seems odd because it blocks his c-pawn. One line that illustrates the central battle and also highlights the fight between Bishops and Knights goes as follows: 3. Nf3 I prefer 3-Nc3. Nc3 Bb4 8. Black will continue with. Rhe8 with a very harmonious setup. Also note that Black is quite willing to let White have this center as long as he can restrain and attack it with his Knights and pawns. Fischer in his return match with Spassky , Seirawan, Timman, Anand, Short and a host of other world class competi- tors have found that this opening l.
Nf3 is another main line, often trans- posing into positions reached by 3. The more restrained 3. Qf3 and White wins a piece!
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This famous old trap is well worth knowing , and instead plays for isolated d-pawn positions after Bxc4e6 5. Nbd7 and The exami- nation of Isolated Pawns on page will prove extremely valuable to players wishing to try either side of this complex opening. Be7 and Bg5 Increasing the pressure against d5. Be7 5. Nf3 h6 7. Bh4 b6 when the Bishop will find a good diagonal with Nbd7 followed by After the moves l.
Bg5 Be7 5. Nf3 Nbd7 7. Rcl c6 8. Bd3 Black has less territory than his opponent. By continuing with The second player makes considerable spatial gains after Bxe7 Qxe7 Rxc3 e5 dxe5 Nxe5 l4. Nc3 c5 4. Nf3 Black happily accepts the fact that he will get an isolated pawn after White eventually plays dxc5 , but expects full compensation in the form of active piece play, quick and easy development, and plenty of central space.
Nc6 6. All the usual isolated pawn strategies apply here. Bb4 and instead calmly develops his kingside pieces l. However, where 3. Nc3 fights for control of the key e4- square, 3. Nf3 allows Black to grab hold of it by Ba6, creating an immediate attack against the c4-pawn. This odd-looking move be- gins a quick fight and forces White to defend c4 in some uncomfortable manner 5. Nbd2 takes the Knight away from its most effective square on c3; 5. Qc2, 5. Qa4 or 5. Qb3 all pull the Queen away from her defense of d4; 5.
After White guards his pawn, Black can continue developing or he can stir up more complications with central strikes via In some cases the strange In this line, White will usually get some advantage if he can take control of e4 and eventually advance his e-pawn to this square. This can be done after Bg2 and by continuing with Qc2 and Nc3. At times, White can also close in the Black b7-Bishop by d4-d5 with a consider- able spatial edge.
Black will fight these evil White plans with after Ne4 followed, in some cases, by In general, White gains a very small edge from the opening, but careful play will usually allow Black to secure eventual equality. Play might go as follows: 5. Bg2 Be7 6. Nc3 Threatening to grab hold of e4 by Qc2 Ne4 8. Qc2 Nxc3 9-Qxc3 Be4 lO. Nel Bxg2 ll. Nxg2 Bf6 when It should be added that, instead of 4.
Black has a few choices here and it is not clear which one is best Though Ba6 and Bb7 5. However, the fact that the c7-pawn stands on an open file and is therefore potentially weak means that, eventually, Black will have to play White can then take on c5 dxc5 and create after Black recaptures via These pawns on c5 and d5 can be strong or weak are they space-gainers or targets?
Nxd5 leads to a battle where one side grabs the center with pawns thinking that it will gain space and eventually crush the opponent in its coils while the other side tries to show that this center is a target. Qc2 Be7 8. White will guard his center pawns with his pieces and use them to restrain the enemy forces. Black will attack these pawns after castling with Nc6 in an effort to show their negative side.
Both sides have chances and the struggle will be a dynamic one. The first point of l. Nf3 is to stop Black from playing For example, after l. Nf3 c5 2. In general, the actual Reti Opening centers around White playing l. Nf3 followed by c2-c4, g2-g3 b2-b3 might also be thrown in.
A typical line goes l Bb2 Bf5 5. Bd6 followed by.. Nf3 Nc6 3-Bb5 White places pressure on c6 which can easily translate to pressure against e5, since the c6-Knight is the main defender of that pawn and tells Black that any move of the d7-pawn will result in the c6-Knight being pinned. In some lines, this pawn can be given additional support by Ng8-f6-d7 and Bf8- e7-f6.
By holding on to the e5-pawn, Black guarantees that he will retain a certain part of the center for himself. He will only capture a White pawn on d4 with his e-pawn if he can avoid losing too much central influence. Though Black has many developmental schemes to choose from, the most highly respected is the Closed Defense-. Ba4 The Exchange Variation , with 4. Bxc6 dxc6, is also seen from time to time. After 5. Qxd4 Qxd4 7. Black will avoid exchanging too many pieces and try to make use of the power of his two Bishops.
Nxe4 6. Bb3 d5, is a favorite of Grandmasters Korchnoi, Anand and Yusupov. In this line, Black takes on more structural weaknesses but also assures himself of greater piece activity then he would normally obtain. Rel b5 Black appears to be gaining time and queenside space with these pawn ad- vances, but the b5-pawn might also end up being a target after an eventual a2-a4 by White. Bb3 d6 8. By stopping Black from pinning it with Bg4, White retains his Knight and also retains control over that d4-square! More modern lines are Re8, beginning to give e5 lots of protection, and Nb8, swinging the Knight around to d7 followed by the active placement of the light-squared Bishop to b7 Bc2 c5 ll.
Nbd2 Nc6 This interesting position has been a common visitor to chess tournaments for nearly a century. White can choose one of two plans here: 1 Closing the center by d5 gives White central space and allows him to seek his play on the queenside or kingside when the center is closed, you must play with your pawns on the wings. This allows you to gain space and create open files for your Rooks. Queenside play can be started by a2-a4 and b2-b4.
Kingside play can be created by Nd2-fl followed by g2-g4 and Nfl-g3. This center closing strategy is the modern way to play the position and is the reason most players try Re8 or Nb8 instead of Nfl allows White to try and make use of the potentially weak squares on d5 and f5. After l Be6 Ne3 Rad8 l6. Qe2 White will stuff a Knight on f5 and often gain the two Bishops as a result. Nxd4 White creates a wide open position where he has some chance to turn the squares on f5 and d5 into homes for his Knights.
The central structure with a White pawn on e4 versus a Black pawn on d6 gives White an obvious advantage in space, but Black is able to generate plenty of counterplay due to the fact that his forces can be developed quickly and actively. Bc5 developing the Bishop to an active square with gain of time and The lines tend to be very complicated and a tremendous amount of theoretical knowledge is required to play this sharp system properly. The beginning moves are: l. Nc3 e6 5. Bg5 dxc4 6. Bh4 g5 9. Nxh5 hxg5 Bxg5 with a crazed tactical battle in store. Deep preparation is of the utmost importance here, with many variations going past the thirtieth move!
Nbd7 6. Bd3 dxc4 7. Bxc4 b5 8. Bd3 From time to time White also tries 8. Be2 and 8. Black will place his c8-Bishop on b7 and the-n advance his c- pawn to c5. This is very important! If Black is not able to push his c-pawn to c5, it will end up as a permanent weakness on an open file. Black's counterplay has proven highly effective in recent years since the Bishop on b7 becomes quite active while the White pawn on d4 can come under pressure. Though White can try many interesting sidelines after l Nf3 followed by 3.
In general, Black strives for queenside play thanks to the half open c-file and is also on the lookout for central counterchances a successful White will either try for a central breakthrough or he will go all out for a kingside decision. Though Black can choose from dozens of complicated set- ups, the central situations tend to be divided into four groups: 1 Black places his pawns on e6 and d6.
Nf3 d6 3. In fact, Grandmaster Bent Larsen once went so far as to call 3. His play down the half- open c-file, possible queenside expansion with Some typical sequences that lead to this kind of center are: l. Nf3 d6 3-d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 e6 as seen in diagram 70 , l. Nc3 a6 6. Bg5 e6 known as the Najdorf Variation , l. Nf3 d6 4. Nc3 Nc6 6. Bg5 e6 the Richter-Rauzer Variation , l. Bc4 e6 the Sozin Variation. The dreaded Dragon This Dragon system places the dark-squared Bishop on the powerful g7-al diagonal. Black must be on constant guard against Nc3-d5 by White.
A capture on d5 might then lead to the opening of the e-file after l. Nxd4 g6 5. Nc3 Bg7 6. Be3 Nf6 7. Bc4 Qa5 8. Bb3 d6 Rel Rac8 Nd5 Nxd5 An attempt to make this square taboo by Another anti -Dragon system is the dreaded Yugoslav Attack also known as the St.
George Attack :. White solidi- fies his central situation by f2-f3, castles queenside and then throws everything he has at the Black King l. Be3 Bg7 7. Bc4 Nc6 9. Qd2 Bd7 Bb3 Ne5 Of course, these moves show that Black is building up his own attack on the queenside, and the resulting ultra-sharp battle can swing either way. One typical starting sequence is l.
Nc3 e5 6.
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Ndb5 d6 7. Bg5 a6 8. Bxf6 gxf6 9-Na3 b5 Black is hoping that his two Bishops, open g-file, ability to hit the White center with White dreams of getting his a3-Knight into the thick of battle by Nd5 and c2-c3, with Nc2-e3 to follow. The most common sequence for a Maroczy Bind is l. Nf3 Nc6 3-d4 cxd4 4. Nf6 here, forcing White to block his c-pawn with 5.
Bg7 6. Nc3 Ng4 8. Qxg4 Nxd4 9-Qdl e5 see diagram Bb7, or he can go for the gusto with Qa5 ll. Be2 g5!? Nc3 d6 8. Be2 9. Qd2 Nxd4 ll. Bxd4 Bc6 Bxg7 Kxg7 allows Black to grab the c5-square and the dark-squares around it by Qb6 and Nc5 see diagram For this reason, White does best to retain the d4- Bishop by Nf6 6. Be2 Bad is 7. Nxd4 8.
Qxd4 Bg7 9-Bg5 Qd2 Be6 Racl a6 Bd3 Rfc8 I4. The reason for this is simple: it's one of those rare systems that contains a harmonious mix of solidity and dynamism. The main line runs as follows: 3. Nf3 Nf6 4 Nc 3 dxc4 5. Bf5 6. Bxc4 Bb4 8. Black will castle, fight to retain control over the b4-square, a nd then strike in the center with an eventual Nh4 Black can retreat his Bishop to g6, he can niove it to g4, or he can simply leave it on f5 by 9—, when l 0.
There are two problems with this logic: 1 After l. Nf3 Bg7 4. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Johnny Lam rated it it was amazing Nov 23, Michael rated it liked it Aug 06, Rajkumar rated it really liked it Sep 19, Jweston marked it as to-read Oct 15, Glenn Mitchell added it Dec 20, Jjcannone marked it as to-read Jan 26, Steve Ellyson is currently reading it Mar 06, Derek is currently reading it Dec 10, Joe Urso is currently reading it Jul 12, Robert Curry marked it as to-read Dec 19, Amit Kaushal is currently reading it Feb 06, Asness is currently reading it Jul 23, Irene marked it as to-read Nov 17, Brian Karen is currently reading it Feb 23, Jeremy Banta marked it as to-read Mar 22, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.
About Rodolfo Pardi. Rodolfo Pardi. Instructor and Arbiter of Italian Chess Federation, now preparing short booklets about subjects not usually covered by training books. Ebooks are expecially prepared for 6" monochromatic readers x dpi , but can also be read on colour displays. There are plenty of diagrams, to reduce the need of a Chess Board, and, to be easily identified, piece names are not foreign capital letters, but figur Instructor and Arbiter of Italian Chess Federation, now preparing short booklets about subjects not usually covered by training books.
There are plenty of diagrams, to reduce the need of a Chess Board, and, to be easily identified, piece names are not foreign capital letters, but figurines, one of the few ebooks with this feature. Target is novice and club players, up to ELO. Books by Rodolfo Pardi. Trivia About The most importan