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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Wenn sich zwei Herzen scheiden, Op. Des kleinen Friedrichs Geburtstag, K. Die ihr des unermesslichen Weltalls, K. Die Zufriedenheit, K. Lobegesang auf die feierliche Johannesloge, K. Oiseaux, si tous les ans, K. Verdankt sei es dem Glanz, K. Vocalise, Op. Pro peccatis from Stabat Mater. Quoniam from Petite Messe Solennelle. Four Songs from Gurrelieder arr. By Berg. Six Orchestral Songs, Op. Am Grabe Anselmos, Op. An Schwager Kronos, Op.

Auf dem Wasser zu singen, Op.

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Ave Maria, Op. Dass sei hier gewesen, Op. Dass sie hier gewesen, Op. Du Bist die Ruh, Op. Du Liebst mich nicht, Op. Eine altschottische Ballade, Op.

By Composer

Ellens Gesang I, Op. Ellens Gesang II, Op. Flug der Zeit, der, Op. Glaube, Hoffnung und Liebe, Op. Gruppe aus dem Tartarus, Op. Heimliches Lieben, Op. Hin und wieder fliegen Pfeile, Posth. Il modo di prender moglie, Op. Junge Nonne, die, Op. Lachen und Weinen, Op. Liebe hat gelogen, die, Op. Liebende schreibt, die, Op. Liebhaber in allen Gestalten, Posth. Lied der Mignon earlier version No. Lied der Mignon, Op. Lied eines Schiffers an die Dioskuren , Op. Normanns Gesang, Op. Schlummerlied Schlaflied , Op. Schmetterling, der, Op. Sohn des Vaters from Stabat Mater. Sprache der Liebe, Op. Suleikas zweiter Gesang, Op.

Vor meiner Wiege, Op. Wanderer an den Mond, der, Op. Wanderers Nachtlied, Op. Wandrers Nachtlied, Op. Willkommen und Abeschied, Op. Zur Namensfeier des Herrn Andreas Siller.

6 Duets, Op.46 (Tchaikovsky, Pyotr)

Liebste, was kann den uns scheiden? Am leuchtenden Sommermorgen A , from Dichterliebe, Op. Am leuchtenden Sommermorgen Bb , from Dichterliebe, Op. Anfangs wollt ich fast verzangen Bm , from Liederkreis, Op. Auf einer Burg Am , from Liederkreis, Op. Der Nussbaum Eb , from Myrten, Op. Der Nussbaum F , from Myrten, Op. Die Lotosblume Db , from Myrten, Op. Die Lotosblume Eb , from Myrten, Op. Die Stille F , from Liederkreis, Op. Die Stille G , from Liederkreis, Op. Du bist wie eine Blume E , from Myrten, Op.

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  8. Du bist wie eine Blume Gb , from Myrten, Op. Es treibt mich hin Am , from Liederkreis, Op. Freisinn Eb , from Myrten, Op. From: Songbook for the Young, Op. Hauptmanns Weib Cm , from Myrten, Op. Hauptmanns Weib Dm , from Myrten, Op. Hinaus ins Freie! Ich grolle nicht C , from Dichterliebe, Op. Ich hab im Traum geweinet C m , from Dichterliebe, Op.

    Ich hab im Traum geweinet Ebm , from Dichterliebe, Op. Ich will meine Seele tauchen Am , from Dichterliebe, Op. Ich will meine Seele tauchen Gm , from Dichterliebe, Op. Im Walde A , from Liederkreis, Op. Im Walde G , from Liederkreis, Op. Im Westen D , from Myrten, Op. Im Westen Eb , from Myrten, Op. In der Fremde Em , from Liederkreis, Op. In der Fremde F m , from Liederkreis, Op. In der Fremde Gm , from Liederkreis, Op.

    Intermezzo F , from Liederkreis, Op. Intermezzo G , from Liederkreis, Op. Liebesbotschaft Eb , from Sechs Gedichte, Op. Lied der Suleika F , from Myrten, Op. Lied der Suleika G , from Myrten, Op. C , from From: Minnespiel, Op. Mondnacht B , from Liederkreis, Op. Mondnacht Db , from Liederkreis, Op. Morgens steh ich auf und frage C , from Liederkreis, Op. O Freund, mein Schirm, mein Schutz! Gm , from From: Minnespiel, Op. Seit ich ihn gesehen Ab , from Frauenliebe und Leben, Op. Seit ich ihn gesehen Bb , from Frauenliebe und Leben, Op. Stirb, Lieb und Freud! Talismane Bb , from Myrten, Op.

    Talismane C , from Myrten, Op. Bb , from Sieben Lieder, Op. Taking advantage of a dispute involving Knorr and Wieck, Hartmann enlisted legal counsel in an attempt to seize editorial control over the journal. Schumann saved the enterprise from collapse by negotiating a new contract that named him sole owner and editor. The intensity of their relationship escalated during the summer, so that by September they were engaged. While in Zwickau in December, he began the composition that would become Carnaval and also set to work on the Etudes symphoniques.

    Underlying this stance is a tripartite, teleological philosophy of history wherein the past is viewed as a nurturing source for the present, the present as a site of imperfection and the future as the poetic age towards which the past and present should aspire. On the contrary, the relationship between past and future was characterized by striking leaps and reversals.

    A site of apparently contradictory trends, the present reflects the whole of the larger tripartite framework in microcosm. But he hardly viewed the products of the latter group whose members included Mendelssohn, Chopin, William Sterndale Bennett, Hiller and Schumann himself as embodiments of perfection; indeed, it was precisely their imperfections that held out the most promise for the poetic age to come. Although Schumann eventually looked upon his journalistic activity as a drain on his time and energy in he sold the Neue Zeitschrift to K.

    Brendel , it nonetheless enabled him to resolve the longstanding struggle between his inclinations towards poetry and music. Moreover, his writings stand in reciprocal relationship to his compositional projects. Just as much of his poetic criticism adopts an almost musical style, many of his compositions can be interpreted as critiques in sound of past and contemporary practice. Schumann completed two significant compositions early in : Carnaval op.

    These works grew out of his relationship with Ernestine von Fricken. At times contrapuntally dense, often syntactically free, and consistently challenging from a technical point of view, the Etudes symphoniques first version, published in unfold a symmetrical structure around strategically placed variations. No doubt the Neue Zeitschrift claimed a large part of his attention.

    A brief encounter on 27 September with Chopin, then en route to Carlsbad, was followed on 4 October by his first meeting with the newly appointed director of the Leipzig Gewandhaus concerts, Felix Mendelssohn. But his idyll with Clara was soon brought to an unceremonious end. Her father became aware of their nocturnal trysts during the Christmas holidays and summarily called them to a halt. The Piano Sonata in G minor that Schumann provisionally completed in October was less obviously linked with Clara, at least at this point.

    Though often cited as one of his most classically structured works, the composition in fact brims with Florestanian pathos, especially in its concluding Presto passionato later replaced by a far tamer Rondo , a veritable encyclopedia of complex rhythmic and metric effects. On 14 January Wieck sent Clara to Dresden, where Schumann, undeterred even by the death of his mother, met her secretly in the second week of February.

    The enforced separation threw Schumann into a state of utter despair. In spite of his dejection, Schumann cultivated a number of fruitful artistic ties during the second half of the year. Chopin may also have treated Schumann and his colleagues to a performance of a preliminary version of his second Ballade op.

    Late in October Schumann established a warm bond with William Sterndale Bennett, who had gone to Leipzig to study with Mendelssohn and was to remain there until June Schumann brought only two compositions to provisional completion in , but both are of imposing dimensions. The work he first drafted as a five-movement piano sonata in F minor and completed by June was published as the three-movement Concert sans orchestre op.

    The second major compositional project of was equally bound up with Clara. In June he drafted a work called Ruines: fantaisie pour le pianoforte ; probably the title refers to what later became the first movement of the C major Fantasie op. When in early September he had an idea for a contribution to the committee soliciting funds for a Beethoven memorial, he returned to the single-movement fantasy, added two more movements, and offered the work in this form to the publisher C. Grosse Sonate f. The composer projects his own voices through those of his alter egos Florestan and Eusebius, who dominate the second and third movements respectively, and collaborate on the first.

    In December Schumann experienced something of a reawakening from the abject despair to which he had succumbed the year before. The first of his cycles to draw on the world of E. In early August, Clara broke the silence that had separated them for 18 months. Acting through Ernst Becker, a lawyer and amateur pianist, she invited Schumann to a forthcoming performance featuring three of his Etudes symphoniques. But by mid-November he was again in the throes of depression. Schumann recovered from this neurotic spell by sheer determination.

    Begun in late January or early February and drafted by April, the Novelletten bring together diverse and seemingly incompatible tendencies. Perhaps for the first time in his career, Schumann struck the delicate balance between art and artlessness that was to take on increasing importance in the works of the years ahead. According to a letter of 3 April to Joseph Fischhof, the work was well on the way to completion by that time, though corroborating musical sources are lacking. Another quartet was contemplated in June.

    In the meantime, Schumann had begun a new keyboard cycle in late April. Thus the dualism previously associated with Florestan and Eusebius, the leading players of the Davidsbund, is placed in even bolder relief. That day he wrote to his brothers Eduard and Karl outlining his intention to settle with Clara in Vienna, where he planned to continue to edit the Neue Zeitschrift under the auspices of a Viennese firm, and where Clara, using her influence with the empress, might obtain a teaching post at the conservatory.

    A preliminary visit to the Austrian capital would be necessary before making the final move, planned for no later than Easter When Clara returned to Leipzig on 15 May , Schumann had just entered another depressive phase. Recovery followed rapidly as he began to prepare for the exploratory trip to Vienna. He and Clara secretly exchanged farewells in mid-September and again later in the month, when he circled back to Leipzig from Zwickau. Schumann reached his destination on 3 October, hatless and covered with dust but in unusually high spirits.

    His mood darkened considerably, however, when he failed to make headway with either the publishers Haslinger and Diabelli, or the Austrian court censor, whose approval was necessary if the Neue Zeitschrift was to be issued from Vienna by January , as Schumann hoped. Suspecting that Wieck was responsible for his cool reception by the Viennese authorities, he resigned himself, by late November, to keeping his journal in Leipzig.

    Regular visits to the opera and theatre rekindled his interest in dramatic music. When it became clear that he would not find a new home for his journal in Vienna, Schumann turned to writing and composing. An important article for the Neue Zeitschrift on the concerto occupied him in December.

    After six months of relative inactivity as a composer, Schumann was slow to establish a regular rhythm of creativity. Although he finished a little piece for Clara on 12 November Fata Morgana , later published as no. Before leaving Vienna, he could boast of having made significant progress on about a dozen keyboard pieces. At the turn of the year came sketches for an Allegro in C minor and by 24 January a draft for a concerto movement in D minor. It is also likely that the Arabeske op. At the same time he produced sketches and drafts for Faschingsschwank aus Wien op.

    In a long diary entry of 20 March , Schumann expressed a desire to leave Vienna within a fortnight. Hoffmann, when the work appeared as op. Schumann left Vienna on 4 April , but when he arrived in Zwickau on 9 April, Eduard had already been dead for three days. Works in the larger forms appear side-by-side with character-pieces and cycles of miniatures. Most striking, however, is the tendency to conflate larger and smaller forms and a resultant dialectic between accessibility and esotericism. After failing to reach an agreement with Wieck in late June, and acting on the counsel of the lawyer Wilhelm Einert, Schumann submitted his petition to the Leipzig court on 16 July.

    On 19 August he and Clara met for the first time for nearly a year in the Leipzig suburb of Altenburg and later went to Zwickau, where they celebrated their reunion with extended sessions of four-hand piano playing. Back in Leipzig by the end of the month, they met 31 August Archdeacon R.

    Fischer, the court-appointed mediator in their lawsuit, but were dismayed to find that Wieck, claiming urgent business in Dresden, had cancelled the appointment at the last moment. When Wieck failed to appear at the hearing this time without even proffering an excuse , the court set a new date for 18 December. The lull in the legal proceedings afforded Schumann time to give thought to composition after a lengthy hiatus. The Drei Romanzen op. Threatening to sue Wieck for slander, Schumann responded on 13 February with a written refutation.

    By now a master of postponement, Wieck managed to stretch from six weeks to six months the period granted him to prove that Schumann over-indulged in drink. Although confident he would ultimately prevail, Schumann sought to strengthen his hand against Wieck by inquiring, through his friend Gustav Keferstein, about the possibility of obtaining the doctorate at the University of Jena.

    In early February he offered to demonstrate his scholarly aptitude by undertaking a long essay on the significance of music in Shakespearean drama, an exercise that proved unnecessary. After sending the university officials a curriculum vitae , representative articles from the Neue Zeitschrift and testimonials to his musical skills, he received the doctoral diploma from Jena on 28 February Indeed, by January he had completed about lieder, well over half his output in the genre.

    A letter to Kistner of 18 February indicates that he was also contemplating an opera. Having returned to Leipzig on 1 May, Schumann again immersed himself in vocal composition. Certain of victory, Schumann and Clara began their search for an apartment the following day, and before a week had elapsed Schumann was again immersed in the composition of lieder. Although he started a cycle on texts by Robert Reinick Sechs Gedichte op.

    With the posting of the banns on 16 and 30 August, the way was clear for the wedding to take place. Although Schumann completed a few songs during the month of August, he devoted most of his energies to preparations for the forthcoming marriage ceremony. The simple ceremony was conducted by Pastor C. As a rule, Clara kept up her side of the exchange better than her husband, with entries richer in detail and more pointed in their assessments than his.

    To judge from the diary, they rapidly settled into Biedermeier cosiness. Though plans for a tour of Russia were put off because of a volatile political situation and an unwillingness to compete with Liszt, Clara made renewed requests in October and November for Schumann to accompany her on projected tours to Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark. While Schumann understandably composed little in the weeks after his wedding, he resumed creative work in early October with a set of three vocal duets op. Seidl op. Late in the same month he turned to the poetry of Kerner for the first time in over a decade and completed 14 settings by late December.

    Clara also made significant contributions to the song literature at this time. His turn to what was probably the most marketable of musical genres and the concomitant search for a more easily understandable style no doubt reflected his desire to attain the financial stability Wieck accused him of lacking. In addition, the lieder of , like many of the earlier piano pieces, were closely interwoven with his feelings for Clara.

    Finally, in the lied Schumann would have found an ideal means of fulfilling his longstanding quest for a synthesis of music and poetry. Construed as more than a singable melody supported by a decorative accompaniment, the lied unites voice and piano as equal partners in a shared discourse.

    The songs of the Liederjahr more than meet these standards. Schumann struck a balance between apparent naivety and refinement at all levels, perhaps most obviously as regards melody, but no less notably in the realm of form. In Der Nussbaum Myrthen op. While about half his chosen texts can be classified as lyric in the strict sense of the term, the remainder divide almost evenly into narrative and dramatic types. The topical range is equally broad, encompassing love in all its nuances, patriotism, wandering, death, isolation and even madness. In some of the collections, folk- and drinking-songs appear side by side with lullabies, visions and depictions of festive scenes.

    Tonal and motivic relationships are also coordinated with textual factors. The motion from D to F over the course of the Reinick Sechs Gedichte , for instance, reinforces a thematic shift in the poems from reality to dream world. Motivic recall and transformation are deftly aligned with poetic content in the Eichendorff Liederkreis second version , where a compact but expressive figure first introduced in the accompaniment of the opening song In der Fremde becomes an emblem for yearning, removal in time and space, and finally for an ecstatic union with nature.

    The restatement of entire melodies over broad expanses, often a function of the piano part, may call up reveries of bygone days Frauenliebe und -leben or add a consoling touch to texts that would have otherwise ended on a bitter note Dichterliebe , Kerner cycle. In all of these cases, the technique of melodic recurrence underlines the power of memory itself, the theme through which Schumann confirms his role as musical poet.

    Although there is no evidence that he made a conscious decision to pursue this course at a specific moment in his career, his orderly exploration of genres probably answered to both artistic and psychological imperatives. By he had already attempted a similar undertaking, though its products were often incomplete piano concerto in F, symphony in G minor , or remained at the level of preliminary planning the Hamlet opera.

    While keyboard music dominated between and , it is important to recognize the variety of this repertory, where essays in the larger forms give way to a concentration on the miniature. Moreover, both sub-genres, the large and the small, are conflated in such works as the C major Fantasie and the Novelletten. Like his poetic cycles for keyboard, his song cycles may be viewed as constellations of lyric fragments. The symphonic works of make both overt and covert allusions to the earlier songs and piano pieces. In the oratorio Das Paradies und die Peri , he drew on his previous experience as a composer of vocal and orchestral music.

    Indeed, it was often in the transformation of one genre into another that he best displayed his mastery. Kennst du das Land , the first of the Wilhelm Meister songs op. The identity of the C minor symphony to which Schumann alluded in entries of 21—2 January in the Haushaltbuch is still a matter of controversy. This notwithstanding, he had indisputably embarked on the activity that would claim his attention for the better part of the ensuing year.

    Revisions of the first movement, scherzo and finale followed in June and August. With the First Symphony, he thus established a pattern of rapid sketching, textural elaboration and revision often in reaction to a trial performance that he was to employ in many of his subsequent works in the larger forms. His next symphonic composition was sketched and scored in April and May.

    While still occupied with the first version of the finale in May , he drafted a Phantasie in A minor for piano and orchestra, which, with the addition of a slow movement and rondo finale a little over four years later, became the Piano Concerto op. While the sketching process had come to an end by mid-June, the work did not achieve provisional completion until October.

    In the meantime, the Schumanns were caught up in a number of activities great and small. Early in July they enjoyed a holiday in the environs of Dresden. On 1 September, soon before her 22nd birthday, Clara gave birth to their first child, a daughter, named Marie. Late in the same month, Schumann sketched yet another symphony, this one in C minor. While the continuity draft was not fully elaborated for orchestra, the music for the scherzo was later reworked as no.

    Unable at first to interest a publisher in the symphony, he revised it extensively in December , issuing it two years later as his Fourth Symphony op. The grandeur of the First Symphony gives way in the Overture, Scherzo and Finale to a more compact design and an elfin orchestration redolent of Weber. To judge from the sketches for the C minor Symphony, the finished product would probably have been deliberately Classical in style.

    Faced with the problem of developing lyrical material into the dynamic forms expected of every post-Beethovenian symphonist, Schumann naturally turned to Schubert as a model. But even in the First Symphony, the most derivative of his mature orchestral works, he managed to forge convincing alternatives to the strategies of his predecessors. A prime means of achieving coherence on the large scale, the technique of inter-movement thematic recall figures prominently in the works of the symphonic year, though Schumann was equally anxious to circumvent the monotony that might result from the over-use of a limited number of ideas.

    In the First Symphony, the concluding trombone chorale of the slow movement prefigures the main theme of the following scherzo in a gesture that provides both continuity and variety. Although the A minor Phantasie owes much to the rhetoric of sonata form, its various sections, each articulated by a change in tempo and each presenting related motifs in an ever-changing light, are close to the fast—slow—fast disposition of a typical concerto. A third quartet in A, op. Thus in less than a year he had completed a comprehensive survey of the instrumental chamber idiom with a series of works varied in both scope and character.

    As a critic, Schumann made two principal demands of the prospective composer of string quartets. His fugal studies of March and April aided the creation of contrapuntally integrated string quartets where every member of the ensemble is accorded a crucial strand in the total discourse. Similarly, his immersion in the quartets of the Viennese Classical tradition left a definite imprint on his treatment of sonata form.

    It is important to remember that Schumann, like Mendelssohn, reached artistic maturity during a period in which chamber music came to occupy an intermediary position between private entertainment and public display. Apart from its surface similarities with the Piano Quintet, the Piano Quartet projects an exuberant character through musical materials of a decidedly neo-classical stamp. In addition, the mediation of esoteric and popular styles in these works prefigures an important trait of the Hausmusik of the late s. Between late January and early March , musical life in Leipzig was considerably enlivened by the presence of Berlioz.

    Although the text was essentially complete by January , Schumann left it untouched until February By 16 June Schumann had brought the work to provisional completion, although he returned to it for polishing and revision in July and September. The public acclaim Schumann garnered as a consequence of these events may have caused Wieck to send his son-in-law a formal letter of reconciliation dated 16 December. The Peri lives up to this epithet on several counts. In the first place, the work effects a fusion of the sacred and secular realms, with the semi-human, semi-divine Peri herself providing an emblem for the 19th-century artist.

    A delicate web of melodic recurrences contributes to the same end. The upheavals of the following years delayed the realization of this plan, but when, in the later s, Schumann did fulfil his longstanding desire to compose dramatic music, he returned to a poetic theme first represented musically in the Peri , the notion of redemption. In December Schumann reluctantly agreed to embark on a concert tour of Russia with Clara. In some respects the tour was a success. During their first visit to St Petersburg, the Schumanns met the leading figures on the Russian musical scene, including Glinka and Anton Rubinstein, and developed a warm rapport with the art-loving aristocrat Mateusz Wielhorski, a talented cellist, and his brother Michal, an amateur composer.

    Elected an honorary member of the St Petersburg Philharmonic Society, and granted an audience with the imperial family if only after a tiresome and humiliating series of political machinations , Clara succeeded in consolidating her reputation as an international artist. In contrast, for Schumann the artistic results of the Russian tour were decidedly meagre.

    However, by the end of the Russian tour Schumann was in a physically and psychologically precarious condition. An eyewitness account of his behaviour in St Petersburg presents him as depressed, preoccupied and incommunicative. Attacks of dizziness that impaired his sight caused him to seek medical advice in Moscow. At the same time, he made an effort to devote himself wholly to composing. Indeed, his discontinuation of the marriage diary and his decision, in early June, to sell the Neue Zeitschrift should be viewed in this light. Nor did his condition improve during a brief holiday in the Harz mountains 10—18 September.

    Their ultimate decision to move to the Saxon capital was motivated by several factors. Passed over in favour of Niels Gade in his pursuit of the directorship of the Gewandhaus concerts, Schumann held out few hopes of advancing his career in Leipzig. Further, the many spas in the area would allow him to continue the hydrotherapeutic treatment he had tried, with some success, in late August.

    Composer: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840 - 1893)

    Nonetheless, by December Schumann had abandoned his earlier plans for a Faust opera. Schumann began to recover from his depression in late January Concurrently he studied counterpoint, along with Clara, who soon produced a series of preludes and fugues on themes by her husband and J. Intrigued by the pedal piano he had initially rented in order to master the fundamentals of organ technique, he composed two sets of pieces for this unusual instrument alternatively for piano, three to four hands , between April and June: four Skizzen op.

    After completing the Studien , Schumann brought his contrapuntal projects to a temporary halt. Having had no success in placing the A minor Phantasie for piano and orchestra with a publisher, he attempted to enhance its marketability by adding a slow movement and finale composed in reverse order from 14 June to 16 July. While finishing the concerto in July, Schumann received an invitation to the Beethoven festival on 10—12 August in Bonn. On returning home in mid-August, Schumann met regularly with Hiller, Wieck and Julius Becker regarding a projected series of orchestral concerts in Dresden, and by September he felt well enough to resume his work on the B—A—C—H fugues, all six of which were drafted by November.

    In the meantime he subjected the last movement of the Overture, Scherzo and Finale to extensive revision. Soon after Christmas he had nearly finished sketching the work that was to be published as his Second Symphony in C major op. Beginning in late January , Schumann composed a series of choral partsongs, several on texts by Burns, that were subsequently issued in two volumes opp.

    Soon after the birth of a son, Emil, on 8 February, he turned to the elaboration of the symphonic sketches, a process that occupied him intermittently for almost a year.

    Six Songs, op. 6, no. 6: Tears (Thränen) Sheet Music by Robert Franz

    His tortuously slow progress on the symphony — indeed, the near cessation of his creative work in the spring and early summer — can be attributed to recurrent bouts of illness, the chief symptoms of which included dizziness, auditory disturbances and general malaise. Only between September and October did Schumann manage to make significant headway on the orchestration of the C major Symphony. To put it succinctly, the linear development of a single motif often recedes in favour of the simultaneous development of motivic combinations.

    Like the D minor Symphony of , the Second Symphony coheres by virtue of a web of recurrent thematic strands. After a week in Dresden they went to Berlin, where the Singakademie planned to perform Das Paradies und die Peri on 17 February, and remained there until late March.

    The Viennese leg of the tour was hardly a success. The performance of the Peri in Berlin, with Schumann conducting, met with a positive response in spite of difficulties with the Singakademie directors Eduard Grell and K.

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    Rungenhagen , frustrating episodes with ill-prepared vocal soloists and technical mishaps at the performance itself. Apart from these annoyances, the tour provided Schumann with an opportunity to immerse himself in opera. Indeed, he remained in generally good health throughout much of the ensuing year despite its tragic events. In the meantime, however, he suffered another tragic loss when Mendelssohn died on 4 November Shortly after returning from the funeral ceremony in Leipzig, he made preliminary notes for a memoir.

    In November he also began to give composition lessons to the young Karl Ritter. Schumann composed little in , but was rich in creative activity. The orchestration of the closing scene of the second part of Faust was completed in April. At about the same time he prepared a four-hand piano arrangement of the Finale from op. Clara assumed a central role in preparing a vocal score of the Faust setting, for which Schumann composed an alternative final chorus between May and July. In May and June he completed Beim Abschied zu singen for chorus and wind op.

    Though conceived as a pair, they differ markedly in tone, the sunny quality of the second with its allusion to Dein Bildnis wunderselig op. Within days Schumann sketched an overture, drafted a scenario and engaged Robert Reinick as librettist. Schumann therefore assumed responsibility for the libretto, on which he worked sporadically from May to December.

    With the text nearly complete, Schumann elaborated the sketches for the overture between 17 and 26 December. He then sketched and orchestrated the four acts in turn, the entire process occupying him until August Meanwhile the Schumann household reacted with joy and awe to a series of personal and public events. A second son, Ludwig, was born on 20 January. Finding a performance venue for Genoveva , however, proved an immensely frustrating task. The intrigues of C. By September he had also completed a Lehrbuch der Fugenkomposition consisting of excerpts from the treatises of Marpurg and Cherubini amplified with his own glosses.

    In mid-October he returned to Manfred , sketching and scoring its imposing overture by the end of the month and completing the music for the body of the drama by 23 November. The affinity among these three works is further confirmed by their varied but related musical embodiments of the theme of redemption. If the music for Genoveva is characterized less by a family of recurrent motifs than by a sumptuous lyric tone, it is because she is the agent through whom the play of mourning is transformed into a hagiographic drama of redemption.

    In keeping with his desire to place this text in the sharpest relief, Schumann relied extensively on melodrama, the conjunction of unadorned though sometimes rhythmed speech and illustrative instrumental music. In contrast, the spirit of church music prevails in the passages for the Blessed Boys and in the stile antico opening of the final Chorus mysticus. Indeed, in alone Schumann completed nearly 40 works, many of them sizable. He further supplemented his earnings, beginning in November , by giving private instruction to Heinrich Richter.

    The productive phase reaching into the early part of also proved to be a period of physical and psychological well-being. While Schumann had concentrated on dramatic music for much of , his focus shifted towards the end of the year. In November and December, just after finishing the music for Manfred , he drafted the Adventlied op.

    While completing this work, he began a set of pieces for piano four hands, Bilder aus Osten op. The Waldscenen op. Later that month he completed several works conceived for the participants in his Chorverein which by then had grown to include between 60 and 70 members — most of them later issued as Romanzen und Balladen for mixed chorus opp.

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    Two days later a republican security brigade attempted to draft Schumann into its ranks but he, Clara, and their eldest daughter, Marie, fled through the back gate of their home to the nearby railway station. Travelling part of the way alone and on foot, Clara who was pregnant returned to Dresden on 7 May to fetch the rest of the children Elise, Julie and Ludwig , who had been left with a maid.

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