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The government bought out landowners with acreages considered too small to be viable, purchasing land they had previously been eager to give away. The new federal lands were taken out of cultivation, and new jobs were created to restore the prairie through contour furrowing, reseeding, and planting shelterbelts.

Once prairie grasses were restored, lands were leased for grazing. The land purchased by the government eventually became National Grasslands and continue to be used for government-managed cattle ranching. Further revisions to the Stock Raising Act of provided a boost to the ranching industry. The amount of acreage available under the Homestead Acts, however, was insufficient for homesteaders to run economically viable ranching operations. Acknowledging that most of the remaining government land in the West was not really for farming, the Stock Raising Act allowed homesteaders to claim acres on lands determined suitable only for grazing.

The s marked the end of most dryland farming in the region, with only very limited farming continuing in areas where irrigation is possible. These were the families that stuck it out through the tough times of the Great Depression in order to gradually expand their land holdings as their neighbors left. Now part of cattle pastures, the abandoned homesteads have been left largely untouched, leaving a remarkably intact record of the homesteading experience in the region.

Prehistoric Overview of the Region Any full understanding of the history of human settlement in the survey area must begin with the people who lived in and moved across the region long before contact with Europeans was made.

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Although archaeologists continually discover new information about prehistoric peoples, much about the prehistory of southeastern Colorado is still not known. The archaeological record of this region tells us that it was occupied by aboriginal groups as long as 11, years ago.

In the survey area specifically, however, few prehistoric sites have been excavated, although artifacts found on the surface of the ground and prehistoric rock art provide abundant evidence that prehistoric groups were present. These areas include the John Martin Reservoir Eddy, et al ; Earles, et al and the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, which is encompassed by the survey area Carrillo , , , a, b, a, b; Carrillo and Kalasz ; Carrillo et al. The following summary provides an overview of the stages of development for prehistoric cultures from the Paleoindian Stage 10,— B. C , though the Archaic Stage B.

Each of these stages is marked by unique sets of technological and cultural changes and adaptations, which are visible in the archaeological record of the survey area. Paleoindian Stage 10, B. C— B.

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The earliest generally recognized evidence for human activity in southeastern Colorado dates to the Paleoindian stage, which took place at the end of the Pleistocene Epoch, when the climate was characterized by cool summers and warm winters Bryson et al. Archaeological evidence suggests that Paleoindian people lived in egalitarian, nomadic bands of a few dozen individuals. They produced relatively large, occasionally fluted, lanceolate projectile points, which were used to hunt now-extinct Pleistocene animals, including mammoth and camel, as well as some still-extant species, such as bison, elk, deer, and bear.

Paleoindian people depended primarily on large game and on seasonally available plant resources for food and the other necessities of life Hester and Grady , 79; Wheat The Paleoindian stage is divided into three periods, each of which is marked by distinctive projectile points. These include the Clovis period 10, B. Although Paleoindian projectile points have been found on the ground surface throughout southeastern Colorado, no Paleoindian sites containing intact deposits have been excavated south of the Arkansas River Zier and Kalasz Archaic Stage B.

The Archaic stage is generally understood to be comprised of three periods: the Early Archaic B. The appearance of more diverse stone tools, the expansion of the use of ground stone, and a general decrease in the size of projectile points mark the archaeological record for this stage. In contrast to earlier Paleoindian projectile points, Archaic points are mostly stemmed and are not as delicately flaked.

Artifacts and archaeological evidence dating to the Archaic Stage are fairly common in southeastern Colorado, although considerable regional differentiation exists—few Archaic stage sites are well defined. The Early Archaic period B. As the large Pleistocene animals became extinct, people in the Early Archaic turned to hunting smaller game and gathering wild plants. The drastic change in climate may have also led to a partial depopulation of the Plains, with some groups relocating to the relatively cooler, wetter, and higher foothills and mountains Benedict ; Benedict and Olson Large, shallow side-notched and some large corner-notched projectile point types are characteristic of the known Early Archaic sites located in the mountain-foothill areas and along mountain slopes.

Sites that date to the Middle Archaic, both in and outside of the survey area, have helped archaeologists understand the ways that these groups lived and moved in the Purgatoire region. Archaeologists theorize that these groups followed a carefully calculated schedule of seasonal hunting and foraging, moving onto the Plains and the interior montane basins to hunt large and small game and to gather and process wild plants Frison ; Middle Archaic peoples in the Purgatoire region continued to live in small groups and may also have traded with others at a distance: for instance, the Wolf Spider site 5LA.

Aboriginal groups during this period continued to subsist on the foods they obtained from hunting and foraging. A noticeable increase in the amount of ground and pecked stone artifacts yielded in Late Archaic period sites, compared to that found in sites from earlier periods, suggests that processed plants gained importance as a food source. Late Archaic peoples also shifted emphasis in hunting to small mammals, such as jackrabbits, cottontail rabbits, and prairie dogs, and did not hunt large game animals, like elk, deer, and bison, to the same extent as their predecessors.

A substantial number of prehistoric sites in the survey area were occupied during the Late Archaic period. Archaeologists have been able to establish that some sites were occupied continuously or repeatedly during both the Middle Archaic and the Late Archaic. Late Prehistoric Stage A. Important changes in the technologies of tool production, ceramics, and the construction of dwellings took place during the Late Prehistoric stage. This stage is generally understood in three periods: the Developmental period A.

Developmental Period A. Even so, cultural and technological changes adopted from other groups are evident in the archaeological record, marking the Developmental period Eighmy ; Wood ; Zier and Kalasz The Developmental period saw the people of the Purgatoire region beginning to make ceramic vessels, and small, corner-notched arrow points indicate that that the bow and arrow came into use during this period.

Some evidence suggests that Developmental period peoples in the region cultivated corn and beans, although it was not dominant in their lives Zier and Kalasz Another important development was the construction of architecture. This was accomplished either through building walls within rockshelters or constructing small stone structures on more exposed ground Zier and Kalasz ; Archaeologists have noticed a marked increase in the number of sites dating to the Developmental.

Generally, settlement sites that date to this period are larger and more complex, indicating that population growth continued during this time. Within the Diversification period, two phases of occupation, the Apishapa phase A. While these phases represent two distinct groups, archaeologists believe that both groups had their origins in the Developmental period Zier and Kalasz The Apishapa phase is well represented in the survey area, with such important sites as the Sorenson site 5LA. The Sopris phase had a geographic focus on the upper Purgatoire—to the west of the survey area—and few if any Sopris sites are found in the survey area Zier and Kalasz Apishapa site types include rockshelters, camps, and also villages DeVore These last are found in defensible locations near arable land and some evidence of horticulture, indicating that the Apishapa were a semi-sedentary people.

Artifacts found on Apishapa sites include a wide variety of stone tools, such as arrowpoints, scrapers, knives, gravers, choppers, tapered flange drills, and manos and metates, as well as basketry and cordmarked pottery DeVore Archaeologists have noted similarities between Apishapa artifact assemblages, particularly ceramics, and the assemblages of the Plains Village groups who lived east of the Arkansas Basin and practiced horticulture to a far greater extent Wood ; Zier and Kalasz During the peak of the Apishapa culture, from about A.

Apishapa houses were constructed of posts and brush built upon mostly circular stone enclosures. Floors typically formed shallow basins, and walls were sometimes extended to form fences, alleys, or plazas Zier and Kalasz A small number or Apishapa sites show evidence of storage facilities built to hold maize and beans, of which several varieties were cultivated. Nevertheless, archaeologists believe that horticulture did not play a major role in the subsistence strategies of the Apishapa, and that wild plants and large and small game were still the dominant food sources of these people.

They believe this may suggest a significant population increase, or that it may also be a result of greater site visibility due to the presence of architectural remains Zier and Kalasz Archaeological evidence indicates that the Apishapa phase groups abandoned the Chaquaqua Plateau in the fourteenth century, although archaeologists are not sure why. A drought affected the Southwest around that time, and many think the area occupied by the Apishapa may have also been affected. Others think that the Apishapa may have been pushed east most likely by the early Apaches, and joined with the Arikara, Pawnee, and Wichita groups Zier and Kalasz The Protohistoric Period A.

This period has been generally understood to focus on the earliest phase of contact between aboriginal groups and Europeans. In the Purgatoire. It ended around A. These latter groups, who migrated into the area around A. Within southeastern Colorado, a number of purported Apachean sites have been reported. The Louden site 5LA. Some Protohistoric sites near the survey area feature spaced stone circles tipi rings and earth rings Campbell , , ; Hand et al. Micaceous tempered pottery found in associations with these sites may, however, be attributable to Taos-Picuris Puebloans rather than to Apachean peoples Wedel ; Wood and Bair , and may indicate trade with Puebloan groups.

Although Spain claimed the Purgatoire and surrounding territory with the Coronado Expedition, a consistent non-Native presence in the Purgatoire area was still more than two centuries away. The interim was a time of upheaval and unrest. By the early s, the Purgatoire region saw groups of Comanches pushing into the area from the north, forcing the Apache southward Wyckoff By the end of the Protohistoric period, in the mids, regular trade existed between Native groups in southeastern Colorado and the northernmost outposts of New Spain, in what is now northern New Mexico, although conflicts were still frequent Wyckoff Late Prehistoric Stage Rock Art Over the many centuries people have called the High Plains Desert home, its canyon walls and rock faces have served as canvases upon which they have inscribed and painted meaningful images.

The methods, forms, and scenes that rock artists have created have changed and over time. Some rock art has been pecked into rock—these are known as petroglyphs—while painted rock art are known as pictographs. Today, archaeologists have developed increasingly sophisticated methods to understand it. By applying radiocarbon dating methods to decipher how old rock art panels are, researchers now have a better understanding of the ways that rock art changed as cultures developed or as groups of people were replaced by other groups.

These forms were popular during the Middle Archaic period, between 4, and years ago. In the Late Archaic period, about 3, to 1, years ago, rock artists continued to produce abstract designs, but began to use rectangular forms and parallel lines. They also began to produce images around this time that could be identified as animals, although which animal being depicted was not always clear.

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The figures depicted by the Late Prehistoric stage artists were more identifiable as people and specific animals—human figures were shown with fingers, often with arms bent. One well-known rock art panel on the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, the Zookeeper Site 5LA , shows a human—possibly a shaman figure— surrounded by dozens of animals, including deer, pronghorn, and others that could be coyotes or dogs.

The meaning of such panels is never entirely clear, but in this case the human figure appears to be exuberantly wielding some sort of instrument to orchestrate the animals around him Loendorf Painted rock art is rare in comparison to petroglyphs, due in part to the tendency of open-air pictographs to wear away. Those that remain are found in rock shelters and protected locations. Some rock art from this period depicts teepees. Although most rock art is thought to have been produced by Native Americans, this is not the case: Europeans and others also inscribed imagery on rock faces.

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Spanish missionaries entering the area would add crosses to rock art panels in order to alter what they believed was pagan imagery. Hispanic and Anglo-American traders, and later settlers, who moved through southeastern Colorado inscribed names, dates, and pictures of cattle, horses, or other wildlife. Some figures may depict historic events; one anthropomorphic figure in Picture Canyon on the Comanche National Grassland, for instance, is covered with a dense series of dots and is believed to represent a smallpox victim. Prehistoric rock art sites are found in sheltered or exposed places and consist of petroglyphs, i.

Earlier rock art is generally more abstract, with wavy lines, circles, and spirals. Later rock art tends to depict more recognizable images, such as human and animal forms. Shelters Shelter sites are found in or along rock outcrops. These consist of artifacts and other remains consistent with human habitation or temporary occupation. Associated artifacts may include worked stone or ceramics. These stones served as substructures for shelters made of organic material, such as poles, brush, or hides.

Associated artifacts may include lithics, groundstone, or ceramics. Bedrock Metates Bedrock Metates are associated with food processing, and consist of a small depression on a rock surface, upon which corn or other food was ground with a smooth rounded rock, known as a mano. Some sites contain multiple bedrock metates, indicating that food processing was a communal activity. Campsites These sites indicate a temporary location of human activity, and may have been used in the course of food procurement, such as hunting or gathering plant resources.

Associated artifacts might include lithics, groundstone, ceramics, and firecracked rock. Springs Water sources were important to human habitation. Springs and other naturally occurring water sources were used by prehistoric peoples, although rarely as sites of occupation. Artifacts found at or near springs are usually associated with hunting or water acquisition, and may include lithics or ceramics. Cores, flakes, points, scrapers are possible artifacts at these sites, and indicate that stone tool manufacture took place at the location of the site.

Beginning in the early nineteenth century, dramatic culture change and population movements among Native Americans and New Mexicans took place on the High Plains. The Purgatoire region, located at the southwestern margin of the High Plains, was a place of dynamic cultural interaction between Plains groups and those in neighboring regions, including the Rocky Mountains and the American Southwest Weber The Purgatoire area lies in the Colorado Piedmont, and is surrounded by three major physiographic regions.

Also included are the more distant desert and oasis areas of the American Southwest. For most of the Native Americans of the East, Great Plains, and Rocky Mountains, the century between and was marked by tremendous change.

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Population levels rose and plummeted with cultural florescence, disease, and displacement. Survivors ultimately became wards of the federal government. All of these changes were direct or indirect results of EuroAmerican contact and were intimately tied to two phenomena of Euro-American origin: the fur trade and horse culture.

Both are key elements in post-contact Native American culture change and are highlighted here to exemplify the type and extent of changes wrought by Euro-Americans. Although the beaver fur trade began in the Northeast and the Great Lakes area, it eventually reached the Plains and the Southwest. The introduction of the horse, on the other hand, came from the opposite direction the Southwest , and in a relatively short time horses were commonly used by the tribes of the Plains and Plateau regions. New forms of economic exchange that accompanied Anglo-American goods affected Native American groups and the Hispanic population in the Southwest.

These groups went from self-sufficient units to subordinate members of the international trade community Weber ,16; Weber ; however, one should not lose sight of the fact that these people actively adapted to or to resisted these processes. The fur trade spread west from the Northeast through the deciduous forest ecozone, which was the habitat of the beaver.

As an industry, the fur trade later included the somewhat different trade in buffalo hides on the Plains. Native Americans participated in the fur trade as a matter of necessity and survival. Their ability to trade for firearms without which they were at the mercy of those who had them and other goods was predicated upon their access to beaver or bison. To ensure this access, tribes pushed west from their traditional territories into the territories of other tribes, resulting in a domino effect of population pressure and cultural conflict Weber As this trade network of beaver pelts and guns exerted pressure from the Northeast, equally momentous catalysts for cultural change—horses—were spreading to the Plains tribes from the Southwest.

Small, scattered groups coalesced into large and powerful tribes. The annual migration cycles of these tribes no longer responded solely to the availability of resources for human consumption but increasingly addressed the requirements of the horse herds. Horses created wealth and power differences both within and among tribes. Mounted groups expanded their territory at the expense of horseless groups, and the social organization of Plains tribes was almost completely restructured. As the territories of Plains tribes expanded and contracted, new groups were pushed or drawn to the Plains as well.

The Comanche moved south from the Wyoming area to dominate the southern Plains, while the Lakota Sioux thrust westward onto the northern Plains. Other groups, such as the Ute, retained their home bases in the mountains but added a Plains hunting period to their calendar and Plains elements to their material culture. The Ute, along with the Jicarilla Apache, raided in regions as far east as the Texas and Oklahoma panhandles. Lewis ; Secoy ; Weber , 17; Weber Not only did the adoption of horses and guns bring grand-scale population and territorial changes to the Plains, these innovations also fundamentally changed the way Plains tribes viewed and used the natural environment.

Previously, Native Americans on the Plains were pedestrian nomads who collected wild foods while following and hunting herds of bison, their primary economic resource. These groups were generally egalitarian: resources to make needed goods were equally available to all, and material possessions were necessarily limited to what people could readily carry.

Horses and guns, however, meant that those groups who acquired them had superior buffalo hunting abilities. Additionally, the national and international bison hide trade network created an external market for hides, which were no longer used by only the people who procured them. Increasingly, the various tribes were economic groups competing for and dependent upon an external trade network over which they had no control.

As these formerly self-sufficient societies became both producers of hides and consumers of guns and other Euro-American manufactured goods , they lost some of their previous subsistence options. Although they struggled to retain their lifeways, they ultimately became satellites of the larger market economy Hickerson ; Mishkin ; Secoy ; Weber , ; Weber Spanish Territory Native Americans and New Mexican Hispanic pobladores settlers developed a system of guarded cooperation during the years they coexisted between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries.

In , members of the Coronado expedition were the first Spaniards to enter the region that generally comprises the present American Southwest. Spain made no attempt to colonize the area located in present-day Colorado, which was used for hunting and trade with indigenous Native American Plains groups. This tradition was acquired from Pueblo Indians, who had established a trade network that long predated the arrival of the Spanish Kenner ; Carrillo With the Louisiana Purchase by the United States, France forfeited control of an enormous portion of the mid-continent, leading to a dispute between Spain and the United States over the western boundary of the territory.

In the dispute was resolved with the Adams-Onis Treaty also known as the Transcontinental Treaty. This treaty delineated the Spanish-U. In southeastern Colorado, this boundary was the Arkansas River, bringing the United States within several hundred kilometers of the northernmost New Mexican settlements Anderson , 46; Friedman , 34; Lamar , ; Mehls and Carter ; Stoffle et al. Comancheros Hispanic New Mexicans and Puebloans who traded with the Comanches and other tribes and ciboleros Hispanic buffalo hunters ventured from central New Mexico onto the Plains, including the Purgatoire region Forbes , ; Weber With the exception of traffic in horses and mules, the initial trade of both groups was generally a simple exchange of the produce of the valley for the game of the Plains Forbes American trading posts later became suppliers to the comancheros and the consumers of goods they carried.

S-Spanish border, a trade fair took place annually at the confluence of the Purgatoire and the Arkansas. Comanche The Comanche were initially a hunting and gathering, mountain-based people. Of Shoshonean linguistic stock, they probably resided with the closely related Shoshone in western Wyoming, southern Idaho, and northern Utah. Later, the Comanche became aggressive and highly mobile raiders and hunters of plains bison; they spread from their ancestral homelands east onto the Plains and to the southeast, displacing the Apache populations of the Colorado and Kansas plains.

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The Comanche were first recorded in , when the Spanish reported them trading in Taos. In the next year, Ulibarri reported that the Comanche and allied Ute were about to attack that community. At that time their homeland was thought to be in the valleys around the headwaters of the Arkansas River Hyde , ; Kenner , 28; Shimkin , 40; Wedel , ; Weber By the Comanche were actively raiding in southeastern Colorado.

Ulibarri reported that Penxaye Apache, who occupied the area between the present-day towns of Pueblo and Trinidad, had retreated from expected attacks by Comanche and Ute. Comanche attacks stepped up in subsequent years, including a destructive raid on Taos. These raids increasingly interfered with the barter between New Mexico and Plains Apaches, and in New Mexican Governor Antonio Valverde Cosio led men in an expedition against the Comanches in northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado.

Valverde did not find the Comanches but did locate numerous trails, camps, and habitation sites along his looping route through much of southeastern Colorado. Even after retreating to the La Jicarilla area along the Cimarron and Ponil creeks in northern New Mexico, the Apache were not safe and continued to attract Comanche raiders.

Spanish expeditions that came into the Purgatoire River valley soon after documented two major ethnohistoric patterns at this time. The Juan de Ulibarri and Antonio Valverde Cosio expeditions noted that the valley was in the midst of Apache territory, which extended from at least central New Mexico to the western Kansas plains and presumably much farther to the north.

Secondly, both expeditions documented the increasing pressure exerted on Apache groups by the Ute and Comanche. By at least , Colorado Apache groups joined to protect themselves from Comanche and Ute attacks Kenner , This, combined with the expansion of French trade onto the central and southern Plains—as well as pressure from the Pawnee and the Jumano on the Cuartelejos a more sedentary Apache group along the Arkansas River —forced the withdrawal of the Apache from their territory in Colorado and western Kansas. By about , the Apache had migrated from the northern and eastern parts of their territory into what is now New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico Weber Following the breakup of the Comanche-Ute alliance in , the Ute found themselves subject to Comanche attack in the area south of the Arkansas River and east of the Rockies.

In the Ute ceased their raids on northern New Mexico settlements and requested Spanish protection from the Comanche. With the voluntary removal of the Apache, who had posed a still-formidable barrier east of Pecos, the Colorado Comanche expanded unchecked south and southeast into the second half of the eighteenth century.

Until their winter camps stood on the Arkansas, but by they had extended southeast to the Canadian River on the Texas Panhandle. During this period, Comanche territory reached from the Arkansas River above the Huerfano on the northwest, south along the Pecos River to near the Big Bend country of Texas, east to the present-day Austin area, and north to the Great Bend of the Arkansas in Kansas.

Comanche raids extended far beyond these boundaries, well into Old Mexico on the south and against the Pawnee and Arikara villages on the north Wallace and Hoebel , ; Wedel , ; Weber Following this battle, Spanish-Comanche relations along the far northeastern frontier of New Mexico were generally quiet Kenner , Although at the northwestern margins of their territory, Comanches continued to live in southeastern Colorado and on the upper Arkansas into the early nineteenth century.

By , when fur trader Jacob Fowler traveled along the Arkansas, the area was more a frontier than part of the core territory of any single group. Over the course of the next several weeks the camp was joined by large numbers of Comanche, Arapaho, Cheyenne, and at least two other less well-identified groups. This total encampment, Fowler estimated, reached between 10, and 18, persons. That the Crow and Taos Pueblo Indians were also present around this time is further evidence that area was on the periphery of a number of different territories, or was a transit zone Coues , ; Weber In , Bent, St.

The fort became the economic and communications center for the southwestern Plains and adjoining mountain areas. At this time he passed out peace medals, advocating peace Lavender , Some five years later an even larger peace parley was held 4. After several days of dancing, gifting, feasting, and purchasing provisions from the fort, these traditional enemies from opposite sides of the Arkansas declared a peace among themselves and with the traders so that commerce would continue Lavender Settled in an area bordered by the North and the South during the Civil War, the Comanche were offered agreements by both sides.

In the winter of —62, with over lodges, the Comanche camped at Fort Wise later renamed Fort Lyon and awaited annuity goods and items promised in an agreement signed the previous fall. The government aimed to ease tensions brought about by increased white transit and settlement pressures, as well as to free soldiers for duty in the East Richardson , Due to increasing pressures from white settlement, the year saw widespread conflict involving Native Americans in the western Plains and in eastern Colorado, although Comanche military activity generally took place to the south on the New Mexico plains and in Texas.

In return for peace and the right to build military posts, roads, and railroads through their territory, the Comanche were promised annuity goods, an agency, schools, farms, seeds, implements, a physician, and a carpenter. They were also confined to a reservation in what became western Oklahoma Wallace and Hoebel , ; Weber Ute Like the Comanche, the Ute were of Shoshonean linguistic stock. Their territory was immediately to the south of the Comanche, extending from the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains west to the Oquirrh Mountains in Utah Jorgensen Although the Ute traditionally lived west of the Front Range, their hunting range extended well onto the Plains, depending in large part on their relationship with the group s currently inhabiting that area Jorgensen ; Schroeder ; Stewart In the period before , the Ute hunted the eastern Colorado plains with the Jicarilla Apache and ranged as far south as the Texas panhandle.

From about to , the Ute and Comanche were allies and frequently raided and hunted together on the High Plains. As noted above, this alliance drove the Colorado Apache away from their territory to the east of the Spanish Peaks and into New Mexico by Tribal dynamics shifted again in the early s, when the Ute-Comanche alliance dissolved.

From at least this point forward, the boundaries of tribal territories were not well defined and were often determined by power rather than by tradition Weber During the early s, the Ute and Jicarilla Apache made seasonal expeditions onto the High Plains to hunt buffalo. Increasing pressures on the Ute and their subsistence base resulted in some Ute raids in northern New Mexico in the early s.

In an expedition of New Mexico volunteers, guided by Kit Carson, marched through the San Luis Valley, defeated the Ute at Poncha Pass, and pursued the remaining Ute eastwards towards the Purgatoire until being called back Lavender , The last Ute contact in the region appears to have been a series of Ute-Apache attacks on settlements along the lower Purgatoire in Lavender , ; Weber Primary among these groups were the Cheyenne and Arapaho, who were part of the Algonquin language family.

Although we do not know the details of the early history of these two tribes, we do know that they were previously horticultural village people who moved onto the Plains from the shores of the Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi Valley. Like the. Archaeological data suggest that Cheyenne residence on the upper Missouri River extended for at least one and possibly two centuries, ending by about Wood , Their long-time neighbors, the Arapaho, were pushed onto the Plains ahead of the Cheyenne, and by about some Cheyenne and Arapaho were hunting together between the sources of the North and South Platte rivers.

Although American explorer Zebulon Pike did not mention either group in his journey up the Arkansas in , by at least the Cheyenne were reported among the tribes making predatory excursions into Mexico to steal horses from the Spanish to trade to the Arikaras Berthrong , 18; Weber Subsequent years saw increasing Cheyenne and Arapaho presence in the area. In , Captain John R. Bell, leading one contingent of the Stephen H. Jacob Fowler, as previously noted, camped in with a large number of Cheyenne and Arapaho as well as Kiowa and Comanche at a sizable winter encampment along the Arkansas River near the present-day Pueblo-Otero county line.

These initial contacts foreshadowed an increasing amount of Anglo-Native American contact along the Arkansas River in the late s and early s. During this period, interest in the southern Rocky Mountain area became increasingly focused on trading rather than just trapping, including trade with New Mexico and later Mexico. Returning to Missouri from Santa Fe in , the Bent brothers camped at the confluence of the Purgatoire and Arkansas Rivers and were joined shortly by a number of Cheyenne returning from a successful horse raid against the Comanche to the south.

Charles and William Bent explained their idea of a large trading post along Fountain Creek, near Pueblo. Reportedly, the Cheyenne were greatly impressed but argued for a site at Big Timbers, a location some twenty-five miles downstream from the mouth of the Purgatoire and a favorite Cheyenne camping site. The Cheyenne, as promised, provided a ready clientele for the fort, which also attracted additional Cheyenne and Arapaho to the area Moore Thus, the division of the Cheyenne into northern and southern branches was made permanent Lavender , , ; Weber Ute, the Arapaho traveled in small groups rather than in larger tribal units.

They came from the valley of the Red River and entered the Plains before the Cheyenne, who arrived later and entered from somewhat farther south Weber Its location on the Arkansas River gave it access to a large and varied potential market. The Arkansas had become the boundary between the Cheyenne and Arapaho and various other southern tribes, including the Comanche, Kiowa, and Kiowa-Apache.

The fort was also near the Ute and Pueblo tribes to the west and southwest. Intertribal and Native American-Anglo peace prospects were common topics of these gatherings, at which goods from the government were also distributed Weber These parleys reflected the shift from Native American to Anglo-American control. By , the U. The fifth article of the treaty defined the territory of the Cheyenne and Arapaho as follows This treaty thus recognized the area north of the Arkansas in Colorado as Cheyenne and Arapaho territory.

It is important to note that all parties to this treaty, Native American and Anglo American, recognized this territorial delimitation. The treaty also recognized the right of the United States to establish roads and military posts in the area. However, the Treaty of Fort Laramie was not ratified by the U. Senate and so was not legally binding Van Hook , 45; Weber The Treaty of Fort Atkinson, which was signed in and ratified in , recognized the Comanche, Kiowa, and Apache tribes as the inhabitants of the area south of the Arkansas.

In addition, this treaty acknowledged the right of the U. Together the treaties of Fort Laramie and Fort Atkinson recognized and delineated aboriginal territorial areas in eastern Colorado and established certain limited governmental rights, but these rights did not include the right of American citizens to settle in this territory Van Hook , ; Weber It was here that the next treaty affecting the Cheyenne and Arapaho was written and ratified. The Treaty of Fort Wise reserved the following lands for these tribes: Beginning at the mouth of the Sandy Fork of the Arkansas River and extending westwardly along the said river to the mouth of the Purgatory River; thence along up the west bank of the Purgatory River to the northern boundary of the Territory of New Mexico; thence west along said boundary to a point where a line drawn due south from a point on the Arkansas River, five miles [8 kilometers] east of the mouth of the Huerfano River, would intersect said northern boundary of New Mexico; thence due north from that point to said boundary to the Sandy Fork to the place of beginning Van Hook , All other lands owned or claimed by these two tribes were ceded to the United States.

However, neither Native Americans nor Anglo-Americans adhered to the territorial exclusivity provisions of the treaty, which were not enforced during the Civil War years. The ensuing retaliations led to increasing pressure for the removal of all Native Americans from the eastern part of the state. In , representatives of the U. Ratified the following year, the Treaty of the Little Arkansas offered land to survivors of the Sand Creek Massacre and relatives of those killed there. It also effectively removed Colorado from the official territory of the Cheyenne and Arapaho, which was now in southern Kansas.

A parallel treaty with the Comanche, Kiowa, and Plains Apaches was negotiated at the same site in Prowers, Thomas O. Boggs, William Bent, and E. Sizer were among those raided. No raids, however, occurred after Kappler , ; Van Hook , , 76; Weber ; West , In Indian Agent Thomas Fitzpatrick wrote of the economic conditions under which they subsisted: they are in abject want of food half of the year … The travel upon the road drives [the buffalo] off or else confines … them to a narrow path during the period of emigration, and the different tribes are forced to contend with hostile nations in seeking support for their villages.

Their women are pinched with want and their children constantly crying with hunger … Already, under pressure of such hardships they are beginning to gather around the few licensed hunters … acting as herdsmen, runners, and interpreters, living on their bounty; while others accept most immoral methods with their families to eke out an existence Lavender , Thus, in the span of only a few decades in the nineteenth century, High Plains tribes went from dynamic, independent, and autonomous units to greatly weakened groups whose territories were delimited by an outside political power and whose economies were subordinate to national and international markets.

Tipi Rings Tipi Ring sites are believed to be former tipi locations. These sites consist of collections of large stones set in circular configurations, with the stones having been used to secure the base of a tipi, which was a round-plan dwelling constructed of hides and poles. Associated artifacts might include lithics, groundstone, ceramics, and fire-cracked rock. Rock Art. Like prehistoric rock art, Native American rock art could be pecked onto a surface, but painted rock art, or pictographs, are also common to this period. Native American rock art is usually representational, utilizing such images as humans on horseback, game animals, and even buildings.

Springs As with their prehistoric predecessors, Native American people obtained water from springs, hunted near them, and sometimes considered them sacred. Trails are identifiable by their presence as a linear feature in the landscape. They can be marked by differences in vegetation and soil visibility, or they can be documented archivally. Rock art is often located along trails, and artifacts such as lithics and ceramics may also define sites associated with trails.

Historically, southeastern Colorado was a frontier in both the American and European sense. In southeastern Colorado the way people viewed their frontiers varied according to their cultural perspective. The region of the Arkansas River and its major tributaries, the Purgatoire and the Huerfano, represented the extreme northern edge of a vast southwestern Hispanic territory known as Las Provincias Internas the interior provinces and comprised the provinces of Durango, Chihuahua, New Mexico, and Texas. Southeastern Colorado at the period of contact represented a corridor used by northern Pueblo and Plains Apache groups for trade and hunting.

El Cuartelejo was documented by Spanish expeditions beginning in the late sixteenth century. The mouth of the Purgatoire River, known as la nutria the place of the beaver , served as a trading location during the last two decades of Spanish control of New Mexico. The Arkansas River served as the international boundary between territories held by France and Spain before and subsequently as the boundary between the territories of Spain and the United States.

It was officially recognized in the Adams-Onis or Transcontinental Treaty of ; after it was the border between the United States and Mexico until becoming a part of the United States after the Mexican War and the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in Initial New Mexican frontier settlement in what is now Colorado began in the San Luis Valley in the late s and early s, followed by settlement in the Arkansas and Purgatoire valleys in the late s and early s. The settlements were on claims derived through s Mexican land grants.

The earliest settlement in both the upper and lower portions of the Purgatoire River valley occurred almost simultaneously. The upper Purgatoire settlements initially consisted of groups of families who moved into the region from northern New Mexico and built plazas, which housed extended families. By contrast, many of the settlements in the lower Purgatoire Valley were comprised of mixed Anglo-Hispanic or Anglo-Native American families.

These new settlers brought with them two contrasting cultural systems. The New Mexicans brought a year-old frontier tradition that incorporated Iberian, Moorish, Puebloan, and Plains cultural influences. The Anglo-Americans introduced a cash-based economic system with all its attendant material manifestations. The material remains of this latter system are found throughout the majority of the historic sites in southeastern Colorado. These sites, as represented by architectural and artifactual remains, span settlement periods from the Territorial period through the first half of the twentieth century.

The artifacts on New Mexican settlement, however, often vary from the typical nineteenth-century artifact patterns, with aspects of traditional New Mexican culture appearing at sites through the s. Ethnohistorical data taken from historical accounts of Anglo Americans involved in the U. Spanning a time period from the early s when Mexico gained independence from Spain and trade on the Santa Fe Trail commenced to the twentieth century, these accounts, in combination with archaeological data, show the deeply rooted traditions of the Hispanic frontier culture.

This research helps counteract the misconception that in New Mexicans simply waited on the south side of the Arkansas River for Americans to come to their economic and political rescue. The Hispanic subsistence system used in the Purgatoire region was a result of adaptations that occurred over a period of years or more and incorporated many Native American customs.

These changes occurred gradually, initially affecting New Mexican urban centers such as Santa Fe, and later spreading to the frontier regions including the Purgatoire and Arkansas valleys. American influence accelerated in the late s with the construction of U. Archaeological Evidence Historical archaeological, archival, and historical evidence indicates the majority of the recorded sites in the Purgatoire Valley are associated with Anglo-Americans who began to settle the region of southeastern Colorado in the early s. A smaller, less well-defined group of multicomponent sites exhibit few or no Anglo-American artifacts but do contain lithics and groundstone.

In addition, several of these multicomponent sites contain minimal and selective amounts of Anglo-American artifacts, mainly tin cans and bottle glass. In some cases the bottle glass appears to have been modified by knapping in a fashion similar to that seen on flaked prehistoric stone tools. These sites are thought to represent New Mexican Hispanics who settled the Purgatoire River valley in the s and s and who appear to have undergone considerable change through time while retaining some aspects of their traditional culture.

Although the extensive Native American use of the area during the historic period has been documented, very few archaeological sites representing this use have been identified. Most of the sites recorded to date in the project area relate to agrarian settlement. Some of the remaining sites are related to transportation, town settlement, and commercial activity. Though some traders and sheep herders used the Purgatoire River Region prior to , settlers did not arrive until the s. Settlement sites fall into one or more of these three general subperiods: Many of the initial settlers of southern Colorado were Hispanics from northern New Mexico, along with a minority of Anglo-Americans and European immigrants.

Most acquired their land under the provisions of the Homestead Act of , although many settlers were present who did not file claims or acquire legal title to the land. The early settlers resided primarily along the Purgatoire River and its tributaries. Severe drought and extremely hard winters forced many of the early settlers out of the area in the mid- to lates. A distinct artifact assemblage identifies sites from this time. Firearm cartridges can be used to diagnose site dates: earlier sites may contain large caliber. Bottle glass is also diagnostic for this period: olive green, amber, and lime green bottle glass dating to the s; aqua glass dates to the s; and amethyst glass dates to the s.

Bottles and canning jars are present on these sites, and clear glass may be present throughout all of these periods, although in varying quantities. Hole-in-top hand-soldered tin cans date to the s and s, and machine soldered cans date to the s through early s. Machine-cut nails date to the early s, as do ceramics—including both white and decorated earthenware improved earthenware, and both earthenware and stoneware utilitarian wares. As a result, sites from this period are not as frequent.

The typical artifact assemblage generally resembles that of earlier subperiod sites but with some differences. Smaller caliber, smokeless powder rifle cartridges in the range of. The Enlarged Homestead Act of and the Stock Raising Act of spurred a boom of homestead settlement in the project area, although falling agricultural prices and drought caused many of the new arrivals to abandon their homesteads.

This allowed the more established ranchers to acquire or lease larger tracts of land; however, some post homesteaders adapted to raising livestock and managed to acquire sizable land holdings. Sites from this period are the most numerous in southeastern Colorado. These sites contain considerable evidence of conspicuous consumption through greater quantities of material remains than at earlier sites.

The sites of this subperiod can be identified by certain types of diagnostic artifacts, comprising large quantities of bottle glass amethyst, amber, clear, and blue ; cartridges smaller caliber [. Architectural remains on these sites may range from a single dugout depression to several elaborate stone foundations or ruins. Historical Archaeology Resources from the Purgatoire River Region Homesteads Homesteads may be defined archaeologically by the material remains related to homestead settlement.

Characterized by the intention of permanence, these sites include domestic artifacts, such as dishes or toiletry items, to a much greater extent than sites that signify temporary occupation.

Building remains are also part of these sites, in the form of remnant foundations or cellars, or standing buildings or structures. Shotgun use increased around the turn of the twentieth century, although shotguns were often cost-prohibitive for residents of southeastern Colorado. Use of the older black powder cartridges continued at least into the s and possibly the early s, when production ceased at the beginning of World War II. Machine-cut and wire nails and machine-soldered and sanitary tin cans are also present at sites from this subperiod.

Communities An archaeological site based on collective activities performed by groups of families or individuals. Examples of communities might be religious groups or people engaged in a common economic endeavor e. Artifactual remains that define communities might be related to specific endeavors not found on other types of sites. Trash Scatters Dump or trash areas are collections of artifacts that were discarded by their users in a specific location.

These are found near historical archaeological sites that have seen occupation by people over a period of time, or if found in isolation from such a site can be considered to be sites in and of themselves. Rock Inscriptions Settlers and homesteaders often marked rock surfaces with inscriptions of names, dates, or other information or observations. These inscriptions are sometimes found along trails, and identify the travelers who passes through an area.

Rock inscriptions may also be found on abandoned buildings, in rock shelters, or other locations in which travelers might have stopped long enough to leave their mark for posterity. Campsites Campsites indicate temporary occupation, and historic campsites may be related to stock raising economies, such as cow camps or sheep camps. These may be marked by the presence of artifacts related to these economies. More generally, campsites related to recreational activities such as hunting or camping may yield artifacts such as whole or broken food and beverage containers or other items of daily use.

Moradas Moradas were religious buildings associated with the Penitente religion, which had a significant presence in the project area in the 19th century, a presence which has some representation even today. Artifacts associated with Moradas may include worked glass, which was used ritually.

Moradas were cruciform-plan buildings, and are easily identifiable in the archaeological record. Morada sites may also include secondary or ancillary buildings as well. Trails Historic trails are linear features and may be marked by linear swales or ruts, which may be only marginally visible on the landscape. Other sites, such as campsites or trash scatters, are sometimes found along trails. Hole-in-top tapered tin can with key opening. Machinesoldered s Some kinds of fresh foods were not as available to early homesteaders and settlers in the Purgatoire Valley as they are to local residents today.

In the s and s, as refrigeration technology advanced and home freezers became increasingly common, rural residents became less reliant on canned meats. It offered cook stoves, ranges, and heating stoves in over one hundred sizes and styles, and its sales territory covered Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Missouri, and Nebraska. Wood-burning cook stoves were important equipment on a homestead, and they saw use even in the hottest of weather.

Wooden barrels were indispensable for hauling water from water sources to homesteads. Barrels were constructed then as now with arched staves held in place by iron hoops; their tops were either removable or were drilled with holes. Manos and metates—both in bedrock and smaller portable metates—were utilized by Native Americans and Native Hispanic homesteaders to grind seeds, nuts, and other foods. Used prehistorically and historically, these were, in fact, something of a long-ago predecessor to the modernday food processor.

However, manos and metates were rarely used by Anglo-American homesteaders or settlers, who were less accustomed to using found natural materials for food processing. From to Universal's ranch studio was also referred to as the Oak Crest Ranch. Universal City existed on the Providencia Land and Water property from to In , the Oak Crest studio ranch and Hollywood studio operation would move to the new Universal City located on the Lankershim Land and Water property. The official public opening occurred March 15, , on the Lankershim Property.

The Universal Ranch tract of land became smaller after the move to the Taylor Ranch. The leased land surrounding the universal ranch would soon become the Lasky Ranch. The Providencia property was used as a filming location by other motion picture companies, most notably for battle scenes in the silent classic about the American Civil War, The Birth of a Nation Burbank experienced a 4.

Community News Briefs – June 6, 2013

The United States Census [] reported that Burbank had a population of , The population density was 5, The racial makeup of Burbank was 75, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 25, persons The Census reported that , people There were 41, households, out of which 12, There were 2, 5. The average household size was 2. There were 25, families The population was spread out with 20, people The median age was For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were There were 44, housing units at an average density of 2, The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.

As of the census [] of , there were , people, 41, households, and 24, families residing in the city. There were 42, housing units at an average density of 2, The racial makeup of the city was Hispanic or Latino of any race were There were 41, households out of which In the city, the population was spread out with The median age was 36 years. It represented the first decline in three years, with property and violent crimes in the city falling from 3, in to 2, in There were no murders listed in Burbank during , and Three bodies were found in Burbank in , but these homicides were determined to have occurred in Riverside County.

Burbank's violent crime rate was approximately 2. Department of Justice in the Bureau of Justice Statistics. As of December , Burbank Police began for the first time posting arrest information online. Criminal offenses are charged and locally prosecuted in the Burbank Courthouse. The Los Angeles District Attorney handles all of the felony violations which occur within Burbank city limits. The Burbank City Attorney, through its Prosecution Division, handles the remaining violations, which include all misdemeanors, and municipal code violations such as the Burbank Anti-Smoking Ordinance, as well as traffic offenses.

The Burbank Superior Court is a high-volume courthouse; the City Prosecutor files approximately 5, cases yearly, and the Burbank Police Department directly files approximately 12, to 15, traffic citations per year. Burbank Court, Division Two, handles all of the misdemeanor arraignments for Burbank offenses. A typical arraignment calendar is between and cases each day, including 15 to 25 defendants who are brought to court in custody.

Many cases are initiated by arrests at the Hollywood Burbank Airport. Common arrests include possession of drugs such as marijuana, weapons, prohibited items, as well as false identification charges. The second-largest office space market in the San Fernando Valley is located in Burbank. Much of the space is utilized by the entertainment industry, which has among the highest office lease rates in the region. About , people work in Burbank each day, or more than live in the city. While Hollywood may be a symbol of the entertainment industry, much of the actual production occurs in Burbank.

Many companies have headquarters or facilities in Burbank, including Warner Bros. Xytech Systems Corporation, a business software and services provider to the entertainment industry, is headquartered in Burbank. Burbank's economy felt stress as a result of the recession. From to , the city had more than 1, home foreclosures, with about three-fourths of them happening from to In fact, the city's budget woes continued well into Even so, the city still managed to add some new positions and increase fire staffing.

One of the increased costs Burbank and many other California cities are coping with is unfunded pension liability. The city manager's budget message in identified Burbank's aging infrastructure as one of the top priorities of city officials but also one of its biggest financial challenges. As of April , unemployment in the Burbank area stood at 8.

One bright spot in the otherwise bleak job market during the recession was Kaiser Permanente's decision to relocate some administrative offices near the Burbank airport. Hasbro Studios also is located in Burbank just east of the airport in a commercial complex previously occupied by Yahoo. According to the city's Burbank Community Profile, [] the top employers in the city are:. The revitalized downtown Burbank provides an urban mix of shopping, dining, and entertainment. The San Fernando Strip is an exclusive mall designed to be a modern urban village, with apartments above the mall.

An upscale shopping district is located in the state-of-the-art Empire Center neighborhood. The Burbank Town Center is a retail complex adjacent to the downtown core that was built in two phases between and Original plans were for Media City Center included four anchor tenants, including a J. But May Co. Department Stores later bought the parent company of Robinson's and dropped out of the deal. The other stores then dropped out as well and Hahn and the agency dropped the project in March These plans ended in failure in February when Disney executives determined that the costs were too high.

Plans by Sheraton Corporation to build a room hotel at the mall were shelved because of the weak economy. The new mall helped take the strain off Burbank's troubled economy, which had been hard hit by the departure of several large industrial employers, including Lockheed Corp. Construction had been in doubt for many years by economic woes and political turmoil since it was first proposed in the late s. Crown then hired General Growth Properties Inc. At the time, the Burbank mall ranked as the No.

Community News Briefs – June 6, |

In , Lockheed selected Chicago-based Homart Development Company as the developer of a retail center on a former Lockheed P Lightning production facility near the Burbank Airport that was subject to a major toxic clean-up project. Lockheed was ordered to clean up the toxics as part of a federal Superfund site.

As part of the sales agreement, Lockheed carried out extensive soil vapor removal on the site. Lockheed had manufactured planes on the site from to Price Club wanted it for a new store. Disney considered moving some operations there too. The city used the site in its failed attempt to lure DreamWorks to Burbank. Less than eight months after breaking ground, the Empire Center's first stores opened in October The outdoor mall's buildings hark back to Lockheed's glory days by resembling manufacturing plants. Each of the outdoor signs features a replica of a Lockheed aircraft, while the mall design brings to mind an airport, complete with a miniature control tower.

The completion of the seven-story tower marked the final phase of the mixed-use Empire development near Bob Hope Airport. Its original location was situated north of the Burbank Town Center mall. The new location was approved by the city in and is just north of Alameda Avenue and east of the Golden State Freeway. Meantime, the old IKEA site north of the mall is getting its own makeover and will feature residential and retail space. Also, the Burbank Town Center mall itself is getting a facelift of its own. The redevelopment reportedly includes using some of the land just north of the old IKEA site, including the Office Max location.

In , the original Burbank City Hall was constructed after bonds were issued to finance the project and pay for fire apparatus. Burbank's current City Hall was constructed from to in a neo-federalist Moderne style popular in the late Depression era. City Hall was designed by architects William Allen and W. George Lutzi and completed in Originally, the City Hall building housed all city services, including the police and fire departments, an emergency medical ward, a courthouse and a jail. The lobby interior features more than 20 types of marble, which can be found in the city seal on the floor, the trim, walls and in the treads and risers of the grand stairway.

Artist Hugo Ballin created a "Four Freedoms" mural in Burbank's City Council chambers during World War II, although it was covered up for decades until art aficionados convinced the city to have the mural fully revealed. Ballin's work illustrates the "Four Freedoms" outlined in President Franklin Roosevelt 's speech at the signing of the Atlantic Charter. In , the City Hall was added to the U. National Register of Historic Places , becoming the second building in Burbank to be listed on the register. Burbank is a charter city which operates under a council-manager form of government.

The five-member City Council is elected for four-year overlapping terms, with the Mayor appointed annually from among the Council. The City Clerk and the City Treasurer are also elected officials. The first power was distributed within the city limits of Burbank in , supplied then by Southern California Edison Company. Today, the city-owned BWP serves 45, households and 6, businesses in Burbank with water and electricity. Burbank's city garbage pickup service began in ; outhouses were banned in At the height of California's energy crisis , BWP unveiled a mini-power plant at its landfill.

It marked the world's first commercial landfill power plant using Capstone microturbine technology. Ten microturbines run on naturally occurring landfill gas , producing kilowatts of renewable energy for Burbank. That's enough energy to serve the daily needs of about homes. The landfill is located in the Verdugo Mountains in the northeastern portion of the city. Most of Burbank's current power comes from the Magnolia Power Project, a megawatt power plant located on Magnolia Boulevard near the Interstate 5 freeway. The municipal power plant, jointly owned by six Southern California cities Burbank, Glendale, Anaheim.

Pasadena, Colton and Cerritos , began generating electricity in It replaced a facility that had served the customers of Burbank for almost 60 years. Like other cities in California , Burbank faced mandatory water cutbacks required under the state's drought emergency response plan announced in April The state threatened stiff fines for non-compliance. Even in , the city still enforced what's known as the Sustainable Water Use Ordinance.

The Burbank City Council lost a court case in involving the right to begin meetings with a sectarian prayer. While invocations were still allowed, Burbank officials were required to advise all clerics that sectarian prayer as part of Council meetings was not permitted under the Constitution. In , Californians passed Proposition 13 , a property tax initiative, and Burbank and other cities in the state soon experienced constrained revenues. Burbank dealt with the ramifications of maintaining service levels expected by the community but still with impacts on city finances.

As a result, Burbank officials opted to cut some services and implement user fees for specialized services and residents in special zoned areas. One fee was an equine license fee for owners of horse property, even if they no longer owned a horse just to keep from losing their rural zoning. In June , Mark Scott was appointed the new city manager.

Scott moved on in early to another job, executive head in the city of San Bernardino. Burbank's current city manager is Ron Davis, who until also served as general manager of Burbank Water and Power. Rogers' term had been scheduled to end May 1, Emily Gabel-Luddy was elected as the new mayor on April 30, Burbank is within the Burbank Unified School District. The district was formed on June 3, , following a petition filed by residents S. White and nine other citizens. Burbank, the area's single largest landholder.

The first schoolhouse, a single redwood-sided building serving nine families, is on what is now Burbank Boulevard near Mariposa Street. In , a new schoolhouse was constructed at San Fernando Blvd. In , citizens passed a bond measure to raise money to build a high school. At the time, Burbank-area high school students were attending schools in Glendale. When it opened on September 14, , the original Burbank High School had 42 students and two instructors.

Both its public and private K schools routinely score above state and national average test scores. According to U. News Best High Schools rankings, the district contains three schools that received gold, silver or bronze medals in the publication's latest rankings. The largest university in Burbank is Woodbury University. Woodbury has a number of undergraduate and graduate programs, including business, architecture, and several design programs.

A number of smaller colleges are also located in Burbank, including several makeup and beauty trade schools serving the entertainment industry. During the early s, Burbank was a contender to become the location for the southern branch of the University of California. The seaside community of Rancho Palos Verdes was also considered for the campus. Both sites were eventually bypassed when the Janss Investment Company donated property now known as Westwood to build the University of California, Los Angeles.

PUC Schools has its administrative offices in Burbank. In April , Lycee International de Los Angeles , a bilingual French American college preparatory school, submitted an application with the city of Burbank to operate a private school for grades 6—12 on the site of the former General Motors Training Center on Riverside Drive.

The school opened in August The Hollywood Burbank Airport , until late known as Bob Hope Airport, serves over 4 million travelers per year with six major carriers and over 70 flights daily. The airport, located in the northwestern corner of the city, is the source of most street traffic in the city.

Noise from the airport has been a source of concern for nearly decades. There was even a report in that a new satellite air-traffic control system may be responsible for some of the noise by putting jets on a path that includes certain neighborhoods. The U. Federal Aviation Administration had rejected the airports' applications for a curfew.

In December , a slowdown in passenger traffic led the Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport Authority to curtail spending plans, including deferring multimillion-dollar construction projects. The construction of major freeways through and around the city of Burbank starting in the s both divided the city from itself and linked it to the rapidly growing Los Angeles region.

Burbank is easily accessible by and can easily access the Southern California freeways via the Golden State Freeway I-5 , which bisects the city from northwest to southeast, and the Ventura Freeway which connects Burbank to the U. Route on the south and the nearby Foothill Freeway to the east. The Ventura Freeway was completed in The crossing has been the site of at least two fatalities in recent years.

Burbank contains about Many of the current signals date back to the late s, when voters passed a major capital improvement program for street beautification and street lighting. The funding also helped upgrade dated park and library facilities. Metro operates public transport throughout Los Angeles County , including Burbank.

Commuters can use Metrolink and Amtrak for service south into Downtown , west to Ventura and north to Palmdale and beyond. Burbank has its own public trasportation system known as the Burbank Bus. In , Burbank opened its first hydrogen fueling station for automobiles. At the time of cityhood, Burbank had a volunteer fire department. Fire protection depended upon the bucket brigade and finding a hydrant. It wasn't until that the city created its own fire department. By , the city was installing an additional 40 new fire hydrants but still relying on volunteers for fire fighting.

In , the city switched from a volunteer fire department to a professional one. The Department consists of six strategically located fire stations, consisting of: 6 fire engines type 1 ; 2 aerial ladder trucks tractor-drawn and 3 paramedic ambulances. Like a lot of cities, dispatching was done by law enforcement due to cost-effectiveness.

A "tri-city" joint dispatching center was created to solve the issue and fill the void. The three city fire departments are all dispatched from the Verdugo Fire Communications Center, located in Glendale. Each of the three cities shares the cost of operating and maintaining this dispatch facility. Today, Verdugo is a regional dispatch center, providing communications for all 13 fire departments in California's OES "Area C" mutual aid area and the 14th agency which is the Burbank Airport Fire Department.

In , Burbank's first major hospital opened under the name "Burbank Community Hospital". The bed facility served the community during a deadly smallpox epidemic in and helped it brace for possible air raids at the start of World War II. The two-story hospital was located at Olive Avenue and Fifth Street.

By , the hospital was expanded to 50 beds and in the mids operated with beds and a staff of over physicians. For years, it also was the only hospital in Burbank where women could receive abortions, tubal ligations and other procedures not offered at what is now Providence St. Joseph Medical Center. Elmer H. He was a general practitioner who made house calls by bicycle and horseback. Proceeds from that sale went to the Burbank Health Care Foundation, which assists community organizations that cater to health-related needs.

Construction of the hospital proved difficult due to World War II restrictions on construction materials, and in particular the lack of structural steel. But the challenges were met and the one-story hospital was erected to deal with wartime restrictions. During the baby boom of the s, the hospital expanded from the original beds to By , the hospital featured licensed beds and ranked as the second-largest hospital serving the San Fernando and Santa Clarita Valleys. The hospital employs about 2, employees and plus physicians.

Joseph in Burbank, renamed the hospital Providence St. The medical center has several centers on campus with specialized disciplines. Cancer, cardiology, mammogram, hospice and children's services are some of the specialty centers. The newest addition to the medical center's offerings is the Roy and Patricia Disney Family Cancer Center, which opened in February The cancer center features four stories of the latest in high-tech equipment to treat cancer patients and provide wellness services.

Disney, the nephew of Walt Disney. Roy E. Disney died in December of stomach cancer. Burbank is currently twinned with:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city in Los Angeles County. City in California, United States. Looking northwest over Burbank from Griffith Park. Main article: Walt Disney Studios Burbank. This section needs additional citations for verification.

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