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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Reduplication is a common morphological phenomenon in Bantu languages and is usually used to indicate frequency or intensity of the action signalled by the unreduplicated verb stem. Repetition emphasizes the repeated word in the context that it is used. For instance, "Mwenda pole hajikwai," while, "Pole pole ndio mwendo," has two to emphasize the consistency of slowness of the pace.

The meaning of the former in translation is, "He who goes slowly doesn't trip," and that of the latter is, "A slow but steady pace wins the race.


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Haraka haraka" [come here! Hurry, hurry]. In contrast, there are some words in some of the languages in which reduplication has the opposite meaning. It usually denotes short durations, and or lower intensity of the action and also means a few repetitions or a little bit more. The following is a list of nominal classes in Bantu Languages: [29].

Following is an incomplete list of the principal Bantu languages of each country. An attempt at a full list of Bantu languages with various conflations and a puzzlingly diverse nomenclature can be found in The Bantu Languages of Africa , Most languages are best known in English without the class prefix Swahili , Tswana , Ndebele , but are sometimes seen with the language-specific prefix Kiswahili , Setswana , Sindebele.

In a few cases prefixes are used to distinguish languages with the same root in their name, such as Tshiluba and Kiluba both Luba , Umbundu and Kimbundu both Mbundu. The bare prefixless form typically does not occur in the language itself, but is the basis for other words based on the ethnicity. So, in the country of Botswana the people are the Batswana , one person is a Motswana , and the language is Setswana ; and in Uganda , centred on the kingdom of Buganda , the dominant ethnicity are the Baganda sg.

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Muganda , whose language is Luganda. Map 1 shows Bantu languages in Africa and map 2 a magnification of the Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon area, as of July A case has been made out for borrowings of many place-names and even misremembered rhymes — chiefly from one of the Luba varieties — in the USA. Some words from various Bantu languages have been borrowed into western languages. These include:. Along with the Latin script and Arabic script orthographies, there are also some modern indigenous writing systems used for Bantu languages:.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Bantu area is in orange. Main article: Guthrie classification of Bantu languages. Further information: List of Bantu peoples.

Languages of Cameroon

Localization of the Niger—Congo languages. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Glottolog 3. Ethnologue report for Southern Bantoid lists a total of languages. The count includes 13 Mbam languages which are not always included under "Narrow Bantu". A number just above million was cited in the early s see Niger-Congo languages: subgroups and numbers of speakers for a compilation of data from SIL Ethnologue , citing million.

July Retrieved 26 June Population growth in Central-West Africa as of is estimated at between 2. L1 users: 15,, , increasing. L2 users: 32,, D. Total users in all countries: 98,, as L1: 16,,; as L2: 82,, Retrieved Blench, Archaeology, Language, and the African Past , p. Silverstein, "A note on the term 'Bantu' as first used by W. Bleek", African Studies 27 , —, doi In principle, these tones apply to single vowels and, where differing tones occur on VV sequences, contour tones are heard.

However, some authors write VV sequences to clarify contour tones, even where vowels are short e. There is a clear relationship between the year of a description and the complexity of a tone system. Older accounts broadly show simpler tone systems; as researchers became more attuned to these systems, greater elaboration has emerged. Tone reconstruction is a more complex task than vowels and consonants in part due to the differing descriptions of tone and a failure to distinguish clearly surface and underlying tone. Some families, such as Jarawan, lack a single reliable synchronic description of tone.

However, if the evidence from North Bantoid is relevant, then early Bantoid probably had three level tones, as well as rising and falling. However, in many branches of Bantoid, the mid-tone subsequently became a downstep or was predictably lowered, hence the description of these languages as having two-level tones. Surface contour tones are common, but only further work will determine if they are an underlying feature of Bantoid. Some languages allow the auxiliaries after the main verb, including much of Bantu, but this is also attested in Tikar and Vute and is thus not diagnostic. Table 8.

Word order in Bantoid and Bantu. Thwing Voeltz Abangma Smoes Sibomana Schultz Spreda Bafut b. Wright Mpoche As noted in the introduction, the debate about the boundaries between Bantoid and Bantu remains unresolved, and it is not entirely clear what would count as a resolution.

All the Bantoid languages show distinctive but extremely diverse relationships with reconstructed Bantu. The case of Jarawan Bantu suggests that geographical factors have played a part in the classification. One approach is to explore the distribution of features that may be evidence for a distinctive boundary, since they also may play a role in the contentious issue of contact versus inheritance.

For example, the labial-velar consonants are not reconstructed for proto-Bantu, although they are widely present in both Bantoid and northwestern Bantu languages. Does this imply they are borrowed, or that they somehow re-evolved independently? Guthrie explicitly said his Common Bantu was not a reconstructed proto-form, and he does list two types of proto-Bantu A and B Guthrie — Common Bantu has two important aspects:. A database such as Bantu Lexical Reconstructions 3 BLR3 5 includes numerous lexemes that are simply shown with a hypothetical proto-form and list of Guthrie zones where they are distributed.

It is worth pointing out that this is very remote from usual procedures in historical linguistics. General speaking, an internal reconstruction is outlined and support for individual nodes is provided by phonological, lexical, and other innovations. This is certainly difficult with Bantu, because languages are close to one another, borrow regularly between languages, and restructure the borrowings. The morphological similarity between languages makes it difficult to detect such borrowings.

Some Aspects of the Sociolinguistics of Bantoid. In any region with a density of languages as high as the Bantoid area, there will be endangered languages. Endangerment can arise from the gradual spread of minority languages, where communities gradually switch from one to another. For example, within the Mambiloid group there are several moribund or extinct languages that have been assimilated by their neighbors Connell , Typical of such languages are Hausa, Bambara, or Sudanese Arabic.

Until the colonial era, there were no such languages in the Bantoid area. However, on the fringe of the region, Fulfulde is a lingua franca, and it is beginning to have an impact on Mambiloid Connell In Cameroun the threat to language vitality in the twentieth century has come from Pidgin English. Children either do not learn or learn their languages poorly. Through the surveys conducted by SIL and referenced throughout this document, a significant number of studies of language vitality exist. Broadly speaking, most Bantoid languages are still spoken in their home area, and speakers have a positive attitude toward speaking their mother tongue.

A significant exception is with Mambiloid, where a scatter of very small languages are on the point of extinction. For example, the Njerep language, part of the East Mambila cluster, is moribund with a single speaker still able to converse in and some five rememberers Connell and Zeitlyn This cluster also includes Cambap, with some 30 speakers in ; Kasabe, extinct in but for which wordlist data exists; and Yeni, for which only songs are remembered Connell The Njanga language, with just five speakers in , is becoming increasingly difficult to recover.

Table 9 shows a summary of the extinct or moribund Mambiloid languages. Table 9. Extinct or moribund Mambiloid languages. Sources: Connell pers. By and large these languages have been assimilated by speakers of other Mambiloid languages, rather than a widespread lingua franca. The Furu languages have also been subject to massive replacement. The absence of good linguistic of sociolinguistic data on these languages makes it difficult to speculate why they have become moribund since they are in an extremely remote area.

The notion of a hierarchically structured lexicon and grammar that reflects vertical authority relations in society is familiar from East and Southeast Asia; Japanese and Javanese are well-known examples. Mous There are also court languages, or hierolects, where an incoming royal dynasty retains the speech or elements of speech from their original ethnicity. It seems that in the Grassfields of Cameroun, a number of chiefdoms have developed a replacement lexicon marking particular strata in society.

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Photo 1. Palace of the Fon of Bafut. Bafut social hierarchy has both ascribed and achieved levels, with a hereditary royal family and a nobility composed of wealthy and powerful individuals. Bafut is interpenetrated by secret societies at every level, mostly organized around masquerade dances. Table 10 shows the levels of authority in the Bafut social hierarchy.

Table Bafut social hierarchy. Respect terms in Bafut can be broadly divided into three categories: objects and places, body parts, and verbs. All of these are lexical replacements; there is no evidence for distinctive syntax or morphology. The vocabulary of objects and places has a significant diversity of terms used with the nobility, whereas body parts are confined to the Fon.

Verbs used in speaking to the Fon include a couple of specialized forms used when speaking with princes. Table 11 shows the respect terminology for objects and places. Respect terminology for objects and places. This type of specialized language has been little studied and may therefore be far more common than present publication suggests.

Orthography, Literacy, and Media. Photo 2. Noone literacy committee, March Cameroun represents a confluence of a government with a relatively positive attitude to linguistic diversity and the resources of the university system and SIL, which have resulted in a rich body of analysis, in particular phonologies, which have literacy and ultimately Bible translation as their ultimate goal.

Bantoid languages on the Nigerian side of the border are much less well documented, and almost none have orthographies that have been accepted by the community and are used in literacy materials. Cameroun ethnolinguistic communities have also shown interest in linguistic documentation as part of cultural renovation, and many small dictionaries have been funded by the speakers themselves.

Photo 2 shows a typical workshop at a community-funded literacy center among the Noone people. Table 12 is a summary of the Bantoid languages for which either an orthography exists or is in development. Status of orthography development in Bantoid. Photo 3. The Bamun people are famous for developing an indigenous script to write the language of the court Dugast and Jeffreys ; Schmitt The script itself was devised at the end of the nineteenth century by Sultan Njoya and his scribes.

The traditional Bamun corpus consists of manuscripts, chiefly history, treatises on traditional medicine, local cartography, personal correspondence, and illustrated folktales. Some of these can be seen on display at the museum in the palace at Foumban. The script passed through several stages of evolution, from a largely ideographic script to broadly phonetic.

In its most recent incarnation it has some 80 characters. Its current use is limited to some signage Photo 3 , but a proposal has recently been put to assign Unicode numbers to the characters. The Bagam, a subgroup of the Mengaka, a Bamileke language, appear to have developed their own script, probably sometime in the nineteenth century. Malcolm, an administrator and ethnographer, documented this script and submitted a paper to the Journal of the African Society in There is a clear connection with the Bamun script, and some characters are the same.

However, they do not constitute a genetic group, and their relations with one another remain a matter for further research. Depending on definition of dialect and language, there are between and languages. The inaccessibility of the terrain where many are spoken has meant that documentation remains scanty, and full-length grammars and dictionaries are rarities. Compared with Bantu, the systems of nominal classes and verbal extensions are often highly reduced or even lost, but there is a correlated increase in the complexity of phonological and tonal systems.

Finding correspondences between Bantoid and Bantu noun-class markers is often problematic, and it is likely that borrowing and affix renewal have played a major role in their genesis. It is clear that we should not read back the features of Bantu into Bantoid and assume absence is evidence for erosion. The linguistic interest of Bantoid is its extraordinary morphological and phonological diversity.

Comparative evidence from the Kainji languages suggests strongly that early Bantoid had a rich system of noun classes and verbal extensions but relatively simple tones and phonology. These have eroded and been rebuilt, sometimes into systems of great complexity. Tracing the pathways by which this occurred has hardly begun and remains a challenge for future linguists. This can be achieved only by continued attention to documentary linguistics and the creation of dictionaries, grammars, and text collections. Greater attention from the international scholarly community would thus be welcome.

Some of these languages are endangered, especially in the Mambiloid and Furu groups. However, in the Grassfields, there are thriving literacy programs, and we can be reasonably optimistic about their survival in the immediate future. Moreover, the Cameroun government takes a positive view of language diversity and development, so continuing development of orthographies and a greater media presence can be foreseen. I would like to take this opportunity to thank SIL members, who have always been willing to share material and to observe that despite academic sniping from university academics, our knowledge of Bantoid would be markedly impoverished without their contributions.

The Kay Williamson Educational Foundation has generously funded part of my more recent fieldwork in Nigeria and Cameroun. My thanks are due to individuals who have worked with me, read my papers, given me access to unpublished data and generally provided encouragement. My greatest debt, however, is to the many people in Nigeria and Cameroun who have patiently answered my questions and taken part in survey work.

This article incorporates data gathered in fieldwork up to the end of April These are organized by Bantoid subgroup to give the reader access to at least one text per group. Watters, John R. Bantoid overview. In: The Niger-Congo languages. Bendor-Samuel, ed. Lanham: University Press of America. Find this resource:. Boyd, Raymond. Martin, Marieke A grammar of Wawa: an endangered language of Cameroon. PhD diss. University of Kent. Stanley, Carol Description morphosyntaxique de la langue Tikar.

D diss. Stanford, Ron. The Bekwara language of Nigeria—a grammatical description. School of Oriental and African Studies. Abraham, R. The principles of Tiv. London: Crown Agents. Abangma, Samson Negbo. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics. Hyman, Larry M. Noni grammatical structure, with special reference to verb morphology. Southern California: Occasional Papers in Linguistics 9.

Los Angeles: University of Southern California. Good, J. The languages of the Lower Fungom region of Cameroon: Grammatical overview. Africana Linguistica , 17 : — A phonology and morphology of Ejagham, with notes on dialect variation. University of California at Los Angeles. Grassfields Bantu. In: The Bantu languages. London: Routledge. Anderson, Stephen C. The noun class system of Amo. In: Noun classes in the Grassfields Bantu borderland. Hyman, ed. Southern California Occasional Papers in Linguistics.

A phonological sketch of Isu. Bastin, Y. Piron In: Bantu historical linguistics: theoretical and empirical perspectives. Jean-Marie Hombert and Larry M. Hyman, eds. Blench, Roger M. The Bendi languages: lost Bantoid languages? The classification of Nilo-Saharan. Boum, Marie Anne. Le syntagme nominale en Modele. Leiden: Proefschrift, University of Leiden.

Bouquiaux, Luc, ed. Boutwell, K. Nchane orthography guide. Historical perspectives on Chamba Daka. Chamba Daka and Bantoid: a further look at Chamba Daka classification. Journal of West African Languages , 26 2 : 29— A Chamba-English dictionary. Lagos: Malthouse Press. Bwazza Literacy Committee. Reading and writing Bwazza. Adamawa: Luke Partnership Project. Cahill, M. Aspects of the phonology of labial-velar stops. Studies in African Linguistics , 28 2 : — Casali, Roderic F. Linguistic Typology 7 : — Cassetta, P. A phonology of Ugare. Unpublished ms.

Ugare noun classes. Clements, George N. Africa as a phonological area. In: A linguistic geography of Africa. Bernd Heine and Derek Nurse, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Comrie, Bernard. The languages of the Soviet Union. Connell, Bruce. The structure of labial-velar stops. Journal of Phonetics , 22 : — Moribund languages of the Nigeria-Cameroon borderland. In: Endangered languages in Africa. Brenzinger, ed. Mambila fricative vowels.

In: Advances in African linguistics. Carstens and F. Parkinson, eds. An introduction to the Mambiloid languages. Mutaka and S. Chumbow, eds. Language diversity and language choice: a view from a Cameroon market. Anthropological Linguistics, 51 2 : — Language ecology and language endangerment: an instance from the Nigeria-Cameroon borderland.

The Swahili Language

Journal of West African Languages , 37 1 : 23— Connell, Bruce, and David Zeitlyn. Njerep: a postcard from the edge. Studies in African Linguistics , 29 1 : 95— Cox, Bruce. Notes on the phonology of Kemezung. Crabb, D. Ekoid Bantu languages of Ogoja, Part I. De Wolf, P. The noun class system of Proto-Benue-Congo. The Hague: Mouton. Dieu, Michel, and Patrick Renaud. Paris: ACCT. Dimmendaal, Gerrit J. Areal diffusion versus genetic inheritance: an African perspective. In: Areal diffusion and genetic inheritance: problems in comparative linguistics. Aikhenvald and R. Dixon, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dugast, I. Mbam-Nkam or Eastern Grassfields. Eyoh, Julius A. Engwo lexicon. Bamenda: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation. Mfumte orthography guide. Foster, Suzanne E. A phonology sketch of the Iyive language. Yaounde: SIL Cameroun. Fransen, M. Amsterdam: Academisch proefschrift aan de Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam.

The languages of the Lower Fungom region of Cameroon: grammatical overview. Greenberg, Joseph H. The languages of Africa. The Bantu languages of the forest. Nurse and G. Philippson, eds. Grollemund, Rebecca. Nouvelles approches en classification: application aux langues Bantu du Nord-Ouest.

The Manenguba Languages (Bantu A. 15, MBO Cluster) of Cameroon / Edition 1

Gueche, F. Noun morphology of Befang. Maitrise diss. University of Yaounde I. Guthrie, Malcolm. The classification of the Bantu languages. Comparative Bantu. Like other moles, it is functionally blind and obtains much of its sensory input from the touch-sensitive Eimer's organs at the end of its long, bilobed snout. The Senkaku mole Mogera uchidai , also known as the Ryukyu mole, is a species of mammal in the family Talpidae. It was formerly classified as being the only species in the genus Nesoscaptor.

Ecological threats Its existence is threatened by habitat loss, due to the introduction of domestic goats in ; the goats now number more than on this XD tiny island. Notes Yasushi Yokohata Version International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 September Kelaart's long-clawed shrew Feroculus feroculus is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae.

It is monotypic within the genus Feroculus. It is endemic to Sri Lanka and southern India. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, and swamps. It is threatened by habitat loss. The species is named for zoologist Edward Frederick Kelaart. Pelage cloe, soft, and short. Uniform ashy-black above, paler and glossy below. Forefeet almost white, very long and reddish claws. Tail covered by fine hairs as well as a few bristly long hairs.

References Molur, S. Retrieved 9 November Insectivore Specialist Group Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dymecodon pilirostris.

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True's shrew mole Dymecodon pilirostris is a species of mammal in the family Talpidae. It is endemic to Japan Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu and is a common species above meters in grassland, shrubland and forest. It has sometimes been considered belonging to the genus Urotrichus. The palms and soles are covered in darkbrown scales. It differs somewhat from Urotrichus in overall size smaller and the relative size of its body parts such.

Mbo at Ethnologue 18th ed. Archived from the original on Retrieved Status, functions, and prospects of Pidgin English: an empirical approach to language dynamics in Cameroon, Volume 1. Gunter Narr Verlag. Manenguba language topic Manenguba, also known as Ngoe or the Mbo cluster, is a Bantu language spoken in Cameroon. Kaka topic Look up kaka in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Sawabantu languages topic Sawabantu languages are a group of Bantu languages comprising most of zones A.


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These two geographic Folders related to Sawabantu languages: Sawabantu languages Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. List of multilingual countries and regions topic This is an incomplete list of areas with either multilingualism at the community level or at the personal level.