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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Publishers and translators The circulation of printed materials in Latin America during the 19th century was intrinsically linked to colonial centres' publishing markets and at the same time subjected to the battles waged by publishers on both sides of the Atlantic for shares in the Spanish—language book market. Booksellers, printers, writers, and intellectuals all played key roles in this publishing market, which did not function independently of literary and cultural planning movements.

La Ciencia En El Siglo XIX by Elias Trabulse

Furthermore, during the second half of the 19th century, French publishers and booksellers made a concerted effort to conquer the Latin American book market. The Garnier brothers, for example, soon managed to gain a monopoly in the textbook market in the new Latin American countries Ibid.

In the early 20th century, because Spanish publishers found themselves excluded from the growing Latin American market, which was then controlled by French publishers Garnier, Bouret, Baudry, and Colin, they reacted against what they considered a policy of cultural colonization characterized by low quality and bad taste. In a way, the positivist translations in circulation at the end of the 19th century were an extension of this scientific translation practice.

Since European as well as Latin American publishers experienced significant growth during the period under study, it may be useful to analyze their activities separately as we shall do it in the next two sections. European books in Latin America The bibliographical databases we consulted indicate the presence of publications from French and Spanish publishing houses, which sought to market their publications to a wider readership on the one hand but also to more a specialized, restricted readership composed of publishers and intellectuals committed to cultural movements.


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These contributors to the Diccionario adapted and translated many written materials for inclusion in the encyclopaedia. A federalist and republican military officer, he was appointed governor of Madrid after the proclamation of the Republic in , as well as a former minister of Pi and Margall. Charles Bouret, another French publisher with international operations, joined forces with Garnier to distribute Spanish—language books and textbooks on a large scale. Probably favoured by the French intervention of , this publishing house dominated the Mexican book market for many years Ibid.

The dissemination of positivism in Spain occurred slightly later due to the lingering influence of Krausism. Perojo was a philosopher, translator, and author of a many books on philosophy, politics, science, and morals; a committed republican, he, just like many other Spaniards, was forced into exile following the Spanish civil war when Franco assumed power. Adolfo Posada — and Leopoldo Palacios Morini — also translated this same author for the same publishing house.

De las leyes generales, La moral, El organismo social, El progreso. However, this should not lead to the conclusion that Spain did not have large distribution and publishing operations that could match those maintained by Garnier and Bouret. Even though it did not strictly targeted a specialist readership, it apparently recruited its translators among the ranks of writers and intellectuals at the time.

Concerning the translation of positivist works, Antonio de Zulueta y Escolano — had his translation of the Origin of Species published by Espasa in Each individual booklet of the Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europea—Americana, also known as Enciclopedia Espasa published from onward , demonstrates the great scope of this publishing project: between and , a total of 72 volumes of the encyclopaedia appeared.

This is one of the reasons why Espasa Calpe —just like Garnier— ranked as one of the major publishing houses engaged in large—scale book sales and exports at the time. However, this was not the publisher's original objective. Progressive and socially minded, he opened two schools for poor children. Another far—reaching Spanish publishing project was conducted by Francisco Sempere at the publishing house he founded and named after himself later renamed Prometeo.

His passion for books and languages goes hand in hand with the context of the Spanish Republic, ensuring that his projects during these years were highly successful. In the foreword's concluding remarks, the translator explains the significance of the work and laments how little Spaniards appear to know about Darwin: We proudly publish the first complete edition available in our language, including the addenda, which, although included in English—language editions of the work, were until now completely unknown in our country. It is now time to analyze the publishing milieus in Latin America, more particularly in Argentina and Mexico.

At first it was just booksellers and then also publishers who began filling the needs that went unmet by European publishing houses and so became involved in the distribution of printed materials, pamphlets, and books. These policies resulted in a much larger readership that editors and booksellers were keen to capture. Positivist translations correspond to the second intention.

We give credit and deliver throughout the country: ask to see a catalogue on the subjects that interest you. The emphasis on the fact that this volume is especially adapted for the Argentine market makes more sense if we mention that the same work was previously published in Madrid The presentation follows in these terms: We trust that this edition, the first in the Castilian tongue, which is illustrated in a profusion of interesting and valuable etchings, will find wide acceptance among Argentinian and continental readers alike.

We believe we have done a fine job selecting the etchings to illustrate this book as well as the presentation of the overview of the work as it appears in these pages Darwin, Spencer was widely translated and edited in Argentina because, as we saw earlier, positivist readings there tended to follow a heterodox model based on a combination of Comte's, Darwin's and Spencer's early works. Until the s, it published essays and young authors such as Jorge Luis Borges. Tor sold books and booklets that allowed for regular readings at a reasonable price.

After some time, Tor broadened the range of genres it published to include editions of cheap classics, science fiction, and other modestly—priced genres. The dissemination of positivist texts in Mexico was slightly different. Whereas in Argentina the job of publishing and disseminating positivist works was done by independent publishers, because of the role of positivism in the Mexican educational system and in the definition of an official ideology, positivist works were frequently disseminated by governmental institutions.

Both works were extracted from Descriptive Sociology, a 17 volume ethnographic and historical study by Spencer. Since one of the objectives of the Fondo was to publish translations, we must not be surprised that it is precisely there that translation became a profession in Mexico. Conclusion The purpose of this paper was to study the circulation of positivist ideas in Argentina and Mexico from to The delimitation of this spatial—temporal context certainly leaves some areas underexplored.

An analysis of these areas should not only be a worthy but also a necessary task. The contribution of this bibliographical approach provides to the discipline of MonTI 5trans Add to Wishlist. USD 6. Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Product Details. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. View Product.

La ciencia en el siglo XIX

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