Importantly, the pathological hallmarks of the model were consistent with the clinical progression of MM in terms of tumor growth and spread inside the peritoneal cavity. We further examined the effectiveness of the anti-mesothelin immunotoxin SS1P in our model. We found that all of the mice with tumor burdens had significant response upon SS1P treatment, as evidenced by in vivo imaging and necropsy observance, which strongly supports the role that SS1P may have as a potent anti-mesothelioma drug candidate.
Cells were harvested and the media were changed twice a week. Cells were confirmed to be negative for mycoplasma. Two days after infection, GFP expression was examined by flow cytometry. Louis, MO. The mice were maintained per the institutional guidelines of the NIH. The photometry of the tumor was calculated by software Living Image 3. To correlate fluorescence intensity and tumor size, tumor dimensions were determined using calipers, and the tumor volume mm 3 was calculated by the formula: length x width 2 x 0.
A model of isolated, vascular whole thymus transplantation in nude rats.
At the end of the in vivo tumor growth study, a subset of mice from control and treatment groups were euthanized with CO 2 , the abdominal cavity was opened, and a photo of the tumor in situ was taken. A complete necropsy was performed with collection of all major organs and tissues as well as gross lesions suggestive of neoplasia.
Two antibodies were used: anti-mesothelin to confirm the identity of the cell line and anti-GFP to correlate with in vivo images. Mesothelin Sigma-Aldrich, cat.
Generation of the LMB-H226-GL cell line
HPA made in rabbit was diluted and incubated on sections for 30 minutes at room temperature. Pretreatment consisted of citrate heat-induced epitope retrieval. The anti-GFP antibody made in rabbit was obtained from Abcam cat. Manual staining was performed and the antibody was diluted and incubated on sections for 30 minutes at 37 o C. Pretreatment included normal goat serum, and biotin-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody from Vector Laboratories was used, with diamino benzidine as chromagen and hematoxylin as a counter-stain.
Pathology evaluation was performed by a board-certified veterinary pathologist and correlated with in vivo images. Two treatment groups and one control group were set up with eight mice in each group. Each mouse was initially i. Each mouse in the treatment groups received 0.
One treatment group treatd1 was started on day one the day when the mice received the cells was set as day 1 then received four further doses of SS1P every other day thereafter. The second treatment group treatd9 was started on day nine, and then received three further doses of SS1P as in the treatd1 group. Suppression of tumor growth was measured by in vivo imaging. NCI-H, as one of the NCI cell lines, is a well characterized mesothelioma cell line with high expression levels of mesothelin. Thus, we determined that the LMB-HGL line may be appropriately used for in vivo studies of mesothelin-targeted drugs.
To check the tumorigenicity of LMB-HGL, we designed two groups of mice based on the numbers of cells injected: the high-dosage group 10 million cells per mouse Fig. The growth rate of the high-dosage group was similar to that of the low-dosage group. The tumor size in the high-dosage group was relatively larger Fig. High-dosage group, each mouse received 10 million cells. Animals were imaged the following day d2 and then once every week thereafter. Low-dosage group, each mouse received five million cells and were imaged following the same schedule as the high-dosage group.
In vivo tumor growth curve.
Tumor growth was measured by bioluminescence photometry. The day when the mice were injected with the tumor cells was set as d1. The photometry of the in vivo imaging was accumulated by software Living Image 3. Error bars represent the standard deviation from measurement of four mice in each corresponding group. At the end of the study, mice were sacrificed; tumors were immediately removed and measured by weight, size and fluorescence.
Association of photon intensity with tumor weight B or size C was also performed. A stronger correlation between bioluminescence and tumor weight is shown correlation coefficients are 0. The distribution of luminescence was irregular in the abdomen at the beginning and the tumors eventually spread to fill the entire abdomen Fig. At day 60 high-dosage group or day 67 low-dosage group , most of the mice were thin, sick, and less active, indicating the end-point of the experiment.
During the whole study, only one mouse was found to have a distended abdomen, but no ascites was found in the abdomen. A dual reporter system may greatly enhance the value of mouse cancer models as shown by Dai et al. In the present study, we used the same previously well-established vector [ 22 ]. We used luciferase to quantitate in vivo tumor growth. The light emission of the luciferase system can be detected in the imager after i. The signal quickly reached its peak three minutes after injection, and the peak was maintained for at least 30 minutes.
As for the GFP reporter, it may be particularly useful to isolate mesothelioma cells from mice by flow cytometry after forming tumors as previously shown [ 22 ] and to investigate the molecular oncogenesis of mesothelioma by analyzing the changes in gene expression profiles.
At the end of the experiment, the mice were euthanized, and tumors were immediately removed and measured by weight Fig. At necropsy, white mesothelioma tumors were attached to and sometimes invaded the peritoneal wall Fig. Similar masses were present on the visceral peritoneum of the pancreas, liver, diaphragm and gonadal fat pads. Histopathological evaluation confirmed the mesothelioma attributes of the injected cell line. Immunohistochemistry using the anti-mesothelin antibody showed strong membrane and some cytoplasmic staining Fig.
With the anti-GFP antibody, there was mild to moderate cytoplasmic staining Fig. Necropsy and histological observance. Mesothelioma in peritoneal cavity. Arrow indicates the tumor mass. Mesothelin IHC 20x with membrane staining. As a proof-of-concept experiment, we tested in vivo anti-tumor activity using SS1P in the established mesothelioma model.
Login via Institution. Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance? Don't have an account? Currency and addition of Tax VAT depend on your shipping address. Author: Patricia Crone. Add to Cart. Have an Access Token? Enter your access token to activate and access content online. Search for more papers by this author. Rapid systemic injection of naked plasmid DNA pDNA in a large volume into a mouse tail vein has been shown to result in a high level of gene expression in the liver.
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However, the potential therapeutic benefit to humans embodied in hydrodynamic transfection of the liver cannot be realized until a clinically viable method for gene delivery is developed. In light of this fact, we have devised and evaluated several methods for delivering pDNA to the isolated rabbit liver using minimally invasive catheter-based techniques. Using a lobar technique, pDNA was delivered hydrodynamically to an isolated hepatic lobe using a balloon occlusion balloon catheter to occlude a selected hepatic vein. A whole organ technique was used wherein the entire hepatic venous system was isolated and the pDNA solution injected hydrodynamically into the vena cava between two balloons used to block hepatic venous outflow.
Lobar delivery of a plasmid encoding a secreted alkaline phosphatase SEAP reporter gene resulted in significant levels of transgene product in the serum. A nonsecreted transgene product, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase CAT , showed the highest levels of expression in the injected lobe distal to the injection site. Compared to lobar delivery, whole organ delivery yielded much higher serum levels of SEAP expression and a significantly broader hepatic parenchymal distribution of CAT expression.
These preliminary studies suggest that catheter-mediated hydrodynamic delivery of pDNA to the isolated liver may provide a method for human gene therapy that is both therapeutically significant and clinically practicable. Login to your account Username. Forgot password? Keep me logged in. New User. Change Password.
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Enter your email address below and we will send you your username. Human Gene Therapy Vol. Simon J. Eastman Search for more papers by this author. Kevin M. Baskin Search for more papers by this author. Bradley L. Hodges Search for more papers by this author. Qiuming Chu Search for more papers by this author. Amy Gates Search for more papers by this author. Rebecca Dreusicke Search for more papers by this author. Scott Anderson Search for more papers by this author. Ronald K. Scheule Search for more papers by this author.
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