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T he aristocratic Vicomte de Chateaubriand ushered in the century with an aggressive defense of Catholicism, Le Genie du christianisme ; trans. His Memoires d'outre-tombe Eng.
Madame de Stael , notable chiefly as a literary critic, became the champion of German romantic literature in her De L'Allemagne ; trans. Her influence can be seen in Benjamin Constant 's novel Adolphe ; Eng. A lphonse de Lamartine , with his Meditations poetiques ; Eng. He was the first in a line of great French romantic poets that included Alfred de Vigny , who came to prominence with his Poemes antiques et modernes ; Alfred de Musset , known alike for his Byronic poetry--alternately impish and moving--and his affair with George Sand , herself a romantic novelist and early feminist; and the giant among them, Victor Hugo , who for 65 years would magnificently amplify every possible poetic theme and reign as chief spokesman and practitioner of the romantic credo.
I nfluenced by the Parnassians but determined to create beauty even out of the horrors of life, Charles Baudelaire in The Flowers of Evil ; Eng.
Poèmes : antiques et modernes
His older friend and lover Paul Verlaine brought to French poetry a musical, melodic quality it had not previously attained, seen especially in his collection Jadis et naguere Once Upon a Time and Not Long Ago, T he 50 years between and witnessed enormous changes in the shape of the novel as it was molded by a succession of innovators.
Madame George Sand, exemplifying romanticism in its most individualistic form, in Lelia ; Eng.
Stendhal , who also portrayed the dominant role of passion as a motivating force in life, nevertheless injected into his two great novels, The Red and the Black ; Eng. His genius for realistic detail, together with his emphasis on material gain as the engine of human behavior, directly links Balzac with the novelistic REALISM that won the day in the second half of the century.
A disciple of Flaubert, Guy de Maupassant , excelled in the sparely told, realistic, often ironic short story, as in such collections as La Maison Tellier ; Eng. H istory and criticism also came to maturity during the 19th century. Jules Michelet , whose immense volume History of France , ; Eng. Alexis de Tocqueville , in his probing Democracy in America , ; both trans. Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve , in his astute study Port-Royal and in his in-depth analyses of French literary figures, gave to literary criticism the importance it has retained since.
In applying his erudition as Hebrew scholar and philologist to religion in The Origins of Christianity 7 vols.
Poèmes Antiques et Modernes Les Destinées by Alfred De Vigny | French Literature | eBay
Simultaneously, the philosopher and historian Hippolyte Taine , seeking a scientific explanation for historical and cultural phenomena, professed to discover in the interplay of physical and psychological factors the cause of national and individual variations. Zola's naturalistic oeuvre was the application of this hypothesis to literature. T he French theater was at first dominated by the romantic dramas of Hugo, whose Hernani ; Eng. Jean Boorsch. Nostradamus Physician, Astrologer, Prophet click here. This ring site owned by DiscoverFrance. Explore the fascinating history of the prophet from Provence, Nostradamus.
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