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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Making War, Mapping Europe

Chapman Aristotle: The Politics by T. Sinclair translated by Nicolae.

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Jews and the Russian Campaign • Making War, Mapping Europe

T Trafalgar. M Arranging Roses. More than flowers from around the world, cultivation requirements, detailed reference table over colour photographs by Mann, Roger Words on Wellington. Beautiful England series. This was the origin of the Pale of settlement, although some have also seen in the restrictions placed on the Jews a fear of the French Revolution and the potential transmission of foreign intellectual ideas in Russia.


The Russian Jewish population of the Pale increased in size following the Second and Third Partitions of Poland in and respectively. In the years prior to the campaign the Russian Empire adopted a vacillating policy that alternatively sought to integrate and segregate this new Jewish population.

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A Committee for the Amelioration of the Jews was established in , while the Statute for the Jews of allowed them to attend schools and universities. It also, however, sought to restrict Jews from engaging in certain trades, such as the sale of alcohol, which it was believed contributed to the impoverishment of the peasantry.

At the same time privileges were offered to those Jews willing to engage in agriculture and manufacturing. The Statute also envisioned a resettlement of Jews from the countryside to urban centres, but this was ultimately unsuccessful, partly as a consequence of the war of between Napoleonic France and Russia in The proportion of the Jewish population that inhabited urban centres varied by region.

Bernard Weinryb has estimated that the share of the population made up of rural Jews increased from 19 percent to 36 percent the further east one traveled into the Polish heartland.

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  • It was within this context that most German officers and soldiers involved in the Russian campaign encountered Jews. Like the Cossacks, the German soldiers accounts were deeply influenced by pre-existing stereotypes in contemporary German culture. Unlike the Cossacks, whose depiction is at least leavened with some acts of kindness or generosity, the portrayal of the Jews is overwhelmingly negative.

    Nicoline Hortzitz has argued that early modern German antisemitic texts attacked Jews on four grounds - religious, economic, biological-anthropological and nationalist.


    Julia Murken identifies the first three of the antisemitic tropes present in early modern antisemitic literature in Bavarian military diaries and memoirs in which Jews are depicted. The same can be said for almost all German accounts of the campaign in which Jews figure. Many focused on the supposed avaricious nature of the Jewish population. For example, during the advance Karl von Suckow wrote caustically that the Jews could find provide any goods so long as one had the money to pay.