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Cold War History
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The symbolic first meeting of American and Soviet soldiers occurred at Torgau, Ger. Their handshakes and toasts in beer…. Start Your Free Trial Today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Their handshakes and toasts in beer and vodka celebrated their common victory over Nazi Germany and marked the collapse of old Europe altogether; but their….
By the time that Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin had held their Yalta Conference in February , Europe was already divided between East and West; Yalta, therefore, was not to blame for the division. On the contrary, it could in theory have reunited…. In the Cold War began to influence Italian politics. He had excluded the Communists and their allies, the Socialists, from his government the previous….
Whatever policies Latin American countries adopted in the postwar era, they had to take into account the probable reaction of the United States, now more than ever the dominant power in the hemisphere. It was the principal trading partner and source of…. International relations, the study of the relations of states with each other and with international organizations and certain subnational entities e.
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Army under the direction of rocket scientist Wernher von Braun, and what came to be known as the Space Race was underway. That same year, President Dwight Eisenhower signed a public order creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA , a federal agency dedicated to space exploration, as well as several programs seeking to exploit the military potential of space.
Still, the Soviets were one step ahead, launching the first man into space in April Kennedy made the bold public claim that the U. Soviets, in turn, were pictured as the ultimate villains, with their massive, relentless efforts to surpass America and prove the power of the communist system. The committee began a series of hearings designed to show that communist subversion in the United States was alive and well. In Hollywood , HUAC forced hundreds of people who worked in the movie industry to renounce left-wing political beliefs and testify against one another.
More than people lost their jobs. Soon, other anticommunist politicians, most notably Senator Joseph McCarthy , expanded this probe to include anyone who worked in the federal government. Thousands of federal employees were investigated, fired and even prosecuted. The fight against subversion at home mirrored a growing concern with the Soviet threat abroad. Many American officials feared this was the first step in a communist campaign to take over the world and deemed that nonintervention was not an option. Truman sent the American military into Korea, but the war dragged to a stalemate and ended in Other international disputes followed.
In the early s, President Kennedy faced a number of troubling situations in his own hemisphere. Nowhere was this more apparent than in Vietnam, where the collapse of the French colonial regime had led to a struggle between the American-backed nationalist Ngo Dinh Diem in the south and the communist nationalist Ho Chi Minh in the north. However, what was intended to be a brief military action spiraled into a year conflict.
Almost as soon as he took office, President Richard Nixon began to implement a new approach to international relations. To that end, he encouraged the United Nations to recognize the communist Chinese government and, after a trip there in , began to establish diplomatic relations with Beijing.
In , he and Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty SALT I , which prohibited the manufacture of nuclear missiles by both sides and took a step toward reducing the decades-old threat of nuclear war.
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Like many leaders of his generation, Reagan believed that the spread of communism anywhere threatened freedom everywhere. As a result, he worked to provide financial and military aid to anticommunist governments and insurgencies around the world. Truman feared that without U.
This theory of countries falling one after the other to communism became known as the Domino Theory. Cold War foreign policy. Early on, this meant economic aid to countries vulnerable to communist and socialist rhetoric as seen in Turkey and Greece.