All this may seem off-putting and obscurantist. But that is where the ancient commentaries help: ancient and Byzantine readers found it hard going as we do, so we are well provided with explanatory material, above all by the Byzantine scholar Johannes Tzetzes. And there are two ancient prose paraphrases, which assist in understanding what myths are being alluded to, and how far they diverge from standard versions.
None of this is in Homer. When Troy fell, she was raped by Locrian Ajax, despite her appeals to Athena.
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In the Odyssey she is killed by Clytaemestra together with Agamemnon, who had taken her as booty. The best known account of this is in Aeschylus. But in the Alexandra , the Trojan War is still in the near future. So the bulk of the Alexandra can be seen as one long tragic messenger-speech which culminates in some Roman history. But nothing is spelt out explicitly: it is all shone through the lens of myth. The poem shows literary knowledge of the great third-century Alexandrian poets, and historical knowledge of the Hannibalic or Second Punic War fought by the Romans in BC.
The assault itself, described in heart-wrenching detail, opens the nostoi narrative. The longest nostoi sections are about Odysseus and Menelaus, both of whom go to the western Mediterranean, Sicily and S. As for the more surprising presence of Spartan Menelaus in Sicily and Magna Graecia, he is a precursor of royal, entirely historical Spartan adventurers. In Lykophron, the mythical material is presented idiosyncratically, with digressions and excursuses. This includes a valuable narrative of the historical colonisation of Aeolian, Ionian and Dorian Asia Minor in terms of charter myths.
Some of this reflects historical rivalries between elite settler families. It may have been written for recitation to an elite pro-Roman audience in a Greek-speaking city of South Italy. Perhaps Lykophron was a priest, and if so Italian Epizephyrian Locri would be a good guess for his native polis.
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Female poets are attested there, and in view of the number of abused and mistreated women in the poem, it is tempting to think the name Lykophron concealed a woman — except that there is no other known example of a ancient Greek female poet taking a male pseudonym. As for financial support, perhaps he was crowd-funded by a syndicate of wealthy pro-Roman Greek sponsors.
The very existence of Roman myth was denied until recently, but this was wrong. The poem never names Rome directly. The lion-whelps are the twins Romulus and Remus, though with typical idiosyncrasy Lykophron does not call them wolf-cubs, as we might have expected given that they were suckled by a she-wolf. First, Apulia. Cassandra adds that his sad followers changed into birds and settled on the island which bears the name of their leader. This was picked up by Virgil and by Ovid two centuries later in his Metamorphoses. It was long thought that the only islands in question were the Tremiti islands off the Gargano peninsula.
Can you only swing on its waves? Sweep my fear far away like the carcass of an octopus BLUE! Ioanna Frangia. Words: , Published: August 11, by Libros Libertad Publishing. Ioanna Frangia was born in Peireus and lives in Athens.
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She worked as a tourist guide and also as a clinical psychologist. Because of her first career she travelled all over Greece and studied in depth the historical path of ancient Greek civilization from the prehistoric times to today. Published: June 20, by Libros Libertad Publishing. Purple Haze purports to describe "nondescript days" but that's just a poetic haze that subtly brings the reader to this poetry's real clarity, which is its ability to pose questions.
Words: 46, Robert Friedland knows so much about Chinese culture. Words: 63, In this third novel in the Water series, Riedweg quickly draws us into the turbulent world of the Cresswells' adopted daughter, Rachael.
Now 16, Rachael yearns for more freedom and excitement than a prairie farm has to offer. While her younger brother is blissfully content tending cows, Rachael is not, preferring instead the company of her wild older cousin. Published: March 9, by Libros Libertad Publishing. Poetry entrenched deeply in the European tradition with elements of surrealism, with meditative moods, these poems at sometimes engage the reader deeply and at other times they truly entertain.
Within These Bonds by Loreena M. Words: 70, Published: December 9, by Libros Libertad Publishing. Will Evelyn be able to find her way to a better life?
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Or will her hopes be shattered once again when all is not what it seems. With their wives and families, they coped with poverty, hard work and loneliness. Published: October 7, by Libros Libertad Publishing. Cloe and Alexandra are two contemporary Greek Poetesses with passionate voices that work from within today's human condition to describe its pain and pleasure; two voices so similar and yet so different in their expression of the internal. They are two poetesses who try to blend both pain and pleasure into an acceptable value. Words: 7, Published: May 9, by Libros Libertad Publishing.
Published: April 21, by Libros Libertad Publishing. Since its inception as a semi-autonomous country within the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland has survived the convulsions of the Civil War, the privations of the Second World War, the abortive IRA campaign of violence in the s, and the student-led agitation for civil rights in the s that led to over thirty years of brutal terror, euphemistically referred to as The Troubles. Words: 79, Published: April 10, by Libros Libertad Publishing. It is, also, an unusual book about a very unusual man.
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This is an enlightening story of a very intelligent, artistically endowed, determined and perhaps spiritually guided warrior for the conservation of the land, air and water upon which the continuation of all species, including our own, depends. Words: 37, Published: March 2, by Libros Libertad Publishing. This is a story about new beginnings and new life in Saskatchewan, the province that was developed by newcomers and that, in turn, enabled the development of newcomers. The harshness of the climate and the austerity of the land dictated that survival was literally a life and death struggle in the early going.
Words: 77, Nukes on the 49th is a techno-thriller depicting a struggle of wills between American and Canadian political forces that eventually results in the Canadian Prime Minister deciding to develop nuclear weapons. Two American nuclear accidents on Canadian soil had pushed him over the edge. Words: 83, Published: October 12, by Libros Libertad Publishing.
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While on a study tour of the Soviet Union during the austere Brezhnev years, Jennifer, a Canadian student, is swept off her feet by a handsome Soviet man, Volodya. He is a discontented jazz pianist whose idol is singer Ella Fitzgerald—for him the symbol of everything mysterious and musical that can happen only in the west Words: 38, Published: April 19, by Libros Libertad Publishing. The newly ordained Father Padraig returns to his home village of Corrymore as its new priest. The mission he has set himself in addition to his parochial duties is to save the souls" of the proud, pagan fisherman Finn MacLir and his daughter Caitlin by converting them to Christianity People are being hunted, deprived, excluded.
Walls, actual walls, as well as social and political ones are built upon. People who help bring them down give me hope. What Greek cultural trends do you find most interesting? The various voices emerging in poetry. The foundation of new publishing houses and literary journals. The experimentations of musicians and bands. The neighbourhood solidarity networks, which promote art among other things. The emergence of young artists who elaborate on the current condition in their own terms.
Women poets of older generations who write and publish vivid poetry. There is a vast plurality trying to continue making art and survive. From opera and theatre to circus, music, poetry, filmmaking, photography, performance and more. Most of them collaborate with others.
I especially admire those who reinvent themselves without betraying who they are. An extract from Words translated by Peter Constantine :. Can poetry be political? In Greece , poetry can be part of the anti-fascist discourse and the working class discourse. There are autonomous anti-fascist groups and working class groups who publish magazines, do demonstrations, put posters on the walls.
Poetry can be a part of this discourse. What would you say to people who believe what is happening to Greece has been caused by external factors? I blame the Greek middle class and the Greek capitalist system. How is poetry perceived in Greece? In Greece poetry is considered a high-class art. If you want to publish a poetry book, you have to pay a publishing house.
That means that most people who publish poetry in Greece belong to the middle class or have money to spare. I can sense there are more people from a working class background that write poetry nowadays. There is a guy called Omega who writes about his experiences as a labourer or as unemployed. His poetry is very direct, which is not very common in Greece. I open the balcony doors. But the rain is louder. It comes into the house. Hits the lampshades.
Knocks over the lights. Collides with reality. How would you define your poetry? It uses fragments of personal memories to challenge our perception of what we are as a species and what we do here. In this time of crisis what is the role of the personal, of the senses, of the body? Do people trust their body? Do they listen to it?
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How can they stop being just consumers, but active members of society who care about their environment? How do our senses and our body want us to live, work, relate, create? As meaningful and exciting and beautiful. In politics and society? We are all shaken up and blinded by the shock. We have lost perspective and see no horizon. Which Greek cultural trends do you find most interesting? There is culture in Greece, but no money or real support for it.