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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Most of the time was spent in three groups, envisioning the great future of the building and making a roadmap by naming concrete actions that are required to reach the vision in the coming five years: what can be done immediately and which bottlenecks have to be removed before being able to proceed with certain interventions.

All agreed that the first priority is to start familiarizing with the current residents — e. What shall be avoided is a costly renovation process the results of which are not truly appreciated or are used only seldom. A number of problems got at least tentative solutions already. If it was possible to lower the considerably high maintenance costs of the house caused e. A related idea was to provide opportunities for work and apprenticeship inside the building by establishing a number of workshops either in the shop premises or vacant apartments.

We were lucky to have representatives of the owner company Vonovia and the Job Center in the workshop. Impressions from Slovenia. This gave us hope that our efforts inspired thinking on the system level, in a country with big controversy on this topic. Also, our concept for improving urban environment together with refugees attracted the attention of 2 municipalities. April in Ljubljana stattgefunden hat.

Ljubljana selbst ist mit Slovenia started to take first steps away from collective rather towards decentralized accommodation and is in that terms searching for good examples from both Germany and Italy. Most were really impressed on what a city from that size could manage so far. Ljubljana with around There was quite interesting input from Italy as well - the SPRAR System from Cittalia: An italianwide program to decentralize accommodation and support cultural projects with and from refugees.

For more information on slovenien language, please visit:. Vergangenen Freitag, am Zusammenarbeit in Oberhausen: Gut zu sehen, wie vielseitig das Engagement in Oberhausen ist! Musikschule, Presseklub, Pokuju e. Conference "Culture with refugees". Last Friday, on March the 11th , took the conference "culture with refugees" in the vacancy at kitev place. Representives of free initiatives, urban cultural institutions and Interested people talked about the function of culture when it comes to integration processes of new-arrived citizens. Beside the inventory of already existing projects to participate to culture and education, many new ideas and suggestions came up and were developed.

Teamwork in Oberhausen: Good to see how multifaceted the engagement in Oberhausen is! Am Ende waren es nach intensiver Recherche unsere internationalen Partner, welche uns mit guten Beispielen versorgten.

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Lesson 1! We overcame this problem by asking personally people we knew from different countries. Our list is now populated enough, but we seek for more diversity country-wise. Also our demands cases meeting certain criteria were not simple enough for citizens to respond. For the future we propose more targeted contacting and max use of our personal networks! New inspiration about Interculture. Project philosophy could be one category, too, right? It invited us to rethink refugee accommodation and to see refugees as skillful and interested individuals who can contribute to new forms accommodating themselves in their new domiciles — also in the sense of making themselves feel comfortable and welcome.

Instead of seeing the newcomers as burdens of the system that labels people based on their country of origin and often holds them in an agonizingly long state of waiting, the project has wished to see models where everybody can take part in shaping urban living. The challenge is not limited to working for and with refugees, but as we felt the urgency to react to the global refugee streams, we simply needed to start to act from here. The book was published in but it remains highly topical. It is a clear-sighted diagnosis of the various institutional efforts — mainly unsuccessful despite of the often good intentions — to cope with the increasingly multicultural life in Germany.

Welch ein Wochenende! So wurden die problematischen Fragen eines jeden Projekts mithilfe von professioneller und emphatischer Moderation besprochen. Das Programm beinhaltete u. Workshops, welche als "echtes Training" fungierten. Es war ein wahrer Luxus an einem, von Advocate Europe jedem einzelnen Projekt zugeschnittene, Coaching teilzunehmen.

Sind wir mit unserem Projekt auf dem richtigen Weg? Ruhrgebiet ein. Das Haiptthema war Europa: In welchem Europa wollen wir gerne leben? Dies bedeutet, dass jeder ein Diskussionsthema vorschlagen kann und dadurch selbst zum Moderator wird. Wer wo, aktiv oder passiv, dabei sein wollte, wurde per Fuss-Wahl abgestimmt. Der Unterschied zu den "Gefangenen" im Tunnel war, dass wir nach den Coachings das Licht am Ende dessen sehen konnten.

Network Meeting 'Advocate Europe' at kitev. What a weekend! If it was up to these people, Europe would solve its problems within a couple of days. The network meeting of Advocate Europe brought together the project teams of nine winning teams of an idea challenge. We celebrated the progress and examined the problematic questions of each project, with the help of our professional and emphatic facilitators. The programme included workshops that functioned as real training. It was a luxury to attend coaching sessions that Advocate Europe had tailored to the needs of the projects.

The participants created a great atmosphere, which not only provided for intensive exchange of ideas and experiences but also room for reflection. Are we on the right track with our project? Will we really be able to make a difference? On Saturday evening Advocate Europe hosted a public event in Leerstand. Kitev had also invited guests from the region to participate. The main theme was Europe: In what kind of Europe we would like to live in?

The answers were debated in groups, utilizing the Open Space methodology. Anyone willing to moderate a discussion could propose a topic. Then people voted with their feet and picked discussions that they wanted to contribute or listen to. The covered topics included tolerance and diversity questions, possibility of Europe without borders and challenges such as climate change and illiteracy.

Thank you very much for coming and joining the discussions! After the network meeting was finished, some could still stay and join the performance Culture Tunnel Ruhr. The performance was very intensive — like our network meeting had been. The difference was that — unlike the prisoner of the Culture Tunnel — after our coaching we could see light at the end of the tunnel. Wir begannen damit, sehr erfolgreiche und interessante Projekte aus Deutschland anzufragen - z. Coole Arbeit! Lasst uns zusammenkommen! For wisdom about refugee integration practices, we had decided to turn to the crowds and spread the message.

After all we managed to collect a considerably big database of very interesting cases from all over Europe. However, there was still a long way from there towards the final publication and we saw the need of contacting each project team or organization for more material, with a separate mail, preferably in their mother tongue. General von Trotha and his troops surrounded the Herero from all sides except one; the one side they left unmanned led the Herero people straight into the Omaheke desert. Von Trotha issued the extermination order after the Waterberg fighting in which the Germans had already clearly won.

Those who did survive faced life in prisoner of war camps such as the one located on Shark Island. By the end of the fighting the Germans had decimated the Herero population. Furthermore, the Nama suffered serious losses as well, including the death of Chief Witbooi in The Germans took complete control of the area and turned it into a tightly controlled colony. For years, the Herero request for reparations had gone unnoticed.

At the very least, the Herero people felt they deserved an apology for the German atrocities in In the fourteen years between Namibian independence in , and the century commemoration of the genocide, the issue of reparations was an ever-present issue. In , using the Alien Tort Claims Act, a group of Herero brought a lawsuit demanding two billion dollars in damages against the German Imperial Government, Deutsch Bank, and Woermann Line whom they accused of participating in the genocide and crimes against humanity.

As such, the demands for reparations came primarily from the lower levels of society, not the state or national levels of government. Due to this unequal distribution of agricultural and monetary wealth, it is no wonder that the Herero continually fought for compensation. Naturally, the German government was not receptive to the Herero requests for monetary compensation and land redistribution. First, the events that the Herero requested compensation for happened years ago, making it extremely difficult to apply modern day legal arguments to the issue.

In the German Ambassador to Namibia, Wolfgang Massing, claimed that the pending law suit "will lead nowhere … we should move forward together and find projects to … heal the wounds. In response to the requests for monetary compensation, the German government denied the need for compensation based on the amount of development aid that they have provided to Namibia over the years.

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Overall, the German government remained adamantly opposed to repaying the Herero people. Two German political parties, the Christian Democratic Union and the Christian Social Union, claimed that reparations would negatively affect German citizens and cost them billions in tax dollars. Although there had been open dialogue between the two governments, this speech and the presumed apology came as quite a shock for Namibian citizens. Unfortunately, as monumental as this speech appeared, for many Herero and Nama descendants, it was not enough.

A look into the ambiguous and noncommittal nature of the speech makes one question the sincerity of the statements made by Wieczorek-Zeul.

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She made no specific mention of the death figures of these camps, in which Germans forced over eight thousand captives to perform harsh labor building German railway lines. The speech gave the perceived notion of a true acceptance of what happened in , but in reality its passive voice deceived listeners into thinking this. The SPD did oppose colonial policy, yet when given the chance in , the party did not oppose sending reinforcements to put down the uprising.

This section, the longest section of the speech, is arguably the most important. Moreover, a member of the Ovaherero Genocide Association noted in early ,. The Herero, as a result of German colonialism, lost their land, its natural wealth, and other forms of properties. Clearly, the land that the Germans seized from the natives has great worth. According to the German Embassy website, Germany feels that Namibia offers a secure place for investment, especially in the mineral sector. Yet the German government still refuses to allow a redistribution of land to provide disadvantaged Herero with their own land.

Sadly, the damage done by the German colonial government still has lasting effects on the natives. However, only a very small portion of this section even addressed Namibia. German Beach house in Namibia www. After the outwardly historic apology speech by the Minister, this Special Initiative retracted from the promises the Minister laid out.

From the beginning, the victims have demanded to have a part in the discussions with Germany, and they have been ignored in this request.

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Nevertheless, one must look at other formal apologies across history in order to realize why the Herero people so diligently push for reparations. More recently, on February 13, , Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd gave an apology on behalf of the government to the aborigines of Australia. While the governments of Germany and Namibia continue to enjoy a friendly relationship, the issues of genocide, reparations, and recognition still haunt the Herero and Nama populations today.

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The apology speech given in came at a time when the German government and Namibian government were on friendly terms, and had certain political implications, rather than fully apologetic ones. As such, the German government was able to give an apology speech to the Herero people, without actually following up with anything concrete. The development aide that Germany gives to Namibia most likely flows back into the hands of those who need it least—the landowners. Reparations for descendants of the genocide victims may never come, and justice may never be served for what happened, but that does not mean they should discontinue fighting.

Notes back to top. August 18, Accessed April 16, South-West Africa under German rule, Northwestern University Press, Struik, Namibia the Violent Heritage , Rex Collins, Actual letter not in my possession. Cornell University Press, The Revolt of the Hereros. University Of California Press, Adam Blauhut. Leipzig, n. August 11, July 30, Accessed April 25, April 25, Accessed April 26, January 11, August 19, August 16, Zed Books, Accessed May 18, September 9, This should be taken with a grain of salt though, considering that the statement came from the von Trotha family.

Accessed April 30, May 23, Accessed May 3, Civil Liberties Act of August 10, Accessed April 29, Furthermore, the German government continues to be one of the largest exporters of Namibian minerals, and one suspects that this lucrative business is dictating foreign policy behind the scenes. Appendix back to top. August , Okakarara, Namibia. Darauf bin ich heute stolz.

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Wir Deutschen bekennen uns zu unserer historisch-politischen, moralisch-ethischen Verantwortung und zu der Schuld, die Deutsche damals auf sich geladen haben. Wir ehren heute die Toten. Deutschland hat die bittere Lektionen der Geschichte gelernt: Wir sind ein weltoffenes Land, das inzwischen in vielerlei Hinsicht multikulturell ist. Speech at the commemorations of the th anniversary of the suppression of the Herero uprising, Okakarara, Namibia, 14 August I would like to thank you for giving me, as the German Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development and as a representative of the German government and the German parliament, this opportunity to speak to you.

Yet I am also here to listen to you. Today, I want to acknowledge the violence inflicted by the German colonial powers on your ancestors, particularly the Herero and the Nama. I am painfully aware of the atrocities committed: in the late 19th century, the German colonial powers drove the people from their land.

When the Herero, when your ancestors, resisted, General von Trotha's troops embarked on a war of extermination against them and the Nama. In his infamous order General Trotha commanded that every Herero be shot — with no mercy shown even to women and children. After the battle of Waterberg in , the survivors were forced into the Omaheke desert, where they were denied any access to water sources and were left to die of thirst and starvation. Following the uprisings, the surviving Herero, Nama and Damara were interned in camps and put to forced labour of such brutality that many did not survive.

We pay tribute to those brave women and men, particularly from the Herero and the Nama, who fought and suffered so that their children and their children's children could live in freedom. I remember with great respect your ancestors who died fighting against their German oppressors. Even at that time, back in , there were also Germans who opposed and spoke out against this war of oppression.

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One of them was August Bebel, the chairman of the same political party of which I am a member. In the German parliament, Bebel condemned the oppression of the Herero in the strongest terms and honoured their uprising as a just struggle for liberation. I am proud of that today.

A century ago, the oppressors — blinded by colonialist fervour — became agents of violence, discrimination, racism and annihilation in Germany's name. The atrocities committed at that time would today be termed genocide — and nowadays a General von Trotha would be prosecuted and convicted. We Germans accept our historical and moral responsibility and the guilt incurred by Germans at that time. And so, in the words of the Lord's Prayer that we share, I ask you to forgive us our trespasses.

Without a conscious process of remembering, without sorrow, there can be no reconciliation. Today, we honour the dead. Those who fail to remember the past become blind to the present. Namibia's independence grew out of the determination and courage of the people of Namibia and the vision you share with your ancestors. The people of Namibia have every reason to be proud of these fourteen years of independence.

The vision that you and we share of a more just, peaceful and more humane world is based on rejecting the overcoming chauvinist power politics and all forms of apartheid. We share the vision of those who fought for freedom and dignity or against discrimination of any kind: a vision of freedom, justice, mutual respect and human rights.

By gaining independence, the people of Namibia have won the chance to realise that vision. I am pleased and proud that a great deal of support was also forthcoming from my own country for this struggle for independence and beyond. Germany has learned the bitter lessons of history: We are a country that is open to the world and has in many ways become multicultural. We have achieved German reunification in a peaceful manner and enjoy being part of the enlarged European Union. We are a committed member of the United Nations, working for world-wide peace, human rights, development and poverty reduction.

Accepting our special historical responsibility towards Namibia, we wish to continue our close partnership at all levels. Germany is looking to the future and wishes to help Namibia tackle the challenges of development. This applies in particular to assistance for the necessary process of land reform. I hope very much for all of us that this cultural centre in Okakarara will be a place for Germans and Namibians to talk and exchange views on our past and on our future. From the unhappy past that this place has witnessed, let us draw the strength to create a bright future in peace and friendship.

As Bishop Kameeta said in an interview, at a time of faceless globalisation we must tell people loud and clear that there is hope for the world and make people aware that this world and our planet cannot survive by concentrating all the work in a few hands and a few countries but by sharing resources across the whole world and ensuring that the world population has equal access to these resources.

And so, in that spirit of hope, we share a commitment to a fairer world, to better living conditions here and in all parts of our world. Any student tempted to use this paper for an assignment in another course or school should be aware of the serious consequences for plagiarism. Here is what I write in my syllabi:. Plagiarism —presenting someone else's work as your own, or deliberately failing to credit or attribute the work of others on whom you draw including materials found on the web —is a serious academic offense, punishable by dismissal from the university.

It hurts the one who commits it most of all, by cheating them out of an education. I report offenses to the Office of the Dean of Students for disciplinary action. Marcuse's homepage. About the Author. Research Paper. Bibliography and Links. About Sasha Romanowsky I am a senior history major with a love for various historical time periods and a specific interest in World War II. Research Paper back to top Introduction In , Ministers from the German government traveled to Namibia to take part in the year commemoration of the suppression of the Herero uprising.

Why not us? Notes back to top [1] Friedrich Freddy Omo Kustaa. South-West Africa under German Rule, Although this is an older source, I used it extensively in my research, as I found it to be one of the most thorough. Bley goes into great depth describing not only the conflict, but previous and subsequent conflicts as well. I found it very helpful for assessing the reasons for the Herero uprising, and the German behavior towards the Herero.

Sasha Romanowsky on apology for Herero Genocide

A must read for anybody researching this topic! Bridgman, Jon. I used this book because it cites many of the other authors that I used in my paper. Bley, Dreschler, etc. I found that it followed along very similar lines as those two books, although it was more recent. In it, many of the development aid programs are laid out. It was a very helpful document. Cooper, Allan D. Palgrave Macmillan, This book is crucial for readers who wish to get an understanding of how the Western world operates in Africa.

Deutsche Welle Site : This is a German based online news source.

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It has a good selection of archives that can be easily browsed. The website it available in German and English which was very helpful. Dreschler, Horst. Translated ed. Like the book by Helmut Bley, this book appears repeatedly throughout studies of German Southwest Africa.

The title is also important because it is a quote from a letter from Samuel Maherero to Hendrik Witbooi. Elkins, Caroline and Pedersen, Susan.