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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Grief also tends to increase the chances of a ghostly encounter. Psychologists say it might be a way for the mind to process and deal with loss. Usually, the person they see is a comforting figure who appears serene. Another ghost-inducing phenomenon is called infrasound. This is a vibration that occurs below our normal range of hearing. Certain machinery like engines , whales, and extreme weather can all cause infrasound. Some studies suggest that it can result in symptoms including feelings of depression, the chills, and the sneaking suspicion that someone is watching you.

According to Hayden Planetarium director and astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson, infrasound at 18 Hz vibrates at such a rate that the eye can pick it up, which might cause visual hallucinations. So if you or someone you know claims to have seen a ghost, believe them. But also, look for what evidence or phenomenon might be behind the sighting. You could end up finding a faulty lightbulb was the culprit all along. Which of today's technologies will shape tomorrow's world? A new report compiled by the World Economic Forum reveals some of the breakthrough innovations that are expected to radically impact the global social and economic order.

Making the list involves more than promising major benefits to the world. The emerging technologies must positively disrupt the existing order, be attractive to investors and researchers, and expect to achieve considerable scale within the coming 5 years. Biodegradable plastic offers a solution, but lacks the strength of conventional materials. A breakthrough idea promotes the circular economy by using cellulose or lignin from plant waste, which increases material strength without using crops that could otherwise be used for food.

Today's robots can recognise voices, faces and emotions, interpret speech patterns and gestures, and even make eye contact. Droid friends and assistants are becoming part of everyday life, and are being used increasingly to care of the elderly, educate children and undertake all sorts of tasks in between.

Making the lenses used by mobile phones, computers and other electronic devices smaller has been beyond the capabilities of traditional glass cutting and glass curving techniques. But advances in physics have led to miniaturised, lighter alternatives to established lenses, called metalenses. These tiny, thin, flat lenses could replace existing bulky glass lenses and allow further miniaturization in sensors and medical imaging devices. Unlike conventional proteins, they lack a rigid structure so change shape, making them difficult to treat.

Now scientists have found a way to prevent their shape-shifting long enough for treatment to take effect, offering new possibilities for patients. Recent improvements in fertilizers have focused on their ability to slowly release nutrients when needed. However, they still contain ammonia, urea and potash which damage the environment. New fertilizers use more ecologically friendly sources of nitrogen, and microorganisms that improve take-up by plants.

Imagine a video conference where you not only feel like you're in the same room as the other attendees, you can actually feel one another's touch. A mix of Augmented Reality AR , Virtual Reality AR , 5G networks and advanced sensors, mean business people in different locations can physically exchange handshakes, and medical practitioners are able to work remotely with patients as though they are in the same room. About million people eat contaminated food each year and it's essential to locate the source of an outbreak immediately.

What used to take days or even weeks to trace can now be tracked in minutes, using blockchain technology to monitor every step of a food item's progress through the supply chain. Meanwhile, sensors in packaging can indicate when food is about to spoil, reducing the need to waste whole batches once an expiry date is reached.

Although nuclear power emits no carbon dioxide, reactors come with a safety risk that fuel rods can overheat and, when mixed with water, produce hydrogen, which can then explode. But new fuels are emerging that are much less likely to overheat, and if they do, will produce little or no hydrogen. These new configurations can replace existing fuel rods with little modification. Our data storage systems use a lot of energy and can't keep up with the vast - and ever-increasing - quantities of data we produce. In less than a century they are set to reach capacity.

Given that Reddit allows anyone to share their thoughts, you can find hoards of terrifying and allegedly-true tales about paranormal experiences from people all over the world that will give you shivers. And if ghostly fiction is your thing, there are many threads where talented horror writers share their creative scary stories, as well.

But fair warning: If you do decide to start spooky story surfing on Reddit, prepare to fall down a black hole of horror that will suck up hours of your time and potentially leave you terrified and jumpy for literal days. So whether you're a straight-up ghost addict or just a regular ol' person who like the occasional creep fest, these ghostly tales posted by Reddit users will scare your pants off — and give you lots of good paranormal material to share with your friends when you're telling freaky stories post-Halloween festivities.

And for the record, if you spook easily, I recommended reading these with the lights on. I've had my own unexplained experiences with Ouija boards, so this allegedly true story sent straight-up chills down my spine. According to the story, a group of high school kids met up around Halloween to play with a Ouija board and see if it would actually work. Unfortunately, it worked too well, and almost everyone involved apparently ended up having some deeply disturbing and in some cases, near-deadly experiences that are still fully unexplained. Were they a result of a ghost sent through the Ouija board?

You'll have to ready the story in full to decide for yourself. In this hauntingly creepy tale, the ghostly presence of dead family members appear to live on in the form of stuffed animals — which, if you didn't already have enough reason to be terrified of your childhood toys, could certainly cause you to hide away your precious plushies. But in a bone-chilling plot twist, it turns out that perhaps the ghosts are the least of the narrator's worries. Read for the full creepy tale.

Ever heard of a ghost light? Belief in ghosts in European folklore is characterized by the recurring fear of "returning" or revenant deceased who may harm the living. This includes the Scandinavian gjenganger , the Romanian strigoi , the Serbian vampir , the Greek vrykolakas , etc. In Scandinavian and Finnish tradition, ghosts appear in corporeal form, and their supernatural nature is given away by behavior rather than appearance.

In fact, in many stories they are first mistaken for the living. They may be mute, appear and disappear suddenly, or leave no footprints or other traces. English folklore is particularly notable for its numerous haunted locations. Belief in the soul and an afterlife remained near universal until the emergence of atheism in the 18th century.

Interpretations of how bhoot s come into existence vary by region and community, but they are usually considered to be perturbed and restless due to some factor that prevents them from moving on to transmigration , non-being, nirvana , or heaven or hell, depending on tradition. This could be a violent death, unsettled matters in their lives, or simply the failure of their survivors to perform proper funerals.

In Central and Northern India, ojha or spirit guides play a central role. It is also believed that if someone calls one from behind, never turn back and see because the spirit may catch the human to make it a spirit. Other types of spirits in Hindu mythology include Baital , an evil spirit who haunts cemeteries and takes demonic possession of corpses, and Pishacha , a type of flesh-eating demon.

There are many kinds of ghosts and similar supernatural entities that frequently come up in Bengali culture , its folklores and form an important part in Bengali peoples' socio-cultural beliefs and superstitions.

How The Haunting of Hill House conveys the horror of family

It is believed that the spirits of those who cannot find peace in the afterlife or die unnatural deaths remain on Earth. The word Pret from Sanskrit is also used in Bengali to mean ghost. In Bengal, ghosts are believed to be the spirit after death of an unsatisfied human being or a soul of a person who dies in unnatural or abnormal circumstances like murder, suicide or accident. Even it is believed that other animals and creatures can also be turned into ghost after their death. Ghosts in Thailand are part of local folklore and have now become part of the popular culture of the country.

Phraya Anuman Rajadhon was the first Thai scholar who seriously studied Thai folk beliefs and took notes on the nocturnal village spirits of Thailand. He established that, since such spirits were not represented in paintings or drawings, they were purely based on descriptions of popular orally transmitted traditional stories.

There is widespread belief in ghosts in Tibetan culture. Ghosts are explicitly recognized in the Tibetan Buddhist religion as they were in Indian Buddhism , [] occupying a distinct but overlapping world to the human one, and feature in many traditional legends. When a human dies, after a period of uncertainty they may enter the ghost world. Ghosts may be killed with a ritual dagger or caught in a spirit trap and burnt, thus releasing them to be reborn.

Ghosts may also be exorcised, and an annual festival is held throughout Tibet for this purpose. Some say that Dorje Shugden , the ghost of a powerful 17th-century monk, is a deity, but the Dalai Lama asserts that he is an evil spirit, which has caused a split in the Tibetan exile community. There are many Malay ghost myths , remnants of old animist beliefs that have been shaped by later Hindu, Buddhist, and Muslim influences in the modern states of Indonesia , Malaysia , and Brunei. Some ghost concepts such as the female vampires Pontianak and Penanggalan are shared throughout the region.

Ghosts are a popular theme in modern Malaysian and Indonesian films. There are also many references to ghosts in Filipino culture , ranging from ancient legendary creatures such as the Manananggal and Tiyanak to more modern urban legends and horror films. The beliefs, legends and stories are as diverse as the people of the Philippines. There was widespread belief in ghosts in Polynesian culture , some of which persists today.

After death, a person's ghost normally traveled to the sky world or the underworld, but some could stay on earth. In many Polynesian legends, ghosts were often actively involved in the affairs of the living. Ghosts might also cause sickness or even invade the body of ordinary people, to be driven out through strong medicines. There are many references to ghosts in Chinese culture.

Even Confucius said, "Respect ghosts and gods, but keep away from them.

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The ghosts take many forms, depending on how the person died, and are often harmful. Many Chinese ghost beliefs have been accepted by neighboring cultures, notably Japan and southeast Asia. Ghost beliefs are closely associated with traditional Chinese religion based on ancestor worship, many of which were incorporated in Taoism. Later beliefs were influenced by Buddhism , and in turn influenced and created uniquely Chinese Buddhist beliefs. Many Chinese today believe it possible to contact the spirits of their ancestors through a medium, and that ancestors can help descendants if properly respected and rewarded.

The annual ghost festival is celebrated by Chinese around the world. On this day, ghosts and spirits , including those of the deceased ancestors, come out from the lower realm. Ghosts are described in classical Chinese texts as well as modern literature and films. A recent article in the China Post stated that nearly eighty-seven percent of Chinese office workers believe in ghosts, and some fifty-two percent of workers will wear hand art, necklaces, crosses, or even place a crystal ball on their desks to keep ghosts at bay, according to the poll.

Like their Chinese and Western counterparts, they are thought to be spirits kept from a peaceful afterlife.

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There is extensive and varied belief in ghosts in Mexican culture. The modern state of Mexico before the Spanish conquest was inhabited by diverse peoples such as the Maya and Aztec , and their beliefs have survived and evolved, combined with the beliefs of the Spanish colonists. The Day of the Dead incorporates pre-Columbian beliefs with Christian elements.

Mexican literature and films include many stories of ghosts interacting with the living. According to the Gallup Poll News Service, belief in haunted houses, ghosts, communication with the dead, and witches had an especially steep increase over the s. Ghosts are prominent in story-telling of various nations.

The ghost story is ubiquitous across all cultures from oral folktales to works of literature. While ghost stories are often explicitly meant to be scary, they have been written to serve all sorts of purposes, from comedy to morality tales.

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Ghosts often appear in the narrative as sentinels or prophets of things to come. Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, and thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form. Spirits of the dead appear in literature as early as Homer 's Odyssey , which features a journey to the underworld and the hero encountering the ghosts of the dead, [] and the Old Testament , in which the Witch of Endor summons the spirit of the prophet Samuel.

In Hamlet , it is the ghost who demands that Prince Hamlet investigate his "murder most foul" and seek revenge upon his usurping uncle, King Claudius. In English Renaissance theater , ghosts were often depicted in the garb of the living and even in armor, as with the ghost of Hamlet's father. Armor, being out-of-date by the time of the Renaissance, gave the stage ghost a sense of antiquity.

Ann Jones and Peter Stallybrass, in Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory , point out, "In fact, it is as laughter increasingly threatens the Ghost that he starts to be staged not in armor but in some form of 'spirit drapery'.

The "classic" ghost story arose during the Victorian period, and included authors such as M. Classic ghost stories were influenced by the gothic fiction tradition, and contain elements of folklore and psychology. Famous literary apparitions from this period are the ghosts of A Christmas Carol , in which Ebenezer Scrooge is helped to see the error of his ways by the ghost of his former colleague Jacob Marley , and the ghosts of Christmas Past, Christmas Present, and Christmas Yet to Come. Professional parapsychologists and "ghosts hunters", such as Harry Price , active in the s and s, and Peter Underwood , active in the s and s, published accounts of their experiences with ostensibly true ghost stories such as Price's The Most Haunted House in England , and Underwood's Ghosts of Borley both recounting experiences at Borley Rectory.

The writer Frank Edwards delved into ghost stories in his books of his, like "Stranger than Science. Children's benevolent ghost stories became popular, such as Casper the Friendly Ghost , created in the s and appearing in comics, animated cartoons , and eventually a feature film. With the advent of motion pictures and television, screen depictions of ghosts became common, and spanned a variety of genres; the works of Shakespeare, Dickens and Wilde have all been made into cinematic versions. Novel-length tales have been difficult to adapt to cinema, although that of The Haunting of Hill House to The Haunting in is an exception.

Sentimental depictions during this period were more popular in cinema than horror, and include the film The Ghost and Mrs. Muir , which was later adapted to television with a successful —70 TV series. The s saw screen depictions of ghosts diverge into distinct genres of the romantic and horror. A common theme in the romantic genre from this period is the ghost as a benign guide or messenger, often with unfinished business, such as 's Field of Dreams , the film Ghost , and the comedy Heart and Souls. Popularised in such films as the comedy Ghostbusters , ghost hunting became a hobby for many who formed ghost hunting societies to explore reportedly haunted places.

It is also represented in children's television by such programs as The Ghost Hunter and Ghost Trackers. Ghost hunting also gave rise to multiple guidebooks to haunted locations, and ghost hunting "how-to" manuals. The s saw a return to classic "gothic" ghosts, whose dangers were more psychological than physical. Asian cinema has also produced horror films about ghosts, such as the Japanese film Ringu remade in the US as The Ring in , and the Pang brothers' film The Eye.

In fictional television programming, ghosts have been explored in series such as Supernatural , Ghost Whisperer , and Medium. In animated fictional television programming, ghosts have served as the central element in series such as Casper the Friendly Ghost , Danny Phantom , and Scooby-Doo.


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Various other television shows have depicted ghosts as well. Nietzsche argued that people generally wear prudent masks in company, but that an alternative strategy for social interaction is to present oneself as an absence, as a social ghost — "One reaches out for us but gets no hold of us" [] — a sentiment later echoed if in a less positive way by Carl Jung. Nick Harkaway has considered that all people carry a host of ghosts in their heads in the form of impressions of past acquaintances — ghosts who represent mental maps of other people in the world and serve as philosophical reference points.

Object relations theory sees human personalities as formed by splitting off aspects of the person that he or she deems incompatible, whereupon the person may be haunted in later life by such ghosts of his or her alternate selves. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ghost disambiguation. For other uses, see Ghostly disambiguation. Main articles. Death and culture Parapsychology Scientific literacy.

Further information: Spirit , Soul , wikt:anima , Genius mythology , and Geist. Further information: Animism , Ancestor worship , Origin of religion , and Anthropology of religion. Main article: Fear of ghosts. See also: Haunted house. Main article: Ghosts in Mesopotamian religions. Main article: Ghosts in ancient Egyptian culture. Further information: Shade mythology and Magic in the Greco-Roman world. Main article: Spiritualism.

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Main article: Spiritism. See also: Paranormal. Further information: Allhallowtide. Further information: Revenant , Necromancy , and Samhain. Main articles: Bhoot ghost and Ghosts in Bengali culture. Main article: Ghosts in Thai culture. Main article: Ghosts in Tibetan culture.

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Further information: Preta. Main article: Ghosts in Chinese culture. Main article: Ghosts in Mexican culture. Main articles: Ghost story and List of ghost films. John Dee and Edward Kelley invoking the spirit of a deceased person engraving from the Astrology by Ebenezer Sibly , The ghost of a pirate, from Howard Pyle 's Book of Pirates See also: List of ghost films. Paranormal activity Hauntology Spiritism List of ghosts. Kirby's Wonderful and Scientific Museum. The encyclopedia of ghosts. Dodd, Mead. Retrieved 7 February Philosophy of Science: From Problem to Theory.

Transaction Publishers; Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Retrieved 8 July The Conversation. Live Science. Furuya et. The encyclopedia of psychoactive plants: ethnopharmacology and its applications. US: Park Street Press. Alzheimer's Society.

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