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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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On Sunday night, and all Monday, Papillon was much indisposed ; very probably from a feast of fruit which some friends had given tiiem on Saturday evening. Notwith- standing this, having already engaged seats, he and Godfrey mounted the coach for Paris early on Tuesday, the 24th September; slept at Magny, where they were " basely lodged ; " started again at three a. Denis, — "a good large inn, but a very dear house.

Poor Papillon became worse rather than better, and continued so for some days ; and the landlord complained ; so on Saturday, the 27th September, Godfrey sought for lodgings elsewhere, and engaged a room in the Rue de Bons Conseils, into which they removed early on Sunday morning. Boyer," they say in their journal, "lent us two Bibles, and we came home and stirred not out all day. Jean de Beauvais, by whom they were kindly received. Boyer to sup, and came home about ten o'clock, conducted by M. Boyer and three other gentlemen : we found the streets as quiet as London.

Oh I vain shadows of our reigning Lord! On Sunday, the 13th October, they rose at five a,m. Boyer to Divine worship at the Huguenot Church at Charenton, which they describe as a very handsome stone building, having two large galleries quite round it : — "We went and came back by water ;"—" When we came home, we passed the time in reading till supper. I see by your's that the doctrine of John Lilboume begins to take place in the Army, which in a little time may divide them, and break their designs:— I pray God to end all without butcheries.

His confidence in immunity was however misplaced ; for in February he was arrested and sent to Newgate ; and with difficulty did he obtain release, as shewn by the following autograph certificate, given by Thomas Chambrelan in This was no doubt better than a settled partnership; each party being too active and independent for such a tie. A former agreement between them may be mentioned, as shewing Godfrey's youthful hopefulness, and Papillon's confidence in him. It occurred in , when Papillon had been apprentice six years, and Godfrey two-and-a-half; Godfrey for certain considerations and money in hand sealed a bond to Papillon, to give the latter or his heirs the Sword-bearer's place, or its value, and ;f besides, when he should become Lord Mayor.

Godfrey's eldest son also named Michael, became an alderman, and as Fox Bourne says, " One of the richest and most honest city men of his time. Prior to that event, bankers and traders had been the only money-lenders, as well as care-takers ; and their limited means often caused their own ruin and that of others, notwithstanding the very high interest which they charged on loans.

Many of them naturally viewed with hostility the establishment of a National Bank, as likely to interfere with their business; but Paterson met their objections in sound and telling tracts, and Godfrey with cogent reasoning; and at last they prevailed.

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The Government also opposed the scheme for some time, being unwilling to surrender their privilege of issuing State Lotteries, and of regulating the Coinage which they sometimes debased, both of which practices Paterson vigorously denounced. As regards this opposition, Charles Montague, Chancellor of the Exchequer, came forward as Paterson's constant and successful champion.

Godfrey, you ought not to run these hazards : you are not a soldier ; you can be of no use to us here. At that instant a cannon ball struck him, and he fell dead at King William's feet. And we have seen how much the acquaintance of Thomas with his Aunt and Cousins in Paris had been checked, — first by his illnesses, and then by his sudden recall to London, "where his presence was much needed in Mr. Chambrelan's counting-house. He was very sensible, however, of the attentions which his aunt and cousins had shewn him ; and soon after he returned home he wrote to David in terms of deep regard.

He died in, or about the early part of , in his fifty-eighth year. He was Scribe of the Synod of Aries in His son David never married, but lived in Paris with his mother, and his surviving sister, Marie. His remains were buried in the Church of St. Catherine Coleman, Fenchurch Street, under the passage between the chancel and the vestry. His sister had died in Paris on the 3rd June, Trenchepain and another.

The following extracts from David Papillon's letters shew on the one hand the regard in which he held both his cousin Thomas, and his uncle David, of Lubenham ; and on the other the distressed condition of French Protestants throughout his life. On 17th August, , he thus wrote to his uncle : — [translation. Since I transfer the whole honour of it to you, and as God's blessing is to be implored on the child, I follow in this case the example of that Ambassador, who being unwilling on the one hand to decline a dignity, which was honourable to him — and fearing on the other that the just anger of the Prince to whom he was sent, might injure the success of the negotiation entrusted to him — caused all the steps to be taken, and all the proposals to be made by the person who had been given him as a colleague, to share with him the glory of the undertaking, which at last succeeded according to the wishes of his master.

I never receive your letters without experiencing extraordinary joy for several months, and the last always seems to be better than those preceding; but I must say, that just received has given me peculiar delight, for it contains so many wise admonitions, so much prudent advice, and so many proofs of your affection, and also tells me of the happy condition of your family circle. I beg you to favour me with your commands ; and I pray God that He may be pleased to preserve you in health and prosperity ; and I remain, "Much respected Uncle, "Your very humble and very obedient Servant, " Papillon.

From this period we have no particular record of David Papillon of Paris till the year , when he replied, as in the following extract, to his cousin Thomas Papillon of London, who evidently retained his former solicitude for him, and renewed that of his father, David Papillon of Lubenham ; and it is interesting to notice the sense of duty and affection with which David of Paris regarded the mutual family ties : — David Papillon of Paris, to his cousin Thomas Papillon of London, dated 8th February, : "Nous vous remer9ions aussi des tesmoignages qu'il vous plait nous donner de votre affection singulifere, particuliferement de la forte et sainte exhortation que vous nous faites de demeurer fermes en la foy et en la profession de la vraye religion.

That we cannot hope to do in our own strength, but we ought to seek and expect it from Him in whom and by whom we can do all things. Thomas, in our common grandfather Thomas, and our great grandfather on whom He first caused to shine the light of His countenance, and of His gospel, and to whom He even granted the honour to be of the number of those who laid down for Him their lives, and shed their blood on that memorable day of the year — treading that thorny path in the steps of his Saviour, and thus testifying to his descendants that neither death nor life, nor principalities, nor height, nor depth, nor things present, nor things to come, should separate them from the love that God hath shewn them in His Son.

However it may be, we cannot do better than pray to Him for one another, and beseech Him to have pity on His heritage, to abandon it not ; and that He will give to each of us grace to be faithful in His worship and service. May we receive them with the thankfulness they merit ; and in the various temptations and trials we may severally encounter, may we find grace to follow the godly counsel they contain. The corruption of the name began in England in early days, being found in the Harteian M. Jane Broadnax — Courtship difficulties — Letter from Papillon to his Parents — is willing to abide the will of God, and their consent — Letters from the Mother of Jane Broadnax to Papillon's parents, discouraging the match, but expressing great regard for the suitor— Replies of Papillon's father — Marriage — Mutual affection and regard — Character of Jane Papillon, as drawn by Rev.

John Shower in his dedication of her runeral Sermon — Children. Let us now glance at him as a Lover — with strong affections under due control.

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We may here mention that Jane Broadnax's father was of a county family of two hundred years standing, and owners of the fine domain of Godmersham, Kent, between Ashford and Canterbury; this may account for his opposition to the proposed match; while that of Papillon's parents may have arisen from surprise and faithless fears. On their part, however, all misgivings soon vanished, and they warmly espoused their son's cause, as the following letters will shew. Solomon said by the Spirit, "Whoso findeth a wife findeth a good thing, and obtaineth favour of the Lord," Proverbs xviii.

And Thomas Knight, finding himself childless, adopted Edward Austen, the great-great-grandson of his own great-great-uncle, John Austin, and bequeathed to him his estates. William Papillon however was not without means, and was truly rich in good works. At the age of 27 he married, but early became a widower, without children. He was for many years Rector of Wymondham, Norfolk, which he endowed with a Sunday Evening Lectureship; and he bequeathed money to endow local almshouses.

He died in , aged We now pass to the objections of the lady's parents, and to the trite rejoinder they met from Thomas Papillon's father. But truly, cousin, I know no city match that at present we could comply withal; and therefore I pray you to entreat your son to draw off his thoughts from us — seeing, as far as I can discern, there is no probability of it; for although without such intentions as I conceive he hath of prosecuting the design of further manifesting his affections to my daughter, there is no kinsman in the world that would be more welcome unto me, yet I apprehend in this case it would be a further injury to him if I should allow him the opportunity he desires.

In the meantime I pray present my dear affections to your husband and son, and believe that I am, "Your truly affectionate Cousin, "Jans Broadnax. Truly, I confess we desire to bestow her as well as we can, and account nothing worth the having unless the fear of God be joined with it. If ambition had only been her aim, we could, I think, ere this have bestowed her to great advance; but truly we apprehend the danger both of city and country matches at present to be so great, that I think we are the most like not to haste the bestowmg of her, but rather wait till we may be enabled more clearly to discern what may be more safe than we can in these uncertain days.

They will certainly fall into greater streights than the merchants. For industrious merchants can live gallantly in all parts of Christen- dom ; so cannot great landed men if they are deprived of their rents. For the 3rd — The fears of the ruin of the city are mere chimeras ; for the ruin of the city will draw after it the desolation of the whole nation : neither can the Parliament, nor the Army subsist after the destruction of it; and can there be any probability that they will ruin that which supports them? But it may be objected.

That foreigners will come in, and destroy it If it comes to that, what will become of the great landed men? Certainly they will be in the like case; as the great landed men are the King's party at present— viz. And as for the result of his arguments, I deny the consequences : for the condition of the man that hath some land and some industry.

Peter de Medicis, Duke of Florence, was expelled from his dukedom by mutation of State ; and had been enforced to beg his bread, if he had not in his youth been brought up in the trade of merchandize ; but by his industry he maintained himself and his family very gaily during his abode at Venice. Broadnax by the hand of his son Thomas; the following shews the light in which the latter regarded his errand : — "Most respected Father, "You might very well suppose me indiscreet, if I should negldfct to follow your direction in a business which I have undertaken at your request, and in obedience to your commands; and therefore I have chosen to be wholly guided by you in the managing thereof, being desirous to perform my duty in relation to yourself, as being the greatest obligation I have in the world; and if things succeed not according to expectations, it shall sufficiently satisfy me that thereby I have manifested my obedience to your commands, and my willingness in all things to comply with your desires — though possibly in some things contrary to my own judgment — which, as I have hitherto done, I shall always submit to yours.

Upon which consideration, on my late being in the country, I delivered your letter, with the part of your book upon the Passions, into my cousin Broadnax the Elder her own hands; your letter now sent me shall be sent on Monday according to your desire; the issue I leave to the heavenly Providence. Their mutual affection and regard through life is testified by their letters, extracts of which will appear in various parts of these Memoirs, and by the letters in the Appendix. Meanwhile we may quote the following letter written by Jane Papillon to her husband in , soon after he had gone to Breda, in Holland, as one of a Deputation from the East India Company, to watch the progress of a Treaty of Peace between Holland and England, in which the Company was interested.

Thou art a son that dost desire: yea, thou hast and wilt receive His words, and hide His commandments with thee, thou hast inclined thine ear to wisdom and applied thy heart to understanding, thou seekest for wisdom as silver, and searchest for her as for hid treasure; and thou hast and shalt understand the fear of the Lord, and find the knowledge of the Most High ; and thou shalt understand righteousness and judgment and equity : yea, and every good path ; the Lord hath laid up sound wisdom for thee, and will be a Buckler to thee : nay, my God hath given thee wisdom, and He will keep thee in the way of judgment and preserve thy way; wisdom hath entered into thy heart, and knowledge has been pleasant to thy soul, and discretion shall preserve' thee, and understanding shall keep thee, Digitized by Google LETTER FROM JANE PAPILLON.

And oh, that I and all within me, yea, and all without me, may give glory to God! Oh, beg wisdom for me, and faithfulness for the discharge of every duty God hath appointed me unto : I have too, too long been as a fool entrusted with a prize, and not known how to use it ; now help me with your prayers, that I may know my work and duty in its season, and improve present opportunities and advantages for service.

My soul desires to be instrumental for good to them according to their capacities; and oh that our God that has given them to us would make me instrumental in prevailing with Him, that He would own them from their tender years, and so render them blessings to thee and me. It grieves me that I have not as much ability as desire to approve myself to thy interest; but this I can say is the language of my heart, What I know not. Lord teach me; and what I am not. Lord make me— for the advancement of the honour of thy great Name, and the comfort of him that of men thou hast made dearest unto me.

I need not tell thee thou art dear to her. Church hath hitherto constantly afforded us his company, and Mr. Harrison sometimes ; Mr. Mokett also this morning offered himself to join with us in prayer for thee. Blessed be God for thy interest in the prayers of the faithful ; and let them prosper that love thee. I hear my brother Broadnax intends a visit this week ; but I fear my mother is not well enough to accompany him.

Harrison assures me he has given thee a full account of all thy affairs, which I would have been witness to, could the post have stayed my reading of it. I hope business is not neglected; they seem very diligent; the rest are as you left them. On that occasion, in July, , her husband requested the Rev.

However, if your children and grand- children, following the worthy example of their parents, in great part are, and the rest like to be, excellent examples unto others — that, sir, is a living panegyric upon you, which you cannot escape. The children of this marriage were : — David, born 29th July, ; died 6th August, ; buried in Parish Church of St.

Thomas, born 25th October, ; died 22nd August, ; buried in the Church of St. Katherine Coleman. Anne, born 23rd January, ; died at Canterbury on 5th May, ; buried in the Cathedral. The case of Mr. The matter arose thus: — In December, , a complaint was made to the Consistory by M. Stoupe, one of the Pastors, that another Pastor, M. The Consistory admonished M. Delmd, and on his replying in offensive language, they adjudged him guilty of a breach of discipline, but still only desired a promise from the two parties that they would refrain from mutual recrimination, and from publishing the proceeds of the Consistory.

To this M. The Consistory then ordered all the three Pastors mutually to ask pardon ; and on M.

Delmd would not agree to it, but with various fathers of families, who took his part, he appealed to the Protector, Oliver Cromwell, to summon a Collogue or Assembly of the Ministers and Elders of the several French Churches in England, viz. On the partial assembly of the Collogue, and on objections being made by some of the members who presented themselves, M.

Skippon, to receive the Report of the Divines, and to treat with the parties at issue. Whether this proceeding had immediate effect does not appear; for either before or after its occurrence, both parties pleaded several times before the Committee ; but at last, by means of the Dutch Ministers, and of a Mr. David Stuart, a Minister from the Low Countries, a project was accepted and signed by both parties, in pursuance of which Pastors of all the seven French Churches in England, together with four assistants, viz. David Stuart and M. Muoy on the part of M.

That M. The adherents who were suspended, to ask pardon and be restored. James Fell, who was educated by the French Church at Dieppe in order to be their Minister, came to London, and was desired by the French Church there to remain with them. Consistory, allow him to accept it; but some among them, without declaring at the time, apply to the Synod of Normandy to call him, which the Synod order; but in the meantime the Church of London elect him, and in a Coetus offer to ordain him, together with Mr.

Primrose, likewise chosen to be a Minister. On this the London Church resolve to retain him: I — Because he was regularly discharged from Dieppe. Thomas Papillon drew up the reasons. HE foregoing remonstrance in relation to Church discipline was not Thomas Papillon's first contest on behalf of supposed right; although he had been willing to submit to parental authority, and was ever ready to respect legal demands, he could not brook the unjust claims of those in office. Gallic combativeness, and inherent love of justice impelled him no doubt in the latter direction, while moral and religious feelings induced the former.

In , when under thirty years of age, we find him successfully disputing a Customs' claim on the exportation of lead to foreign parts, though such was due only from aliens. Thomas Papillon drew up a case for Counsel which is among his autograph M. Wyndham, who gave an opinion decidedly favourable to his view ; and he was at once joined by nineteen other merchants in a Petition to the Council of State, by which the matter was " adjourned in their favour. The brandy merchants, led by Thomas Papillon, promptly entered a suit in the Court of Exchequer against this novel and unjust construction of the Acts, and obtained a verdict in their favour; but the Com- missioners obtained an opposite verdict in the Court of King's Bench : and the farmers finding they could not seize the goods while protected by the Court of Exchequer, nor sue the importers who entered them under false names, proposed to the merchants that suits should be entered Digitized by Google CUSTOMS AND EXCISE.

To this, however, the merchants would not agree, being already secure in the Exchequer. The farmers therefore appealed for protection to the King in Council, who referred the case to all the Judges " To consider of the matter in difference between the merchants and the petitioners concerning the said duty on brandy, and in case they do not agree in their opinions, all the parties concerned seeming willing to submit to their determination that the said Judges present to his Majesty in Council such expedients as they shall judge proper for putting an end to the said differences by trial, with equality both to the petitioners and the said merchants, and also for preventing the entering of goods in the names of unknown persons not the rightful proprietors by means whereof his Majesty may be defrauded of the duties due and accruing according to law.

Papillon make his defence against some complaints of the farmers of Excise ; but it was so weak, and done only by his own seeking, that it was to his injury more than profit, being ill-managed, and in a cause against the King. The fact is that the system of farming the revenue constantly proved an incentive to fraud and oppression, and led to collusion between the Commissioners and the farmers. See Gray's Parliamentary Debates, vol. Moreover, the frequent imposition of new duties for specific purposes much complicated fiscal proceedings, and rendered extortion the easier. Child, and suggestions; a reduction of the legal rate of interest recommended and adopted.

The statement of the Company is an interesting document, shewing the purpose and effect of ancient trading charters, and seems worthy of record in extenso ; while the report of the Council of Trade on their petition will disclose the tenour of the latter, and the mercantile views of the day. It disregards, however, their prayer for restoration of exclusive privileges. And with what success of honour and benefit to this kingdom the same hath been pursued, the precedents of former times do clearly testify, and may appear by the following instances, which have fallen within the compass of our own memory and experience.

Not- withstanding which great quantities exported by us, our constant care was, not to debase the commodity, by selling the same at mean rates; but rather, in the case of too full a market, to preserve it in magazines abroad till an opportunity of better sale; by which means the credits of our English manufactures Digitized by Google 62 THOMAS PAPILLON. The sole question in this case seeming to be, Whether the carrying on of this trade so considerable in many respects should be in the hands of his Majesty's subjects, or of Strangers.

The Committee cannot be of opinion at present that H. The views of the Council, as drawn up by a Committee, again appears in an autograph paper by Papillon, of which the following is an abstract : the paper is docketed April, , and bears this heading: "Some of the Reasons and grounds that induced the Committee and afterwards the Council of Trade to advise his Majesty not to continue the Suspension of the Act of Navigation, but to give libertyfor buying of 60 foreign built ships to be appropriated to that trade and for Salt.

But these objections had already been met by the facts adduced. In the autumn of a Committee of the House of Lords sat "to consider of the causes and grounds of the fall of rents and decay of trade within these kingdoms. Commission, Report VHI. Child afterwards Sir Josiah Child on the subject, as closely corresponding with those of Thomas Papillon, though within a few years they were to differ, even to opposition, in relation to the conduct of the East India Company.

Commission, pp. Worsley, Mr. Child, and other members of the Council of Trade gave evidence before it. Child attributed the prosperity of the trade of the Dutch to their fidelity in their seal, encouragement of Inventors whom they reward, and make their inventions public, instead of granting a Patent as hereX thrift, small ships, low duties, poor laws, mercantile law, easy admission of burghers, inland navigation, low interest, fisheries, colonies, religious liberty, education.

Persecutions abroad had brought us several trades, such as Milan and jean fustians ; comfit-makers brought in by one that escaped the Inquisition ; Maidstone thread is carried all over the world. Perfect free trade is an advantage. Increase the stock of labour and capital. Against the reduction were Captain Titus and Mr. Clayton, while in favour of it were Mr. Child, Mr. Gold, Mr. Papillon, Sir Henry Blunt, Mr. Buckworth, and Mr. On the other hand, trade in distant parts was often insecure — sometimes from the armed ships of hostile European nations ; and sometimes from the caprice of native princes ; for in those days the Royal Navy seldom visited remote shores, and consuls were unknown.

Though many merchants gladly subscribed to the Charter of Elizabeth, few paid up their calls; and for twelve years or more the trade of the Company was carried on by individual members, who combined, from time to time, to fit out and despatch ships, and divided the profits inter se. In , however, the Directors of the Company, whose office had as yet been a sinecure, induced the members to declare for nothing but joint-stock trading; and thus they themselves acquired considerable power and influence.

The joint-stock system was pursued without much precision, sind with very varying results, during the remainder of the reign of James I.

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These arbitrary powers resulted in much oppression, both to Natives and Englishmen. The trade of the Company increased rapidly, and! The Company often established new settlements, but the private traders and the Dutch were constant rivals. Commission, p. April John Verney to Sir H. But some of them procured a letter from his Majesty forbidding the choice of Mr. Child or Mr. Papillon into that Committee. So the votes were sealed up, and some of them have been at the Council Board. He will not now open that matter, unless called on.

U was a great trouble to him to have the King's displeasure; but if the matter be examined it will appear he has not merited it. Child and Mr. Papillon as Governor and Deputy-Governor for the ensuing year, and being persons who had not behaved well to his Majesty, his Majesty would take it very ill from the Company if they should thus elect them. The next day the annual meeting of the Company took place, and the Chairman read the Secretary's letter to the assembled shareholders.

Debate at once ensued ; and some regarded the interference as illegal, suggesting that coiihsers opinion should be obtained, whereon the meeting was adjourned for three days. Meanwhile, the King sent for the Governor, and told him that he had always been kind to the Company, as the Company had been to himself, and that he had always respected their privileges, and was ready to do so still ; but he hoped they would not elect as Governor, Deputy-Governor, or Committee-men, those who had behaved very ill to himself.

And on the morning of the adjourned meeting of the shareholders. Secretary Williamson wrote again to the Governor, expressing his Majesty's sentiments as above. This resolution was adopted ; and on the Governor producing the list of elected Committee-men neither Child nor Papillon was found on it. What may have raised a dispute in the matter among the old Committee-men — or Directors — does not appear; -, nor what gave the King a pretext for objection to Child ' and Papillon.

But the resolution of both Directors and Shareholders to secure his Majesty's favour, is very apparent. Possibly this view of the matter may have influenced Mr. Child in his subsequent course, as recorded further on. Both Child and Papillon were at this time Whigs; and in they had been associated together as contractors for victualling the Navy. Papillon was in Parliament, and had supported the opposition.

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Which of these was the sounder view has long been a contested point. For years complaints against the Company were so rife that Parliament often interfered to restrict their powers; and the Company was often in debt Let us be thankful, however, for the good results hitherto attained, and hope and strive for more. This difference of views appears in the footnotes of the following M. The climax is graphically described by Macaulay in his History of England.

The treasures of the Company were at his absolute disposal A present of 10, guineas was graciously received from him by Charles: 10, more were accepted by James, who readily consented to become a holder of stock. Of what the Dictator expended no account was asked by his colleagues ; and in truth he seems to have deserved the confidence reposed in him.

His bribes, distributed with judicious prodigality, speedily produced a large return. Just when the Court became all-powerful in the State, he became all-powerful at Court. Jeffreys pronounced a decision in favour of the monopoly, and of the strongest acts which had been done in defence of the monopoly. James ordered his seal to be put to a new Charter, which confirmed and extended all the privileges bestowed on the Company by his predecessors.

The strenuous endeavours of so many European Nations to make themselves masters of the same doth undeniably demonstrate, as also doth their practice. That it can no way be so advantageously managed to those ends as by a Company in a Joint Stock. This not " And your Petitioners do in all humility declare in fair their willingness after three years from the loth April copy, next, if your Majesty shall please so to direct, to put a conclusion to the present Joint Stock, and in the meantime to lay open a book of Subscription for all that will adventure in a new Joint Stock, to commence at the expiration of the said term, on such conditions as your Majesty shall think indifferent.

Child's success at Court increased the popular clamour against himself and the Company; and so many Interlopers —chiefl y Whigs — enfrapreH in the trade that they became a powerful and compact body, bent on resistance to the claims of the Monopoly. It does not appear that Papillon took part, at first, in this hostility; for soon after the beginning of his exile in , we find him on several occasions enquiring of his wife, who was still in London, after the progress of the Company ; but on his return from exile in , when he found the rival or New Company in actual existence, it would seem that he soon joined it, and warmly espoused its cause.

Before long the new Company demanded union with the old. Proposals to this effect were made to Parliament in February, , and were well received ; but the old Company, with Child as leader, would listen to nothing of the sort, and the strife became more and more embittered.

To remedy this state of things, the King, in , granted a modified Charter to the old Company, but so far from pacifying it towards the new, it rendered it more autocratic than ever, as described by Macaulay, Qhapter XX. Among Papillon's autograph papers is a draft of "Rules for the management of the trade to the East Indies to prevent the abuses and irregularities formerly observed therein.

The immediate sequel to these rivalries is thus eloquently described by Macaulay, Chapter XX. They would probably have been disposed to sanction the new arrangement, which in truth differed little from that which they had themselves suggested not many months before, if the Directors had acted with prudence.

Memoir and Correspondence of Caroline Herschel.

Hitherto, the war of the monopolists against the private trade had been carried on at the distance of 15, miles from England. If harsh things were done, the English public did not see them done, and did not hear of them till long after they had been done; nor was it by any means easy to ascertain at Westminster who had been right and who had been wrong in a dispute which had arisen three or four years before, at Moorshedabad or Canton. With incredible rashness the Directors determined at the very moment when the fate of their Company was in the balance, to give the people of this country a near view of the most odious features of the monopoly.

Her crew was numerous, her cargo of immense value. Her papers had been made out for Alicante; but there was some reason to suspect that she was really bound for the countries lying beyond the Cape of Good Hope. Every day that she lay in the Thames caused a heavy expense to the owners. The indignation in the City was great and general. The Company maintained that from the legality of the monopoly the legality of the detention necessarily followed. The public turned the argument round, and being firmly convinced that the detention was illegal, drew the inference that the monopoly must be illegal too.

The dispute was at its height when the Parliament met. Petitions on both sides were speedily laid on the table of the Commons ; and it was resolved that these Petitions should be taken into consideration by a Committee of the whole House. The first question on which the conflicting parties tried their strength was the choice of a chairman.

The Committee proceeded to enquire by what authority the Redbridge had been stopped. He was asked whether he would venture to deny that the ship had been really fitted for the India trade. The question was then put that the House would agree with the Committee. The friends of the old Company ventured on a second division, and were defeated by votes to It has ever since been held to be sound doctrine, that no power but that of the whole Legislature can give to any person, or to any society, an exclusive privilege of trading to any part of the world. Papillon much regretted this antagonism, and hence his letter as follows, to Sir Josiah Child, and similar applications, written and personal, to both old and new Companies.

As heretofore the former would make no compromise; and Papillon did not live to see the two Companies united ; but within four months of his death it was effected, at the earnest recommendation of William III. Thorogood to be ready, and to attend it, that if possible it may be adjusted before we die.

The first consideration, in my poor opinion, ought to be abstractively what powers a Nationd East India Company ought to have for the public good, to hold up against the Dutch and other foreign Nations in ladia; and I say, and will maintain it against all mankind, by reason and experience, that it ought to be not less than absolute sovereign, power in India : All other nations have the same, though variously ' expressed; which you may take notice of in the Dutch Rowktroy, the Scotch Act, or the last Charter of King James; any thing less than is contained in each of them is but daubing with untempered mortar, or building upon the sand ; but to apprehend this notion fully will require more than one very serious debate.

These I think the Company that is to be, should pay for in some reasonable manner, and that for the further increase of their stock, old and new Adventurers and Strangers ought to bring in ready-money. But the same means which prevailed against him in the reign of Charles II. Letter from Thomas Papillon to Mrs. Wife of an Alderman, who had defamed him : — " Madam, " Though you are little known to me, and I think myself as little Tcnown to you, yet for the vindication of myself, and in compliance to that Scripture in the 19th Leviticus verse 17, I am necessitated to the following lines.

Madam, that I thought the Company did any wrong to Mr. Madam, you have publicly charged me as guilty of such a crime; I beg no favour of you, or any in the world, in thk matter; either make out your charge, or vindicate my repute: The first I am sure you cannot; the second I demand from you in justice, as you will answer it before God another day.


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I would like to receive morning headlines Monday - Friday plus breaking news alerts by email. Update newsletter preferences. It is not uncommon for a first-time writer to have his or her manuscript rejected many times by publishers before eventually succeeding in getting through the door of a publishing house. I have no doubt that I would have eventually been given entry, but I was kind of on fire at the time, and had to jump while the flame was burning hot.

I am glad I did. I thank the agents now for their sentiments because their wishes have come true: the book has been doing well. In the first six months since publication I have sold almost copies, and I am now in my second printing. The journey so far has included some pitfalls and pit-stops, hurdles and hunger, the latter for sales and recognition in places that matter for a writer.

So far, so good. These blog posts are markers for milestones, large and small. They are updates on things that are happening with the book, including reader comments, all of which continue to be very gratifying. In the blog, I also try to include interesting behind-the-scenes anecdotes about how the book came to be, about some things that did not find their way into the manuscript, and what may come next. My preliminary forecast is for more creative growth.

In the meantime, I have set myself the task of rolling it out to a community of readers across Canada from coast to coast to coast, and beyond. After much lobbying, I finally got interviewed by the Peace Arch News , our local newspaper. And my editor said this would never happen.