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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Subject: Commission work programme for — social market economy. Subject: Commission work programme for — innovation and entrepreneurial spirit. Subject: Commission work programme for — Galileo. Subject: Commission work programme for — Single Market and European networks.

Subject: Commission work programme for — education systems. Subject: Is Europe shelving its space ambitions? Subject: Killings in Paris and terrorism in Europe. Subject: Presence of horsemeat in a range of foodstuffs: a European scandal. Subject: Prevention of tachometer fraud involving L-category vehicles. Subject: Breach of EU directives through the discharge of groundwater contaminated with pesticides into the Danube.

Subject: Traceability and monitoring in the food supply chain. Subject: Preservation of antiquities uncovered during work on the Thessaloniki Metro. According to the information available, the subsidies are aimed in particular at supporting marketing measures carried out on the markets of the Member States Germany, France, the Czech Republic and Sweden. What steps is the Commission taking to prevent EU funds being used to benefit individual Member States to the detriment of many others?

The Commission services are currently analysing this complaint and are aware of the fact that the measure in question is based on ERDF support. As part of the assessment, the Commission services requested information from the Polish authorities, which it recently received. If the Commission finds that incompatible aid has been granted, it orders the Member State to recover the incompatible aid from the beneficiaries. In such a hypothesis, beneficiaries would then be required to pay back to the Member State's budget the amount of the state aid received together with the applicable interests.

So wurden in den letzten beiden Jahren 2,4 Mio. Im Rahmen der am An additional 2. Shortages are expected again in , requiring fresh intervention by the Commission.

How does the Commission expect global market prices to develop in future, given the increasing global demand for foods that are high in sugar and the demand for biofuels and bioenergy? The Commission expects that the Union imports from these countries will continue to increase in the future because of EU sugar market attractiveness, due to EU prices higher than world prices.

For the Commission the end to the quota system is the most appropriate option for providing the sugar sector with a long-term perspective. According to media reports, Spanish company Navantia has suspended its plans to build a floating dock in the Ferrol estuary Galicia after objections were raised to them at EU level. Navantia had planned to use the dock to moor large ships sent in for repairs at the Fene-Ferrol shipyard.

Has the Commission been presented with or notified of any plans to build a floating dock in the Ferrol estuary where large ships undergoing repairs at the Navantia shipyard could be moored? The Spanish regional authorities and SEPI informally discussed this project with the responsible state aid services of the Commission. The project was not formally notified to the Commission for assessment under EU State aid rules. In the three years , i. According to reliable information, within three years approximately one thousand such businesses were established.

This is a phenomenon that has its roots in the deep economic recession painfully affecting Greece and Greek citizens. Given that the financial crisis and the major recession, and their harmful consequences, affect not only Greece but also an increasing number of other Member States, particularly in southern Europe, will the Commission say:.

Is it monitoring with due attention the rapid growth and expansion of this phenomenon and, if so, is it worried about this development? What data does it have about what was happening in Greece and other European countries in this area during the period ? Does it believe that it is necessary to have specific European legislation regulating at European level the conditions of establishment, operation and control of enterprises of this specific type, which often function as unofficial banks, thereby forming a parallel banking market at the expense of the citizens and state tax revenue?

The activities carried out by pawnshops, i. In the absence of any prudential requirements at European level specifically targeting pawn shops, national autorities are in principle competent to restrict such activities in compliance with the Treaty. In some Member States, pawnshops activities are indeed limited to entities subject to prudential regulation and supervision. The Commission published a Green paper on shadow banking last year. The Commission will further detail its intention regarding shadow banking later this semester.

One area of investigation could be the identification of entities proposing bank-like activities, but remaining outside the scope of the banking licence. In this case, a fact-finding exercice could be organised to identify these entities and the associated risks. Des renseignements utiles figurent sur le site. More specifically, given that the European Social Fund and the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund could play a significant role in safeguarding jobs in this crisis-hit sector, two questions arise: can they take action, and if so, when?

Provided that the redundancies were caused by trade related globalisation, Belgium could apply to the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund EGF to support the workers made redundant to find new jobs as quickly as possible. At this stage, the Commission does not possess indications that the current situation in the steel sector could prompt the enforcement of Art. Under certain circumstances, the EGF can support the re-integration into employment of workers in areas, sectors, territories, or labour market regions suffering the shock of serious economic disruption.

The relevant details can be found on the EGF website. We kregen al diverse reacties en opmerkingen over de vragenlijst. Veel consumenten vinden de vragen te technisch bijvoorbeeld vraag 3 , te tendentieus soms zeer opvallend, bijv. Meerdere vragen vereisen een nuancering, maar hier is geen ruimte voor zeer vergaand op dat vlak is 4.

Er is nauwelijks ruimte voor eigen inbreng, dat moet dan via een apart mailadres. Dit lijkt niet bepaald een aanmoediging om echt je mening te kunnen geven. Soms is het alsof de biowetgeving alle problemen moet gaan oplossen, terwijl andere wetgeving misschien logischer is, maar ook daarvoor is geen ruimte om dit aan te geven bijv. De herziening betreft de wetgeving over biologische landbouw, maar niet het wetskader over genetische gemodificeerde organismen.

De diensten van de Commissie hadden deze belangstelling verwacht en precies daarom is geopteerd voor een vragenlijst met gesloten vragen: de antwoorden daarop kunnen namelijk automatisch worden geanalyseerd aan de hand van statistische software. De Commissie heeft reeds dergelijke bijdragen ontvangen. Uit respect voor de vele mensen die de vragenlijst al hebben beantwoord, is de Commissie niet van plan de lijst te wijzigen of te verwijderen. De Commissie is van mening dat een goed evenwicht is bereikt: het publiek wordt om zijn mening over technische kwesties gevraagd zonder dat de zaak al te eenvoudig wordt voorgesteld.

Hoe dan ook zullen de resultaten zorgvuldig worden geanalyseerd. De Commissie heeft al met meer dan 90 belanghebbende partijen gesproken en pleegt geregeld overleg met de raadgevende groep biologische landbouw. We have already received various responses and comments on the survey questions. Many consumers find the questions too technical for example Question 3 , too tendentious sometimes very much so, e. A number of questions require a qualified answer, but there is no scope for this 4. There is hardly any opportunity for respondents to add their own contributions: anyone wishing to do so must use a separate e-mail address.

This will hardly encourage people to genuinely state their opinions. Sometimes it seems as if legislation on organic farming is expected to solve all the problems, while other legislation is perhaps more logical, but here again there is no space to indicate this e. Will the Commission improve the survey, or — if not — remove it until a new, less oversimplified and more user-friendly list of questions is available? The review covers the legislation on organic farming but not the legislative framework related to genetically modified organisms.

Such interest had been anticipated by the Commission services. This is the reason why it was decided to propose a questionnaire with close questions, for which the replies can be automatically analysed thanks to a statistical software. More qualified answers can easily be adressed to the Commmission services by simple e-mail.

More than of these contributions have been received so far. In full respect to the numerous people who have already replied to the questionnaire, the Commission does not intend to modify or to remove it. The Commission considers that the right balance has been found to ask the opinion of the public on technical issues without excessive simplification. In any case, the results will be cautiously analysed. The public consultation is only one part of the consultation process. The Commission has already interviewed more than 90 stakeholders and regularly consults the advisory group on organic farming.

Had it not been for the vigilance and exceptionally high standards of the Food Safety Authority of Ireland, this act of food fraud would not have been detected. After a thorough investigation on the part of the Irish authorities, a Polish plant has been indentified as the source of the equine DNA content in certain beefburgers. The Polish plant is an EU-accredited supplier of meat products and, given that it asserts that it does not use horsemeat in its manufacture process, could the Commission outline how its regulatory system for food safety and traceability had failed in this regard?

What immediate measures will be taken to address this significant breach of food safety and transparency standards? As the company involved takes beef product from about five different slaughtering facilities in Poland, will the Commission give details on how it will improve standards so as to avoid a repeat of this fraudulent situation? The operation of this system is the responsibility of the food business operator. The role of the competent authority of the Member States is to verify the functioning of this system randomly. The horse meat fraud referred to by the Honourable Member revealed lack of compliance to existing rules.

The Commission therefore focuses currently on ensuring compliance. In addition to that the Commission recommends that Member States test every 50 tonnes of horse meat on the presence of phenylbutazone which is a frequently used anti-inflammatory veterinary medicine in horses that can adversely affect human health. Both control actions are currently being carried out.

The survey, which looked at over 1. According to the abovementioned survey, The Commission is addressing the difficult access to finance situation for SMEs through a variety of financial instruments. The programme is responding to the shift in demand for various types of financing in some Member States like Spain by providing substantially more guarantees for working capital. For the period , the Commission has put forward proposals for a new generation of financial instruments.

This ratio, of two subscribers to each beneficiary, is considered by numerous experts as the critical threshold for the stability and viability of a distribution system. The Commission agrees that high unemployment increases the risks for the sustainability of social security systems. It is of crucial importance to restore as soon as possible conditions that allow Spain and other Member States that are hard-hit by the crisis to recover a level of economic activity and growth that will create jobs. This entails in particular the implementation of structural reforms and actions established in the Employment Package and CSR.

The aim of the group was to map and analyse existing systems in the Member States and propose better ways of combating the problem. What conclusions did the thematic group reach in terms of combating the problem of early school leaving? What were the conclusions for Greece? Has the Commission mapped how earlier school-leavers have fared in social terms, as we have repeatedly called on it to do?

The report will be based on peer learning activities, mapping exercises and studies. It will focus on data collection and monitoring of ESL processes and on cross-sectoral cooperation to reduce early school leaving. The report will address typical problems encountered across EU Member States and will address the situation in individual countries only to a limited extent. The situation of young people after dropping out from education and training has not yet been addressed in detail.

By way of comparison, overall youth unemployment stands at The Commission has launched a literature review to be finalised in summer on costs of early school leaving which will also provide information on the social situation of early school leavers; and a large-scale research project on early school leaving final results only in , which will also address the career trajectories of early school leavers.

In addition, the Commission proposes to include in the future LFS additional questions on the transition from education to work, thus providing more evidence on the difficulties of early school leavers to enter the labour market. In order to achieve this, every Member State with land and maritime external borders must operate a national coordination centre for border surveillance which exchanges information with other national coordination centres and with Frontex via a secure communication network.

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Given that the Commission issued a communication in laying down a roadmap for the development, testing and rollout of the system and requiring the Member States to establish national coordination centres for border surveillance:. Does the Commission have any information as to whether all the Member States have national coordination centres for border surveillance which are ready to operate? The Council and the European Parliament are currently negotiating on the Commission's proposal for a regulation establishing Eurosur, according to which the national coordination centres NCCs should apply this regulation in two stages:.

A number of NCCs seem to be already fulfilling the Eurosur requirements, whereas the NCCs in several other Member States including Greece still need to be technically upgraded or to be properly installed. The Commission hopes that the draft Regulation will soon be adopted by the co-legislators. Is the Commission in a position to advise how many children in Europe fail to develop properly due to poor diet?

Which Member States face the worst problems? The EU seeks to tackle all aspects related to poverty and hunger and to support sufficient access to and availability of safe and nutritious food for all, including by helping countries establish and operate social protection mechanisms to support women and children and ensure they have access to food. It highlights that 4. In October, the Commission proposed creating the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived in order to support the distribution of food or basic goods to children suffering from poverty.

Holder Jr. The crisis is having a huge impact in Europe. All of this has resulted in widespread public intervention, which ultimately passes on the problem to taxpayers and to those citizens most affected by the budget cuts. Does the Commission intend to support some form of legal action at European level or to coordinate claims action taken by Member States with a view to demanding that credit rating agencies be made accountable for the damage to public finances caused by their malpractice?

Margallo respeta los principios de subsidiariedad y proporcionalidad? Spain is not alone in this: just in Brussels, there are over regional offices representing all parts of Europe. The question whether, and, if so, to what extent, these principles also govern the internal polticial organisation of a Member State is a matter of national constitutional law. It is therefore not for the Commission to comment on the internal structures of a Member State. Am Der Kommission sind die Einzelheiten dieses konkreten Falls nicht bekannt.

The contamination involved the pesticides clopyralid and thiamethoxam and was caused by the Kwizda Agro Austria company. The Global environmental organisation reports that the authorities responsible failed over a period of two years to identify the contamination; then, when news of the incident became known, local people were given insufficient information about possible risks. The Commission has assessed the River Basin Management Plans of the Member States in and published a detailed implementation report on the findings per Member State.

In respect of monitoring and public consultation the assessment found that Austria established the required system and procedures, though it identified some shortcomings that will be followed up with Austrian authorities. For the present, the Commission sees no reason to doubt the validity of the monitoring provisions of the Water Framework Directive.

The Commission is not aware of the details of the specific case. As mentioned above the Commission will raise all necessary shortcomings in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive with Austrian authorities in the context of the follow-up to the assessment of the River Basin Management Plans.

The vessel will also be conducting investigations within the EEZ of the Greek island of Kastelorizo, just off the Turkish coast. What action will the Commission take in response to this announcement by Turkey, of its intention to encroach on the territorial integrity of Cyprus and Greece which are EU Member States? The Council also expressed once again serious concern, and urged Turkey to avoid any kind of threat or action directed against a Member State, or source of friction or actions, which could damage good neighbourly relations and the peaceful settlement of disputes.

The Commission in its contacts with the Turkish authorities repeatedly conveys this message as appropriate. Dit geld is gedeeltelijk rechtstreeks door de eurolanden betaald en gedeeltelijk via het noodfonds EFSF uitgekeerd. De Rekenkamer stelt dat er over dit geld geen controle is. Waarom is er ook na geen controle uitgeoefend op de eerste tranches aan noodsteun? De Europese Commissie levert geen commentaar op artikelen in de pers.

De resultaten van deze controles zijn publiekelijk beschikbaar en kunnen via de website van de Europese Commissie worden geraadpleegd. Part of this money was paid directly by the eurozone countries, and part of it via the emergency fund EFSF. The Court of Audit states that the use made of this money is not monitored. Why was there no monitoring of the use of the first instalments of emergency aid after either? What action will the Commission take in the light of the failure to monitor emergency aid?

The European Commission does not comment on press articles. The financial assistance provided by the EFSF and the Greek Loan Facility is subject to a comprehensive macroeconomic adjustment programme with strict conditionality, the monitoring of which takes place on a quarterly basis. The results of this monitoring are publicly available and can be accessed through the European Commission's website. More specifically, the results of the reviews of the Greek, Portuguese and Irish programmes can be found at the following weblinks. The European Food Safety Authority EFSA recently carried out and published a review of three neonicotinoid pesticides: clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam.

Can the Commission explain why EFSA has used guidelines that have not yet been approved and authorised? Can the Commission ensure that any decision on policy will be based solely on technical assessments of the products in real conditions of use?

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Can the Commission ensure that it will carry out a thorough comparative impact assessment, based on the substitution principle, of the use of alternative plant protection products that may result in restrictions on use of neonicotinoid pesticides? The Commission has no reasons to believe that the current authorised uses, as supported by industry, would not represent the actual conditions of use.

Comparative assessment is exclusively done by the Member States and only for substances listed as candidates for substitution. The Commission has no obligation to carry out a comparative assessment and the review of approval undertaken is not meant to classify neonicotinoids as candidates for substitution. What does the Commission intend to do if countries such as Malta continue to fail to prevent the illegal hunting of protected birds? The incident reported by Birdlife Malta was brought to the attention of the Commission in an earlier question.

Oggetto: Riconoscimento della lingua italiana dei segni. Quale sia, alla luce della presenza di varie e distinte risoluzioni ed enunciazioni di diritti, la reale situazione in ambito comunitario sul riconoscimento della lingua dei segni come lingua ufficiale;. Gli specifici provvedimenti volti a rispettare il diritto dei non udenti di utilizzare la lingua dei segni sono, principalmente, di competenza degli Stati membri.

In Italy, sign language is not yet recognised as an official language for all purposes. Whether provision has been made for any measures to establish a harmonised European legal framework, with due protection of the subsidiarity principle, and if so, what those measures are? The Commission is committed to the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to the extent of its competences. The specific measures needed in respect of the right of deaf persons to use sign language fall mainly within the competences of the Member States.

A harmonised European legal framework in this area is not envisaged. However, the Commission supports Member States' action by fostering exchange of knowledge and awareness raising activities, including via its subsidy of the operating costs of the EUD under a three-year partnership agreement. The aim is to ensure value for money by focusing EU funding on the highest quality proposals. The Commission is, however, working with national authorities to encourage more high quality proposals from all Member States.

At that point it should be possible to see if the efforts have had any positive effects on the success rate. A parceria termina no final de It aims to contribute to the reduction of the cancer burden through health promotion and prevention; screening and early diagnosis; cancer-related healthcare; cooperation and coordination in cancer research and cancer data.

The Partnership will end in The Commission and Member States are now preparing a new Joint Action to continue addressing the burden of cancer. The aim is to develop a European guide on quality improvement in cancer control. The guide should address aspects of integrated cancer control, including prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, supportive and palliative care, and survivorship.

This will contribute to reaching the aims of the European Partnership Against Cancer, and will build on its achievements and on previous EU actions on cancer. The Commission's Joint Research Centre further carries out research on innovative and improved methods for cancer treatment and on development of certified reference materials for patient monitoring, and contributes to various common initiatives with Member States. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the President of Iran, is the first leader of the Islamic Republic to visit Egypt since Tehran severed diplomatic ties with the country in Some 4.

The Commission sees high unemployment in Spain and Greece as a serious problem. Besides the loss of production and income, joblessness is a source of social and human hardship. Thus, the Commission is of the view that no effort should be spared to address the social consequences of high unemployment and re-establish the conditions for sustained job creation. Labour market weaknesses characterised the Greek and the Spanish labour markets well before the start of the economic and financial crisis, most notably labour market segmentation in Spain and low employment and participation rates in Greece.

The debt crisis that hit these countries has made credible fiscal consolidation and structural reforms necessary conditions to restore confidence and re-establish fiscal solvency and foster economic growth over the medium term. Failing to undertake consolidation would result in a more acute fiscal crisis and much more disastrous effects on economic activity and employment.

For this reason, despite the very varied situations of the Member States listed by the Honourable Member, these countries, irrespective of a possible presence of financial assistance programmes, have been dovetailing efforts to put public finances on a sustainable track, while undertaking reforms to enhance adjustment capacity and improve competitiveness. These reforms are preconditions to promote job creation and tackle the labour market problems that these countries were already experiencing when their economies were growing fast.

Em os representantes das redes rurais nacionais foram convidados a participar nos seguintes eventos:. Em conformidade com o artigo The National Rural Network is a structure linking active players in rural development who wish to share their experiences and expertise, improve performance and obtain better results. Rural development actors from any part of the country may join the National Rural Network.

The Swiss authorities are considering invoking a safeguard clause on the free movement of persons, under an agreement concluded with the European Union, to prevent the entry of immigrants from southern Europe, including Portuguese, Spanish and Italian citizens. According to the French newspaper Les Echos , Switzerland does not want to become a refuge for the destitute of Europe. Switzerland is a leading destination for Portuguese immigrants, and they form the largest foreign community in the country.

The Commission has not received any official communication from Switzerland regarding a possible extension of the quantitative restrictions to the nationals of Member States. According to a study published in the journal Nature Climate Change , greater dependence on biofuel could lead to not only a reduction in agricultural production for human consumption, but also to an escalation in food prices.

This study, authored by a group of British researchers from Lancaster University in England, predicts that biofuel cultivation may add to pollution, despite reducing emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2 compared with fossil fuels such as oil, coal and gas. Is the Commission aware of this report? Assessing the impacts of planting 72 Mha of short rotation coppice poplar, willow or eucalyptus on ozone pollution and its effects on human health and crop yields, the study suggests that not only greenhouse gas emissions should be the criteria when policies concerning biofuels are developed.

The Commission assesses a range of impacts when it develops policy initiatives, including for biofuels. However, the Commission's analyses have not considered the impacts suggested by the above study, and the Commission cannot confirm their validity or relevance. What will it do to address the fact that the recession in Europe is predicted to last until ? Taking swift and ambitious action on both EU and national level along these lines will contribute to mitigating negative short term economic developments while laying the foundations for a return to sustainable growth and jobs creation.

The ECB has expressed concerns about the crisis in Cyprus and possible contagion in the euro area, especially at a time when Ireland and Portugal are trying to return to the markets. The Commission is aware of the decisions of some EU banks to repay partially the amounts allotted in the longer-term refinancing operations LTRO. However, an important part of the liquidity injected through the 3-year LTROs will still remain in the banking system. In addition, returning some excess liquidity may be actually a signal of the return of confidence in EU banks. Such signs may allow banks to consider transferring the costly liquidity buffers they still hold towards lending to the economy.

The Commission is also concerned about recessionary risks in Europe. To address concerns about dysfunctions in the credit flow towards the economy, the Commission has recently tabled proposals for a Banking Union to strengthen the financial institutional framework in Europe. Confidence in the banking system is a pre-requisite for a continuous flow of bank lending towards the economy.

Is it possible to lengthen the maturity of loans from the Troika to the bailed-out countries? Does the Commission believe that lengthening the maturity of loans would foster economic growth in these countries? A number of legal, technical and financial issues have to examined in this context. The eventual decision whether and, if yes, in which format to lengthen the maturities of loans is in the hands of the Council and of the euro area Member States. The extension of IMF loans is not considered.

The extension of EU loan maturities in an appropriate format could help Portugal and Ireland to ease market access. It could also have an indirect effect on economic growth. The low-cost loans would be outstanding for longer, so Portugal's implicit interest rate and respectively interest expenditure during the years of extension would be lower assuming that private investors would continue charging higher interest rate. The State could use savings in interest expenditure for investment or public consumption, possibly generating growth.

Economic adjustment programmes for Ireland and Portugal include several specific measures, in particular in the structural field, that explicitly target the reinvigoration of economic growth in these countries. What can the Commission do to combat the high level of business insolvency in Portugal? Does the Commission share the view that excessive austerity has led to an increase in cases of insolvency? It is also facilitating access to finance for small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs.

The Commission is working with Member States to set out a comprehensive system of financial policies and instruments to support SME financing. Combining fiscal consolidation with growth enhancing instruments is the only way forward to put Portugal back on the path of sustainable growth. The reforms underway are laying the ground for a dynamic and competitive economy required to ensure the long-term solvency and viability of Portuguese companies.

These reforms include a revision of the corporate insolvency and recovery law to better support early rescue of viable firms and new fast track in-court mechanisms and out-of-court corporate debt restructuring and recovery mechanisms SIREVE, PER were put in place to help the recovery of companies in financial difficulties and to prevent further bankruptcies. How, and by whom, will the use of this funding for its proposed objectives be accounted for? Exactly how much will Portugal receive under the economic and financial adjustment programme agreed with the Troika?

The data and explanations received from the lenders were presented in the original report. This amount is relevant from the lenders' perspective as it defines the amount of EFSF guarantees to be provided by guarantor MS. This amount is relevant from the cash management perspective of the beneficiary country.

Nun aber scheint das Projekt wieder Fahrt aufnehmen. Daraus ergibt sich folgende Frage:. Sei es hinsichtlich des Zugriffs auf Bankdaten, oder auf Daten in sogenannten Clouds. Wie gedenkt die Kommission hier vorzugehen? Bei der umfassenden Datenschutzreform wurde diesen Bedenken Rechnung getragen. However, the project now seems to be gathering momentum again. In many respects, however, the USA and Europe have very different approaches to important issues of economic and social policy. There is also the subpoena procedure, whereby US authorities can force businesses to release data, and in which the protection of EU citizens is not clearly regulated.

The US administration is also evidently keen to access Twitter profiles and similar data. Given that the use of the Internet plays a key role in an increasing number of areas of daily life, and that frequently several undertakings are involved in providing a given service, in a transatlantic internal market it would become even harder to guarantee European data protection standards. What measures does the Commission propose to take in this area? The Commission is aware of the concerns related to the extraterritorial application of laws of third countries regulating data processing activities that fall under the jurisdiction of Member States.

These laws may be in breach of international law and affect the fundamental rights of individuals in the Union. These concerns have been taken into account in the comprehensive reform package of data protection rules. The proposed Regulation also makes clear that data transfers should only be allowed where the conditions of the regulation for an international transfer are met.

Grundlegende Rechtsvorschriften zum Verbraucherschutz stehen nicht zur Debatte. While Europeans are extremely sceptical about genetically modified foods and feedstuffs, in the USA there are not even GMO warnings on food packaging. The same is true of factory farming and the use of antibiotics see the WTO dispute on hormone-treated beef. How does the Commission propose, in a common single market with the USA, to protect European standards and values in food production?

Any future negotiations of an EU-US trade and investment agreement would not be about compromising the health of European consumers for commercial gain. Basic legislation protecting consumers will not be up for negotiation. The Commission will continue to do its outmost to guarantee the protection of European standards and value in food production by means of the tools provided for by the relevant EU legislation, i. What the Commission hopes to achieve is to minimise trade barriers resulting from the operation of our systems and create new opportunities for jobs and growth.

In the USA there is a long and important tradition of lobbying. Whereas in Brussels lobbying is traditionally geared to consensus, in the USA it is carried out in a very aggressive and extremely professional manner. While lobbying practices are widely accepted among the American public, European citizens are much more sceptical about them. Although they have increased perceptibly in recent years, lobbying activities in Brussels are not as pronounced as on the other side of the Atlantic. In a transatlantic single market, how does the Commission propose to prevent lobbyists having an excessive influence on the common rules of the single market?

The Commission considers that the best way to avoid an excessive or unbalanced influence on policy making from particular interests is to ensure that during the process, the widest opportunity is given to all stakeholders to channel their views so that all interests can be heard. Trainings on professional ethics are provided to Commission staff on taking up their post and on a regular basis during their careers to raise awareness about their obligations of independence, impartiality and objectivity.

In addition, specific training on standards and guidance on consultations to be followed in practice are also offered to the staff. In its annual programme of work for the Commission announces the adoption of framework provisions for the assessment of environmental, climate and energy issues so as to facilitate the safe and secure extraction of non-conventional hydrocarbons but fails to specify whether they will be legislative or non-legislative. When are the framework provisions scheduled for adoption and what legal form will they take?

If so, does it intend to introduce new rules relating exclusively to the extraction of shale gas, bearing in mind that Member States have a free choice regarding their energy mix? Los efectos de estos plaguicidas se investigaron en colonias de abejas. Kann die Kommission in Zusammenhang mit der Empfehlung alternativer Anwendungen sicherstellen, dass den Landwirten auch in Zukunft Wahlfreiheit in Bezug auf gentechnikfreien Anbau garantiert bleibt? Nel corso dello studio sono stati esaminati gli effetti di tali sostanze sulle colonie di api. Sulla base di tali informazioni, la Commissione ha avviato immediatamente un dibattito circa il divieto di queste sostanze.

Come valuta la Commissione le lacune presenti nei dati forniti, in ragione delle quali gli studi dell'EFSA non risultano rappresentativi per tutta l'Unione europea? Si tiene conto del fatto che nel corso di questa valutazione non sono stati considerati gli studi scientifici precedentemente conclusi relativi all'esame di queste sostanze, corredati da risultati concreti e proposte di azione? In alcuni Stati membri il settore dell'apicoltura e quello agricolo hanno intrapreso una stretta collaborazione, attuando misure che hanno condotto a chiari risultati.

La mancanza di dati messa in luce dall'EFSA solleva preoccupazioni nella misura in cui evidenzia diversi fattori di incertezza in certi ambiti della valutazione del rischio che non consentono di concludere che il rischio sia basso. Coerentemente con la richiesta della Commissione l'EFSA ha tenuto conto di tutti gli studi disponibili precedentemente valutati a livello nazionale a sostegno delle autorizzazioni esistenti di prodotti fitosanitari. Gli agricoltori possono coltivare colture GM, ad esempio colture GM resistenti agli insetti, a patto che queste abbiano ricevuto un'autorizzazione alla commercializzazione UE previa attenta valutazione del rischio che dimostri che essi non hanno effetti nocivi per la salute umana e animale e per l'ambiente.

La legislazione sugli OGM stabilisce che gli Stati membri possono implementare misure specifiche per assicurare la coesistenza di colture GM, convenzionali e biologiche sul loro territorio. The effects of these on bee populations have been established and the results obtained identified a number of risks for bees. In some cases the risk assessment could not be completed, owing to a lack of data and because of time pressure. In response, the Commission raised the question of a ban on these active substances.

The wide-ranging economic and environmental impact of such a decision gives rise to the following questions:. Is account being taken of the fact that earlier, completed scientific studies concerned with evaluating active substances and which contain specific results and recommendations for action were not included in this assessment?

Measures have been taken in some Member States with close cooperation between beekeepers and the agricultural sector which have produced clear results. Have these been taken into account? In many Member States the incidence of invasive pests such as Diabrotica virgifera Western corn rootworm is causing an increasing number of failed harvests. Will there be an assessment and a recommendation for alternative methods in the fight against harmful insects? With regard to recommending alternative methods, can the Commission ensure that farmers will continue to be able to exercise free choice in the matter of GMO crops?

The assessment done by the European Food Safety Authority EFSA represents the best state-of-the-art scientific assessment currently possible with the available experimental data. The data gaps highlighted by EFSA raise a concern insofar as they highlight numerous uncertainty factors in certain areas of the risk assessment, which do not allow concluding on a low risk. Consistently with the request of the Commission, EFSA took into account all available studies previously evaluated at national level in support of existing authorisations on plant protection products.

The Commission is not aware of any missing information that should have been integrated in the assessment. A wide call for data was launched and all submitted data, studies and information were considered in the assessment. The Commission is aware of the importance of alternative solutions such as crop rotation, in case certain uses of neonicotinoids would not be available in the future. Farmers can grow GMO crops — e. The GMO legislation provides that Member States can implement specific measures for ensuring the coexistence of GM, conventional and organic crops cultivations on their territory.

Oggetto: Disoccupazione giovanile in aumento nell'area dell'euro. Nell'ambito del Semestre europeo vengono anche promosse riforme strutturali per affrontare la segregazione del mercato del lavoro e ridurre la disoccupazione giovanile. In the light of the above, can the Commission say how it thinks these policies concerning the reduction of youth unemployment in the euro area can be implemented in relation to the proposed cuts to the latest European budget?

Nevertheless, the European Council also recognised that the emphasis put by the Commission on the critical need to address youth unemployment was right. Through the European Semester, structural reforms are also promoted to address labour market segregation and reduce youth unemployment. The European Commission will assess Member States' measures to boost growth and jobs and propose, where needed, country-specific recommendations regarding youth unemployment.

Accordingly, the Commission states that the precautionary principle may only be invoked when the following three preliminary conditions have been met:. The Commission also stated that it was evaluating the potentially adverse effects in conjunction with the WHO, with a particular focus on a recent peer-reviewed report, which found that wind turbines do have a negative impact on human health. Therefore, all three of the preliminary conditions needed to invoke the precautionary principle have been met.

In the light of this information, can the Commission clarify how European consumers can demonstrate the danger associated with a procedure or product? Given that those citizens whose health is affected by living close to industrial wind turbines are rarely, if ever, represented by associations, how does an individual inform the Commission that the product is having a negative impact on their health?

Every citizen has the right to write to and get a direct answer from the Commission. Noise from individual wind turbines and defining local measures that might be required is in the competence of the national or local authority concerned. Employing people over the age of 55 has become a serious problem in the European Union, particularly as the economic crisis affects Europe. It is obvious that the main problem now is the high level of unemployment in almost all EU Member States and in particular, youth unemployment. However, we should also not forget older people. What steps is the Commission taking or intending to take to ensure that those countries, where discrimination on the grounds of age is most widespread, create conditions which are more favourable to employing older people?

If people have been discriminated on grounds of age they may take the legal remedies available in their national Member State. The Commission is closely monitoring the correct transposition and application of the prohibition of age discrimination as laid down in directive in the Member States and will not hesitate to take the necessary steps to ensure that the directive is correctly transposed and applied at national level.

According to the Greek organisations representing those concerned, the direct or indirect use or misuse of registered Greek designations for example, feta and the use of trademarks or other insignia on labels, implying that the products in question for example, yoghurts are of Greek origin, is assuming alarming proportions on third country markets.

How will it ensure that, for the purposes of trade within the Union and export to third countries, Member States will refrain from dealing in products which encroach on registered PDOs or PGIs? For many years, the Commission has therefore striven to improve the protection of Protected Designations of Origin PDO and Protected Geographical Indications PGI in third countries through multilateral negotiations and through an increasing number of bilateral agreements with our trade partners, either through stand-alone agreements or as part of wider Free Trade Agreements.

Afghans feel enormous anxiety as the deadline for withdrawing international combat forces from Afghanistan looms and powerbrokers jockey for position. Wie soll weiterhin der Zugang zu Bildung aber auch Chancengleichheit gesichert werden? EUR zu diesem globalen Fonds geleistet. There has been a significant improvement in Afghan women's rights since the fall of the Taliban.

Many girls and women have gained access to education, which we Europeans both regard as the greatest asset and take as a matter of course. In its report, the organisation Human Rights Watch summarises the situation for Afghanistan as follows:. How will the rights of young girls and women continue to be strengthened and protected?

How will access to education and equal opportunities continue to be guaranteed in the future? The future assistance will be oriented towards Afghanistan's own National Priority Programmes, including the one on Education. Afghanistan must take its own responsibilities both for development and for security. The EU will continue to press the Afghan authorities to implement their commitments in full, in particular in the field of human rights, including the rights of women and girls, for whom access to education will be an important element. In the EU-Afghanistan Cooperation Agreement currently being negotiated, the human rights dimension will be an essential element and the Agreement will contain a number of core provisions on women and children.

This includes the education sector where a number of EU Member States are actively involved. Afghanistan also benefits from the Global Partnership for Education, coordinated by Denmark in case of Afghanistan. The EU will increasingly follow the principles of division of labour as foreseen in the Agenda for Change and the Action Plan on strengthening the EU's presence in Afghanistan, so as to target funds where they are most needed and with the greatest possible impact.

The overall security situation will, however, be a key factor in determining how EU assistance can be implemented. Does the Commission believe that an organisation which receives such a large proportion of its funding from public-sector sources can be accurately described as an NGO? Does the Commission agree that it would have been better if the leaflet distributed by. For its work, the European Commission has identified a few characteristics normally shared by these entities, such as independence of government. EU funding is allocated on the basis of the applicable legal base and the financial regulation without any condition which would limit the beneficiaries' independence.

Thus the Commission considers that the registration of. The Commission and the European Parliament have set up the transparency register to respond to such concern and offer a data base with all this information as it is the case for. The Honourable Member is thus invited to use this instrument when she wishes to check on an organisation engaged in lobbying activities.

In implementation of this regulation, the Commission organises yearly open calls for proposals in which Transport and Environment has been selected for co-funding of its activities. Zum Diese Genehmigung hat die Kommission derzeit noch nicht erteilt, obwohl die alte Fassung seit dem 1. Um die seit dem 1.

QFIAB 85 (2005)

Februar angenommen. August , ABl. L vom 9. However, in order to prevent distortions of competition in the internal market, this requires approval from the Commission. New rules on tax relief for cogeneration plants have therefore been adopted in domestic law; in Germany these rules are to be found in Sections 53a and 53b of the Energy Taxation Act. However, the new domestic law rules will only enter into force after the necessary approval under state aid rules has been granted by the Commission.

If so, what changes may be expected? As a consequence, the Commisison had to make a new, complete assessment of the German tax relief for energy products used in cogeneration plants under the current state aid rules. Juni Aus welchem Grund wurde die Exekutivdirektorin nicht bis zur Ernennung eines neuen Exekutivdirektors durch den stellvertretenden Direktor ersetzt? Die amtierende Exekutivdirektorin wurde am 1. Im Jahr hat der Verwaltungsrat ihr Mandat bis zum They included breaches of public procurement rules, and missions and travel expenses not accounted for. However, the current Executive Director has remained in charge, despite her questionable management of the agency, instead of being provisionally replaced by the Deputy Director.

How much will her pension be upon completion of her current contract as Executive Director of the European Environment Agency? Would other pension rules apply if she were to leave before the end of her contract? Why was the current Executive Director not replaced by the Deputy Director until a new Executive Director had been appointed? The rules governing the calculation and settlement of the retirement pension are set out in the Staff regulations.

The same rules apply to temporary staff who leave at the end of their contract and those who leave before the end of that contract. The Management board, who is entrusted with the power to appoint the Executive Director of the Agency, did not decide to terminate the contract of the Executive Director before the natural term of office. Therefore, there was no justification for the Deputy Director to replace the Executive Director in her functions. Following the recent ingredients scandals affecting Ireland, the UK, Poland, France and probably other Member States, does the Commission intend to take action?

Aspects of Its Development and Global Perspectives

With the free movement of goods and services — brought about by the Maastricht Treaty — easier than ever before, is the Commission of the view that better traceability is needed, as well as minimum sentences for those involved in food crimes? Does the Commission think that minimum pricing and profit returns for farmers would eliminate the race to the bottom, in terms of quality, by large supermarket chains such as Tesco, Dunnes and Aldi, which demand low-cost goods from suppliers?

Does the Commission feel that more should be done to let hard-pressed consumers know that what is packaged as nice healthy food can actually be full of unhealthy ingredients? Does the Commission feel that, as a general rule, the public needs to be better informed about the risks of eating processed foods? What will the Commission do to ensure that regular DNA testing is carried out on food products? Can the Commission state what obligations Member States are under in terms of testing? There is an extensive body of Union rules to ensure that food is safe.

Traceability is compulsory for food business operators at all stages of the food chain. These existing traceability systems made possible that the extent and origin of the recent fraud has been revealed. Member States are responsible for the enforcement of Union law and shall verify, through official controls, compliance by the operators. However, no mandatory DNA testing of meat is required by Union legislation.

VIII Nineteenth Century

Member States are also entitled to determine the level and type of penalties to be imposed for infringements of food legislation. However, minimum pricing and profit returns for farmers would not avoid fraud. Die Kommission hat diesen Bedenken bei der umfassenden Datenschutzreform ebenfalls Rechnung getragen. Can the Commission confirm that this is true? These laws may be in breach of international law and may affect the fundamental rights of individuals in the Union. It is primarily for national authorities, in particular the independent data protection authorities, to monitor compliance with data protection rules and investigate any violation thereof.

The Commission also duly took into account these concerns in the comprehensive reform package of data protection rules. Wie hat sich das Durchschnittsalter der pensionierten EU-Beamten in den Jahren , und entwickelt? Wie haben sich die gesamten Versorgungskosten der pensionierten Beamten der Kommission in den Jahren , und entwickelt? Wie entwickelten sich diese Verbindlichkeiten in den Jahren , und ? Im Zeitraum sind Bedienstete in den Ruhestand getreten. EUR gesunken. Der Wert der Verbindlichkeit zum How many former EU officials from Germany and Austria are currently in retirement?

How did the average age of EU officials in retirement change in , and ? How did the overall costs relating to retired Commission officials change in , and ? How did these liabilities change in , and ? Currently there are 1 former staff members with German nationality and 47 former staff members with Austrian nationality in retirement.

"Pay to Play" – Politische Korruption in den USA

As noted in the EU annual accounts note 2. The value of the liability at How many EU officials aged between 50 and 55, 56 and 60, 61 and 65 and over 65 retired in , and ? Five of them had German nationality and one had Austrian nationality. The average retirement age of all officials who retired in was How many officials were granted early retirement due to invalidity between and ? How have the costs relating to EU officials granted early retirement due to invalidity changed between and ? How has the average age of EU officials granted early retirement due to invalidity changed between and ?

This represents an amount which is stable at 2. The average age of staff members at the moment when they were granted the invalidity allowance has increased from 52 in to 53 in Betrifft: Untersuchungen gegen Beamte oder Bedienstete der Kommission. Sind die verbleibenden 12 Untersuchungen inzwischen abgeschlossen? Wenn ja, welche Ergebnisse ergaben die Untersuchungen? Wenn nein, wie viele Untersuchungen sind mittlerweile abgeschlossen, und welche Ergebnisse gab es bei den bereits abgeschlossenen Untersuchungen?

We paid particular attention to taking an interdisciplinary approach to the project, involving artists in the discussion process from the very beginning and presenting specific projects in this publication. In contrast to architecture and urban planning, art has a unique Even if artists working in urban spaces may be as powerless as architects to solve the fundamental social issues at stake, they are able to use artistic interventions to take action within public space on a temporary, short-term basis.

The bleak wall, five metres tall by twelve wide, makes this urban segregation visible. When the intervention became part of the streetscape, startling residents and business people, it was met with vehement protests and resistance, especially from the owners of local businesses. At the same time, many residents applauded it and a variety of cultural and political figures gave their support. From the very beginning, Nada Prlja sought to spark an intense debate among the residents and business people, which she personally took part in by remaining at the site for two weeks and holding events and discussions.

Although the installation attracted heavy media attention and polarised people, creating opposing camps and sparking highly aggressive attitudes towards the artist herself and those responsible at the Berlin Biennale, it also opened lines of communication among local players — a small awareness-raising process that gave rise to debate about local social and aesthetic issues.

Artists take on a special role in the shaping of space. By staging interventions, they can move beyond the traditional definitions and approaches, create audacious juxtapositions, and pose unsettling questions about entrenched structures. Their work can occupy the open urban spaces that still remain, whether on a temporary or long-term basis, and thus not only create aesthetic value, but also trigger a ongoing debate. This is an unexploitable art, an art that knows how to make social responsibility compatible with autonomy, and an art that plays an active, sustainable role in spatial policy.

For the question at hand is no less than this: how will we live in our cities in the future, and what free spaces would we like to contribute to shaping? The term makeshift implies a temporary or expedient substitute for something missing. Berlin has generated a multitude of urban interventions and occupations of space by architects, landscape designers and artists.

Many of the design strategies that have transformed undervalued, liminal, and temporary spaces are now prototypes that are subsequently exported elsewhere. During the last two years, we have witnessed spectacular and large-scale demonstrations in cities throughout the world — most recently in Athens, Istanbul, and Sao Paulo — that were met with varying levels of forcible response by their respective governments.

Whatever triggered each manifestation of discontent by the public — whether it was the high cost of public transport, radical government cuts due to the deep monetary crisis, or impending commercial developments that threatened to transform public spaces — these political acts shared a common sense of purpose.

They were radical demonstrations of commonly held beliefs that there are shared spaces, shared resources and services in cities that citizens need to exert their democratic right to preserve: namely the urban commons. These acts of reclaiming central spaces of the city as democratic and political spaces — spaces of commonality — where dissent and discontent not only manifest themselves, but give way to a fundamental debate on collectively shared values, are the most powerful expression of a renegotiation of the commons.

The debate on the nature and definition of the commons has widened and intensified against this backdrop of reclaiming the polis. As a general term for shared resources, the commons also denotes the public domain, the digital commons as a space for the free exchange of ideas as well as fundamental natural resources such as water and electricity.

With regard to the urban context of commons, the debate on what defines this aspect has intensified with the increasing emergence of neo-liberal socio-economic policies that govern cities in the face of globalisation. Cities are more than ever, regarded — and managed — as enterprises for economic growth, creative entrepreneurship, and competitiveness. The commons can be seen here as a civic, and urban platform: a space both real and symbolic within which the renegotiation of shared social and political values and resources can be acted out and given built form.

As Stavros Stavrides makes clear — commoning. Gemeinschaffen is the process of challenging, extending and interpreting space see On Urban Commoning, page Within the economic climate that demands a greater engagement on the part of its citizens to plug the gaps created by dwindling public facilities, there is potentially greater scope for democratic, self-managed forms of urban governance to manifest themselves.

Where scarcity bites, civic platforms, and civic participation in urban processes can, with their form of mediation and agency, add a sense of urgency to the renegotiation of the urban commons — and the rediscovery of such spaces of commonality — as integral aspects to a process of urban renewal.

A key question at the heart of the conversations and projects outlined in this book is whether these, often small-scale, acts of reinscribing urban space as part of an urban commons, can create a lasting foothold within the urban planning strategies and policies of municipal, and metropolitan governments. The planners, architects, and artists involved in this form of spatial agency are mediating and guiding the production of an urban commons on a number of levels.

Their acts of reclaiming urban spaces are a manifestation of the right to the city as a collective right to the production of urbanisation. Overall, this critical spatial practice provides a meaningful alternative to conventional planning policies, and reinstates a sense of shared purpose by way of the urban commoning that is inherent to its process. New Ecologies The refuelling of the civic imagination with regard to urban spaces and their potentials often begins with proposing the seemingly impossible, but presents this as a concrete spatial utopia that can be realised and.

Contemporary urban landscape designs are an integral part of this reshaping of the urban commons. Martin Rein Cano of Topotek1 refers to the romantic landscape garden as an impulse towards rethinking the topography, vegetation, and urban furniture that determines a large-scale urban public space in Copenhagen see Superkilen, page It was precisely the foreign, the exotic, the alien, transplanted into an Arcadian local setting, which enabled the frisson of the new in the 18th and 19th centuries. This landscape design strategy employed in a 21st-century setting can become a tool for the manifestation of difference; of cultural diversity.

The architectural collective Assemble make use of the romantic device of the architectural folly in a setting that could not be more remote from its Arcadian ideal by developing a recreational space beneath a highway overpass in London see Folly for a Flyover, page Taking a post-industrial site, with its juxtaposition of defunct infrastructure and re-flourishing nature, a sculptural installation that reframes the setting, and allows for time and space to reflect on the context itself, is enough to encourage a lasting perceptual shift of the potentialities of place see Observatorium, page The act of recrafting urban nature, so that commonly shared spaces can emerge where they were previously left neglected, may require only slight alterations that guide the eye to the previously unseen.

The part played by the urban public in this process of reimagining landscapes and their potential is often one of ad-hoc reappropriation. These types of urban spaces — which unfold through each questioning, interventionist act of disruption and design — represent new urban ecologies. They harness available resources with ingenuity, and reignite the civic imaginary in the process, giving way to unexpected new topographies. Zielsetzung aus. Mit anderen Worten: Es ging um urbanes Gemeingut. Wie Stavros Stavridis deutlich macht, ist das Gemeinschaffen commoning ein Prozess der Infragestellung bestehender Grenzen, des Erweiterns und der Interpretation von Raum.

The landscape design was commissioned by the city of Copenhagen and Realdania, a private association supporting philanthropic programmes in architecture and planning. Realdania financed 50 per cent of the A process of consultation with local residents, managed locally, gathered hundreds of suggestions for public furniture, signage, and playground elements, eliciting numerous specific references to public spaces abroad.

The participatory platform with an accompanying website catalogued Japanese pachinko parlor signs, neon signs from Qatar and Russia, bollards from Ghana, Finnish bike racks, old-style Indian signage for a local dentist, distinctive climbing frames reminiscent of the nineteen-sixties, and Jamaican boom boxes. The floor of each site is saturated with shades of the colour that bears its name, often with distinctive markings. Topotek1 chose to translate the principle of exotic designs for the landscape gardens of Romanticism into this twenty-first-century context.

The result is an admixture, a cultural cutand-paste that is celebratory of multi-ethnicity to the point of excess. Even the vegetation — red maples, Japanese cherry trees, palm trees from China, and Lebanese cedar trees — bears testimony to the cultural mix of the area, though not all the plants have adapted well to the Danish climate. The design strategy includes displaying the types of sports activity openly — such as Thai boxing — typical to the area and which would otherwise remain hidden in the adjacent sports centres. A bicycle path connects the individual areas and integrates the park into the larger urban context.

We were not afraid of creating a tangled forest of symbols.

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What we wanted was a riotous mass of stimuli. The construction costs for the 3,square-metre structure came to 1. Half the space is dedicated to a skate park and a climbing wall, whilst a series of independent modules enable users to access the Internet, or to offer hip-hop classes and media workshops.

All of these are part of the undulating landscape. As the spatial programme is only minimally defined, it can be adapted to new demands and future activities. While the community re-examined youth culture, understanding their wishes and defining the new social centre accordingly, the architects responded by jazzing up the everyday materials — concrete, polycarbonate, recycled furniture — with a vibrant colour palette that emphasises the stylistic connections between the locals and the site.

The iconic structure has not only established itself as a cultural platform, but has generated a space where youths can explore and enhance their future prospects. A vague terrain is also a field that can be cultivated. The design research by atelier le balto is dedicated to the redefinition of how nature and urban life come together, and how these may be experienced. Wedged between a retaining wall as high as a house and the cultural palace, ruderal plants, vines and climbers have taken over the space and are admired curiously by visitors.

The plants have turned the former refuse site into an exotic, wild garden. The garden is determined by reality and effect, beyond truths or visions. Apart from seeing and understanding, the garden is the cultivation of concrete space and represents human intervention into the environment. Based on the working method of the gardener, atelier le balto as landscape architects have adopted a hands-on approach, which is literally grounded. As an interpretation of the given situation, this connection with the site means to show its potential and to develop it, primarily by way of minor interventions.

It means giving the ordinary a new appeal and persistently bringing people and the specific place together. As with the Jardin Sauvage, atelier le balto frequently uses platforms, paths, and boardwalks for this purpose. These mostly easily-built structures are tools in themselves. Similar to boardwalks in nature reserves or national parks, which make forests, bogs, or grass meadows accessible to visitors, they open up possibilities within the space and give it meaning. They are physical and intellectual bridges into the space. In this way the other garden spaces become a platforms, in the sense of work or exhibition spaces, or forums for exchange and encounter.

The garden itself becomes a communication tool. Creating Space through Questioning What do these gardens tell us? Which conversations do they set in motion? Questioning serves as a mediator between city residents and the site. Accordingly, the project Woistdergarten? In Berlin-Mitte, a borough that is strongly undergoing a considerable period of transition, four brownfield sites were activated as gardens.

They were maintained and taken care of. Of the four project sites, three have since been built on. The Tafelgarten blackboard garden behind Hamburger Bahnhof museum has, however, found a supporter in the director of the museum, so that the garden can be kept up year after year with minimal means. They generate real commitment to the garden site. They are metaphors for attention, care, and use. This approach has been applied long term as a work in progress to the historic garden of the Villa Romana in Florence since and the LUFO-Park in Aachen since Since then, existing spatial structures and qualities have been carefully unveiled and developed — together with owners, users, and visitors.

Neither of the cases involved the realisation of a predetermined design scheme, but rather the application of a particular garden and design sensibility; a new understanding of these places as gardens. The sprawling leaves of the Rodgersia mingle with ruderal vegetation along the banks of the adjacent stream. A key aspect of this project,7 launched in , was to tend the garden themselves for three years. In the meantime, the gardens have become city gardens, maintained by the municipal authorities — despite the unconventional construction and planting standards.

With their quite radical assertion that the garden must be created over time namely through long-term care and development and through dialogues also with the long term, personal commitment of the client , atelier le balto have developed a new work concept over a number of years, with different clients and in different places. Thilo Folkerts is a landscape architect, critic, gardener, and long-standing colleague of atelier le balto.

Brigitte Franzen Hrsg. Les pieds sur terre. Erfinderische Sparsamkeit. Solo exhibition atelier le balto. The term stems from Alexandre Chemetoff vgl. Paris , freely translated by le balto. The new Academy of the Jewish Museum in Berlin will shortly see the beginning of the Garden of Diaspora, a processual design project, initially commissioned for a three-year period. The incineration plant is disguised as a mountain — grass-covered in summer, and a ski slope in winter. An innovative ventilation system, by means of an elastic ventilation cylinder on the roof, stores the exhaust fumes until they reach a CO2 volume of 0.

Thus each ton of fossil carbon dioxide emitted in the process by the power plant, which generates green energy, can be counted by the residents of Copenhagen. The smoke ring spectacle is therefore ingeniously combined with the technology and aesthetics of the plant. Flussbad in Berlin has evolved over years as an imagined scenario to transform urban waterways, and recently received the bronze Global Holcim Award. It has since become a realistic planning prospect.

The project comprises a natural filtration system, a planted gravel bed metres long, to be located in the upstream section of the river, and designed to renature this section of the Spree and to purify the water for the bathing pool on the river. The swimming area is dammed just five centimetres higher than the weir at the end, so that clean water can flow back out into the main arm of the Spree, and no unclean water can flow back into the bathing pool.

The dam is designed as a wharf and can serve as both a path along the river and a rescue jetty. Protests and strikes spread across Turkey, and the subjects of the protests broadened into wider anti-government demonstrations that were subsequently repressed. To say that the city constitutes a common world for the people who inhabit it seems almost a tautology. What if precisely this common world is at stake in the creation of urban communities? It is not by chance that space appears in at least two key forms in this reasoning: order and classification are words that primarily engender images of well-defined spatial arrangements.

From both these spatial concepts, which are used in the definition of a common world a spatially tinted image too , we can perhaps uncover something important. If, however, urban commons are the emergent results of multiple processes of urban commoning, then urban space is revealed to have a crucially important role that differs from most of the goods and services distributed within a city. Urban commoning treats and establishes urban space as a medium through which institutions of commoning take shape. We expect an institution to be a mechanism of social organisation; a mechanism through which a specific society reproduces itself by ensuring that a certain social order repeats itself.

Institutions are mechanisms that guarantee a regulated repeatability and, therefore, predictability of acts. Institutions of commoning are therefore mechanisms that regulate the corresponding practices of commoning. Institutions of commoning define subjects of action and the boundaries of the group within which commoning takes place.

But this may — and often does — lead to forms of enclosure. Doch gilt es nicht genau diese Logik des Bewohnens einer gemeinsamen Welt zu hinterfragen, wenn man von der Tatsache ausgeht, dass die Stadt offensichtlich eine Konkretisierung dieser Welt ist? Institutionen sind Mechanismen, die eine geregelte Wiederholbarkeit und damit eine Vorhersehbarkeit von Handlungen garantieren. Gemeinschaffende Institutionen sind entsprechend Mechanismen, die Praktiken des Gemeinschaffens regulieren. Gemeinschaffende Institutionen definieren Handlungssubjekte und die Grenzen der Gruppe, innerhalb derer das Gemeinschaffen stattfindet.

Um die Institutionen daran zu hindern, dem Gemeinschaffen Grenzen zu setzen, muss sich eine spezifische Politik dieser Form sozialen Handelns entwickeln. Herrschende Institutionen hegen sowohl die Produkte des Gemeinschaffens ein als auch die Ressourcen, deren Nutzung gemeinschaffendes Handeln zu steuern versucht. Greifen wir erneut die Vorstellung auf, dass Raum Institutionen des Gemeinschaffens ihre Gestalt gibt.

Urbaner Raum ist diskontinuierlich und differenziert. In that sense, their projects raise awareness of energy and resources and try to catalyse urban processes that help citizens to understand and shape their own environment. Ecosistema was appointed to design a childcare facility in Vaciamadrid, a suburban area surrounded by transport infrastructures with heavy traffic. The significant absence of public space in this context spurred a vehement intervention, one that led to the modification of the brief, in spite of the tight budget — 2. Sustainability concepts are incorporated into the daily life of the school.

The transparency between the classrooms and the park and playground. The public space, an artificial topography that emulates a natural riverbank, is conceived as a place for social interaction. The surrounding plaza acts as a catalyst for social connections — linking families through the kids. To enter or exit the school, you have to cross the public plaza, with flashy colourful slides inviting the kids to play, instead of going directly to their cars, the sunny afternoons in Madrid will do the rest. Nachhaltigkeitskonzepte sind in das Alltagsleben der schule eingebunden. Nur indem wir sie durch die Augen der Kinder betrachten, werden wir in der Lage sein, die Stadt neu zu entdecken und sie strukturell, nicht nur kosmetisch, umzuwandeln.

Acting as a project manager and art director, CUP helps to forge connections between design and the people who benefit from it, making knowledge available. Making Policy Public is a series of unfolding posters that use strong graphics and minimal text to illustrate and explain public policy. Each poster is the product of a collaboration between a designer, an advocate, and CUP. Vendor Power! Making Policy Public effectively shows that cross-disciplinary collaboration is a key method for developing new tools that enable the pragmatic empowerment of citizens.

Als Vermittler hilft CUP dabei, Verbindungen zwischen Gestaltung und den Menschen, die von ihr profitieren, zu schmieden und Wissen greifbar zu machen. Founded in , the educational reform project is a rare example of how architecture students can learn all aspects of a building project from the design and the decision-making processes with the clients through to completion.

However, this budget was used so sparingly that it enabled the additional construction of white and yellow bays in front of the windows of the playrooms. These can be used as a stage, a lookout post, or as a reading corner. At the Kita Traumbaum and the Erika Mann primary school, the available budgets of 47, euros and , euros for the renovation of the wide corridors were spent mainly on transforming these inhospitable transit areas into attractive recreational niches complete with snug, colourful seating.

The Traumbaum design used reflective surfaces on the ceiling to create a light and shadow play. A visual narrative was developed together with the children and this unfolds on each floor of the building. The Baupiloten have honed their participatory design process over the years and developed an exemplary architectural practice with a social and educational mission that resonates well beyond the school gates. Space as the Third Educator Susanne Hofmann, founder and driving force of the Baupiloten, elucidates her motivation and methods with regard to transforming the play and learning areas of German schools and kindergartens with the help of her architecture students.

What has been the driving force behind the work of the Baupiloten? While teaching at different universities, I observed that the students either designed fantastic projects without having an idea about how these could be actually built, or immersed themselves in structural details and forgot to think about the architecture or develop an architectural concept. By founding Baupiloten, I resolved to connect these two worlds, in an innovative, experimental, and socially committed manner. You have concentrated mainly on kindergartens and schools.

What led you to question and rethink the ludic architecture of these establishments? We work primarily in these particular fields because the synergy between education and architecture offers us ample room to experiment. It is less about questioning the architecture as such, but about asking ourselves how we can enable the users — i. How did you, as architect and initiator of a process, enter into this field?

What financial resources do you have at your disposal? Every project has different budgets, challenges, and opportunities for participation. In the educational field, there is often a conflict of interest between what the client and the user has in mind. The school or the kindergarten i. Participation is becoming ever more attractive for the client, as it leads to a greater sense of user satisfaction with regard to the institution, and this results in a greater sustainability.

Regarding the development of the Baupiloten: how did this practice evolve? Have you been able to intervene in conventional planning processes and change these in any way? Most of the schools we work with were built in imperial times. The architecture reflected this social era and no longer met the requirements of contemporary education with its timetable — especially with regard to full-time schooling. Above all, the children lacked places to meet and communicate outside of their classrooms, or more solitary retreats to read a book, for example.

Like Loris Malaguzzi who founded the Reggio educational theory and understood space as being the third educator the first and second educators being schoolmates and teachers respectively , I think it is important that children feel comfortable in the space that surrounds them, and that the architectural and atmospheric qualities of the spaces stimulate their imagination. As such, architecture can become a catalyst for education. We have developed very different processes for the various user groups, according to their age and composition. Workshops take place outside the context of the school and provide conceptual and artistic stimuli.

Here, children and adults alike can communicate their dreams and needs playfully. Collages of found images, painted pictures, models, as well as the outcomes of targeted experimental games, interviews, jointly compiled stories, films and their spatial projections, are all relevant tools. The Baupiloten also develop suggestive models that the children can empathise with and experience tangibly. This sets a dialectical process in motion, whereby all those involved can express themselves and identify sensory stimuli that are important to them with regard to their surroundings.

What is crucial are the feedback processes. First and foremost, it is communication on a level playing field. Everyone represents a field of expertise in this exchange process. The students are experts in knowing their own needs and wishes with regard to the school as a place for learning and living. They draw their knowledge from everyday experiences, both practical and sensory.

We, on the other hand, are experts in the generation of space. What would be your statement to decision-makers on planning in this context, in view of the years of pioneering practice you have accomplished? How should perceptions shift, what regulations stand in your way and ought to be rethought? Architects ought to view participation as part of a broader evaluation process. It should be integral to the scope of work covered by the schedule of services and fees. We began with small conversions and transformations of schools in socially disadvantaged districts that were supported by nationwide Social City programmes, in which participation was seen as the key to integration.

We have since developed ever more complex planning tools to generate an exchange between the various decision-makers and users. The interplay of the insights gained from the joint creative workshops and from the planning and negotiation processes form the basis for the design.