Register for FREE 1st month. Download your desired books 3. Easy to cancel your membership. Joint with more than Markus Jensen I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! Michael Strebensen wtf this great ebook for free?! Hun Tsu My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not! Donatelli Piergiorgio. Francesco Saverio Husserl, Introduzione all'etica, Laterza , p. Fukuoka Japan ; Fukuoka Japan Lecaldano, E. Mistretta, Laterza, , vol.
Donatelli P. Pier Luigi Vercesi. Scientifico E. Mostre, Recensioni e Iniziative - - Cartantica ; Il volume, stampato con cura dall'editore Giuseppe Laterza, oltre a essere motivato Editori Laterza. Renata Donatelli,. Il maggio dei libri , Leggere fa crescere ; Un viaggio che inizia tra le pagine di ''Hotel a zero stelle'', edito da Laterza Anna Donatelli Proporremo attivita di reading a cura di scrittori ospiti e book crossing: le Blog e Webzine, Webcomics, E-Book.
Bookcity , il programma by Monrif Net - issuu ; 23 ott La filosofia morale - Donatelli Piergiorgio, Laterza Pubblicato da Laterza, collana Biblioteca essenziale Laterza, data pubblicazione gennaio , Lo afferma lui stesso. Parlando del Giulio Einaudi Editore I classici, le teorie e le linee evolutive. Confezione regalo. Gaia la libraia. In citing Maria Luisa Spaziani's phrase, "nebuloso mistero da vincersi a ristroso" from the poem "Quell'uomo-stella" , as an "inadvertent description of the rose topos itself, which must be denied in order to be validated" , Peterson recognizes a fundamental trait of the modern relationship to topoi in general.
The phrase evokes as well what faces the critic engaged in clearing up the mysteries of textual interaction; and, in fact, the reader of The Rose in Contemporary Italian Poetry might wish that Peterson had ventured further in this direction, following the reverse path of influence and elaborating on the interrelations among texts. Many of the poetic fragments examined remain just that - isolated fragments - and the reader is left to formulate many of those "causal and systematic connection[s]" toward which Peterson professes a certain skepticism in his Preface.
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Nevertheless, The Rose in Contemporary Italian Poetry is an extremely rich and challenging book, and goes a long way toward redeeming the study of literary topoi. It is both a welcome source and model for the scholar interested in such studies, as well as a "rosa dei venti" for the general reader on the high seas of twentieth-century Italian poetry. Viktor Berberi, Indiana University. Iannace, ed. Maria Vergine nella letteratura italiana. The Blessed Virgin Mary, or Mary of Nazareth, is a complex figure in the contemporary academic scene, subject to, and of, diverse interpretations.
For the traditional Catholic academic, she may be primarily a co-redemptrix, object of devotion as the earthly mother of Jesus Christ; for the Marxist or the atheist, she may be among the most visible and fertile symbols of the collective illusion of religion; for the liberal feminist, she may be a dangerous icon of patriarchal domination and female subordination to the role of mother and wife; for the feminist or liberation theologian or believer, she may be an example of full humanity achieved against all the odds of an oppressive, colonized context. Among these multiple figures, the first is the dominant one in the essays collected in Florinda Iannace's Maria Vergine nella letteratura italiana.
These generally short pieces there are over thirty of them in the admittedly long volume were originally presented as lectures at a congress at Fordham University entitled "The Virgin Mary in Italian Literature. Tusiani, a surprising presence in the book, is an Italian-American poet who writes in English and comments as critic - he is the author of the essay on himself - on his own poetic production. Moreover, there are some general survey essays on Mary in Catholic theology and in Italian literature.
Several different interpretive methods are used in the essays: there are stylistic, psychoanalytic Jungian, Kristevan, and Lacanian , and historical approaches, as well as biographical and devotional readings. Like the chronological frame and the interpretive methodologies, the quality of the essays is also wide-ranging: while some, more traditionally devout critics may find the pious tone used in many of the essays appealing, many readers will be put off by a heavy rhetoric likely to discourage not only non-believers "i critici miscredenti," as one of the contributors hastily describes them, , but also non-traditional believers like myself, from entertaining a dialogue with the critics.
This hagiographic approach is what we read in the introduction to the volume, where we find no mention of a more simpatica Virgin Mary, the Mary of Nazareth evoked, for example, by some contemporary theologians.
Many of the essays abound in platitudes, others are not much more than an introduction to an author, a summary of texts, a compilation of quotations with minimal critical intervention. Let me also note, while I dwell on this negative paragraph, that the copy-editing of the volume leaves much to be desired, at times even impeding a clear reading of the text the year is placed for instance in the third century, That having been said, the volume includes several solid traditional literary readings - I am thinking, for example, of the essays on Dante by Walter Mauro and Giuseppe Di Scipio - as well as some veritable gems.
Although it bears no connection with the literature invoked in the collection's title, Father Avery Dulles's essay on the role of the Virgin Mary in Catholic theology is a useful, clear, and inclusive survey of Mary's interpretations in the second part of the twentieth century. I was happy to find it at the beginning of the book, and disappointed that many of the subsequent essays did not display an awareness of the breadth of interpretations so vividly presented by Father Dulles himself. The most insightful of the three essays which pay attention to sexual difference, Rinaldina Russell's work on Vittoria Colonna, is a well-written and original piece which explores Colonna's connection with the spirituali through an analysis of her writings on the Virgin Mary.
In these texts, "Mary becomes a figura of the possible coming together of the human and the divine" , a union central to Colonna's existential and poetic quest. For Colonna, and for Torquato Tasso as well, Mary is a figure who above all else represents a point of juncture between humanity and divinity. This connecting role is highlighted in Giuseppe Mazzotta's contribution on Tasso's "Le lagrime della Beata Vergine," an absolutely brilliant piece, and all too short.
In little over three pages, Mazzotta evokes, with a critical prose that is itself highly poetic, a meditation on Mary's tears as they incarnate the impossible desire to re connect the mother's body and the son's pain, maternity and death. Thus, Tasso's link between sorrow and thought is also the link between pain and philosophy, strikingly allegorized in Mary's tears. Gaetana Marrone's Lacanian reading of Elsa Morante's Aracoeli stands out in the collection for its theoretical sophistication, but unfortunately it mentions only very tangentially the Virgin; its inclusion in the collection left me baffled.
Finally, I found useful and engaging, as well as very well written, Alfredo Luzi's introduction to the presence of the Virgin Mary in twentieth-century Italian poetry. Because of the great chronological and interpretive spectrum, no one critic is likely to be engaged and profit by all of the essays in Iannace's collection. What I found annoying others may find inspiring, and vice versa.
Therefore, I would recommend the volume to anyone interested in the topic evoked in the title, or, even more generally, in the connection between religion and literature, spirituality and textuality. Cristina Mazzoni, University of Vermont. A History of Women's Writing in Italy. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, In these works, the authors sketch a broad historical and thematic introduction to women's writings, which is then followed by studies of the main themes present in the works of individual authors.
Panizza and Wood propose here an overview of seven centuries of women writing and the diverse genres in which they simultaneously participated. The book is divided into three major historical categories: the Renaissance, Counter-Reformation, and seventeenth century; the Enlightenment and Restoration; and the Risorgimento and modern Italy, The historical division allows for the inclusion of women's writings "beyond the conventional genres classed as literature" 1.
As Wood and Panizza point out in their introduction, writing literature in Italy has always assumed a classical education as well as one in Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch. Since women were largely self-taught and often did not adhere to fixed models or discuss certain themes prevalent in male writers, their writing has largely been underestimated if not ignored.
The volume includes 19 essays written by women literature and history professors from the United Kingdom, North America, and Italy; six essays were translated from Italian. In addition to the essays, there is a useful bibliographical guide which gives a brief description of the writers discussed, followed by a short list of selected works and critical works. All works cited in the essays are included in the bibliography that closes the volume and that, admirably, attempts to recognize criticism on Italian women writers from both sides of the Atlantic. It is not intended here to uncover a tradition of women's writing, a concept the editors deny.
Most of the articles are primarily expository in nature. The diverse essays are united by their focus on the principal historical and cultural features of the periods the book addresses and how they "impinged on what women wrote" 3. Hence, the chapter divisions by generic form i. Rather these rubrics enable each critic to group together diverse women who used the same form to negotiate those various yet ever recurring practical, social, and ideological obstacles to writing that made it necessary for each generation of women writers to define and defend themselves anew.
The number of chapters in each section - six essays in Part 1; four in Part 2; nine in Part 3, including five chapters for the novel form alone - tells at a glance the ebb and flow of women's participation in writing across the centuries. The first major "genre" women used was letter writing. Maria Luisa Doglio's fine article reviews classical references which attributed the invention of this literary form to a woman who either counseled her sons or spoke of waiting for a loved one.
She then discusses Catherine of Siena's religious writings dictated to a scribe; Alessandra Strozzi's letters to her sons; Vittoria Colonna's more spiritual and intellectual letters; Veronica Franco's Lettere familiari ; and finally actress Isabella Andreini's Lettere printed in , three years after her death.
Despite the differences in tone and content of all these letters, Doglio finds that "by writing to instruct, women demolish the barrier of submission founded on the age-old ban forbidding women to teach" In a brief chapter, Letizia Panizza examines the work of women humanists who wrote in Latin, such as Laura Cerati and Cassandra Fedele. Although she finds it "hard to trace a continuity between these women humanists writing in Latin and their successors writing in Italian in the next and later centuries," the arguments in defense of women, such as those of Isotta Nogarola who questioned the Church's blaming of the fall of man on women since "where there is less intellect and less constancy, there is less sin" 27 , introduce a theme that will be repeated in almost every essay, that is, the need for Italian women writers of all generations to defend or deny their sexual difference since they experienced the Biblical paradigm for women not only as an account of a fall from innocence but as a definition and limitation of their creative abilities.
Giovanna Rabitti's chapter on lyric poetry from to discusses Vittoria Colonna again, along with Veronica Gambara, Gaspara Stampa whose "titillating" poetry has received perhaps "an excess of critical attention"  and ends with Isabella Andreini Her essay makes it appear that there was a Renaissance for women in the realm of lyric poetry brought about by "a shared experience" According to Virginia Cox in "Fiction, ," after the s the main model for women's writing was the Petrarchan lyric in its "amatory and spiritual variants" and the lettere familiari.
Cox argues that women's writing flourished in a rather "long sixteenth century," since the privileged literary idiom of Petrarchism was paradoxically amenable to assimilation by women. The Counter Reformation's moral repression "allowed for the return of pious and decent women on stage" in courtly pastoral dramas and for women to write historical poemi eroici.
In her chapter, "Polemical Prose Writing, ," Letizia Panizza shows how the writings of women such as Moderata Fonte, Lucrezia Marinella, and Angela Tarabotti shifted the focus of participation in disputation in dialogues on love and friendship between men to defenses of women's moral character and against, as in the case of Tarabotti, social and legal injustices.
In the same time frame, as Gabriella Zarri writes in the concluding chapter of this section, women were also active in religious and devotional writing. Although these writings were not published, and so their influence was limited, they did reflect the Church's favorable attitude towards women engaged in mysticism and prophetic sanctity. Cox finishes her essay saying that at the beginning of the Seicento women seemed headed for the mainstream.
However, the 18th century provided no mainstream for women's writings. The literary genres in which their writing had flourished were no longer viable. Luisa Ricaldone's essay on the Enlightenment and the Restoration explains the sparse participation in writing by women of this era, and the oblivion into which the works of previous women writers fell.
Moral treatises assigned literature a role in women's education, if it was kept at an "amateur level" Few Italian women earned their living by writing or engaging in cultural activities Even fewer wrote novels: Giuseppina di Lorena-Carignano wrote some prose romances, but she wrote them in French. Verina Jones discusses women's entry into the field of literary journalism, ladies' magazines, and political journalism. Adriana Chemello introduces another new genre, literary criticism.
Women went from participating in debates on the "excellence and dignity of women" to debates on whether or not they should be admitted to the study of the arts and sciences. Chemello also discusses the work of Luisa Bergalli who, among other things, wrote an anthology of women's writing published in Venice in The final section begins with Silvana Patriarca's informative essay on women's increased participation in journalism. After , new outlets appeared for women, such as the periodical press for which women and men from the petite bourgeoisie could write As usual, women joined in debates on the role and function of women's education, and the first "feminist" journal, La donna, was founded by Gualberta Alaide Beccari in Patriarca reviews not only the "feminist" views of Beccari, Maria Mozzoni, and Jesse Mario White, but also the works of Cesare Lombroso's daughter, Paola, who published ethnography studies on the mentality of the lower classes along with children's books, whom she contrasts with Ida Baccini, a prolific author of articles for literary journals and the director of a popular girl's journal, Cordelia.
If Baccini's work exudes the values of the patriotic middle classes love of order, industriousness, etc. She quotes Delfina Dolza to defend Lombroso who, "like the other women, even when they appeared to be writing and sharing male opinions, was shaped by a sensitivity to the social context of women's subordination which made the author subvert some of the very convictions of her intellectual milieu" Lombroso's concern with a lack of civic spirit or participation in a democracy by people who were uneducated is looked upon as a sort of subversion of the same values of submission she openly espoused.
The essays on women's fictional writings - Lucienne Kroha's "The Novel, "; Anna Laura Lepschy's "The Popular Novel, "; Lucia Re's "Futurism and Fascism"; and Ann Hallamore Caesar's "The Novel, ," - deal as well with how to interpret the overt antifeminism of many women writers and their participation in conservative and Fascist genres.
Paradoxes abound. Re writes how Futurism's iconoclasm was appealing to many women writers. Under Fascism more women's works were published than ever before. Fascism was "contradictory, 'imperfect,' and flexible enough to tolerate a wide spectrum of relatively emancipated social and cultural modes of behavior and expression" But even women as different as Serao and Aleramo still "felt that there was something illegitimate about their writing as if it constituted the invasion of a masculine terrain and a betrayal of femininity for which they had to constantly apologize" These women are seen as open to more international influences, namely European modernism, through their interest in translations Yet these women writers were denounced by feminism's first authors, who threw literature and its compromising structures out.
Adalgisa Giorgio, in "The Novel, ," focuses on how the writing in her time frame "parallels the shift in Italian feminism from the political phase of emancipation and reality to the more cultural phase of affirming female difference in the imaginary psychic and symbolic linguistic and intellectual structures of society" Starting with Francesca Sanvitale, Maria Corti, and Alice Ceresa as writers who launched an inquiry into the role of gender in literature as well as the theme of female genealogies, Giorgio also includes writers from the s, thus making this essay a much needed supplement to the one done by this reviewer 11 years ago "From Margins to Mainstream: Some Perspectives on Women and Literature in Italy in the s," Contemporary Women Writers in Italy: A Modern Renaissance, ed.
Catherine O'Brien divides women poets into three major groups: those influenced by symbolism, those influenced by the hermetic movement, and finally those who "have advanced the case of women's poetry by achieving equality and recognition," although their work does not differ thematically or stylistically from that of their male counterpart The collection closes with Sharon Wood's essay on critical theory, which "seeks to place women's thinking about contemporary aesthetics and cultural practice, theoretical considerations on women and literature, and by necessary extension on women and language, within a historical or philosophical context" Since Wood dealt with these issues in Italian Women Writers, there might have been more of an advantage here if she had tried to outline some of the new directions for criticism and theory that these essays, with their wealth of information, have now made possible.
The few misspellings and bibliographical omissions e. The genre and time divisions work well to show the diversity in women's writings across the ages as well as to highlight the recurring similarities in themes and cultural debates. And the information included here makes it possible for future scholars to realize the volume's goal, which is, in Wood's words, to "not only rewrite the history of Italian women's writing, but to reshape our reading of Italian literature itself" Carol Lazzaro-Weis, Southern University.
La scrittura e l'interpretazione. Palermo: Palumbo, These two tomes comprise the second half of Luperini and Cataldi's work, of which the first two volumes cover Italian literary history respectively up to and from the Counter-Reformation. The last years are thus accorded as much space as the previous six centuries. This reflects escalating literary productivity, but also privileges modernity and contemporary relevance, to the extent, for instance, that not much less space is given to "il classico del secolo" Montale 41 pages , than to Petrarch 43 pages.
This is partly the effect of not very closely considering earlier Italian literature written in Latin, but more largely springs from the pedagogical intent of the work, which is implicitly aimed at students in the licei and in the early years of university. For these, it is an excellent guide, and it will also be extremely useful to their teachers and, indeed, to academics wishing to home in or update rapidly on unfamiliar areas, as well as presenting a reader-friendly introduction to the general lover of Italian literature.
For such pedagogical and informative purposes, it is admirably laid out.
Full text of "Annali d'italianistica"
Each "Part", covering a historical period, opens with a long chapter mapping out broad socio-economic, intellectual and cultural developments in the western world and in Italy. The subsequent chapters respectively cover literary movements and debates within the same period, followed by each of the main literary sectors - poetry, narrative, discursive writing, and theatre. For each sector, there is a gradual zoom-in from developments in Europe and the Americas to those in Italy. Major non-Italian writers - Baudelaire or Tolstoy, T.
Eliot or Kafka - as well as all the major Italian writers have an individual chapter devoted to them, and there are also primi piani - chapters devoted to individual works of outstanding importance, whether Italian or not. Approximately a third of the text is thus given over to things other than Italian literature, in keeping with the principle enunciated in the introduction to the whole work, that Italian literature must be seen in the context of western culture generally, especially now that the role of the "national" literature in shaping the Italian nation-state has been historically superseded.
This cultural contextualization is aided by rich pictorial and photographic illustration in somewhat muted colours , but popular or mass culture is referred to mainly as a threat to "high" literature and culture. The work's pedagogical project is also furthered by numerous chronological tables and explanatory windows of schede e informazioni on historical and cultural phenomena , passato e presente on shifting debates , itinerario linguistico on specific terms , testi e studi bibliographies.
There is a single index of these for the whole work, as also of titles, whereas personal names are indexed separately in each volume. The work as a whole is thus very close to being the hard copy of a hypertext which could be made available in the electronic medium with a much more powerful system of cross-referencing by key terms. However, these take the reader to useful but limited micro-essays on the topic concerned, and do not bring together very many of the writers or works that deal, say, with the Great War, or industry, or psychoanalysis. There is no lead to women in Italian literature though there are some useful discussions, e.
Likewise, there is no lead to interesting topics such as the figure of the impiegato, clerk or scrivener, or Darwinism, though, again, these topics are usefully discussed in connexion with specific authors including Bersezio, De Marchi, Svevo, and Tozzi for the former and Verga, De Roberto, Fogazzaro, and Svevo for the latter. Other topics not indexed include: the South, Naples, Sicily, Regionalism. For a ready but more demanding approach to such dimensions, the student will still have to resort to the Einaudi Letteratura Italiana directed by Alberto Asor Rosa.
The two tomes reviewed here are divided into four parts 11 to 14 , taking the account from Unification to , then to , next to , and then on to the present.
Bibliography of Italian Studies in North America-2004 (1)
The periodization is validated in cultural and literary terms Naturalism and Symbolism; the avant-gardes; "Ermetismo, Antinovecentismo e Neorealismo"; and Experimentalism, Neo-Avantgardes and the Postmodern , but predicated in terms of developments in the world economy and successive industrial revolutions and class transformations. Thus the year is the only one of the chronological divides in this periodization since Unification which also coincides with major events of political history.
The perspectives and emphases are usually powerful and interesting, though, curiously, the period from to is cosily assigned to "peaceful coexistence," with little hint of the arms race or M. The authors take joint responsibility for the whole text, with Cataldi being the main author for the chapters on poetry and poets though he also takes on Gadda, while Luperini does Montale , while the chapters on non-Italian and some Italian subjects are the work of other specialists.
The negative perspective climaxes in the last major close-up of a writer, devoted to Pasolini and also done by Cataldi. Given that Pasolini died in , there is a chronological paradox in treating him so close to the end of a work that brings us right up to date. Placing Pasolini in one of the last chapters appears to be justified by assigning him to the category of public intellectual and discursive writer - of which he is presented as a highly suspect, ambiguous, and somewhat histrionic and self-advertising exemplar.
While this is not in itself simply wrong, it seems to serve the purpose of signalling a critical emptiness in Italian intellectual life, and masks the inadequate treatment given of Pasolini as poet, novelist and playwright his film-making being less pertinent to a history of literature. A straightforward concluding chapter on the present scenario in Italian writing might have been a better option. It might also have occasioned a discussion as to whether belletristic writing has - perhaps temporarily - been ousted from its once central position as arbiter of values by more specialized writing in philosophy and the social sciences, economics and the natural sciences, or how it may cope with the tide of consumerism.
This does not amount to an objection, however, against the quality, value, and usefulness of this work by Luperini and Cataldi and their colleagues. The skill with which the work as a whole is planned and the information and discussion contained in its component parts are presented, is generally admirable. There is a certain amount of repetition, expanding a concept sometimes up to three times in the treatment of a major author or work, but this can be accepted as part of the pedagogical imperative; and there are occasional inaccuracies for instance, the persistent myth that Svevo became a bank clerk because of his father's financial difficulties.
But these are very slight blemishes in a generally imposing work.
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Many of the primi piani have striking analyses and theses. Luperini's study of the chronotope of La bufera is one example. Petroni's study of transgressive freedom in La coscienza di Zeno is another. In keeping with the character of the work as a literary history, and the aim stated in the introduction of tracing the shifts and changes in the literary canon and the role of reading practices hence the "interpretazione" in the title , there is always a strong focus on literary movements and debates and on the overall movement consistently downward, it would seem in the status of writing and of the writer.
This can lead to interesting chronological displacements.
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Thus the more "modern" Svevo is placed later than his younger but less advanced contemporaries, d'Annunzio and Pirandello. This is a particular instance or three instances of a fully defensible revision of the canon compared to, say, half a century ago, and, indeed, it goes a great deal further. Luperini's and Cataldi's - and most people's - view of the Italian literary pantheon of the first half of the last century would be unrecognizable in Alfredo Galletti's Il Novecento of the old Vallardi series.
Where now is the epic poetry of Ettore Cozzani? It rightly goes unmentioned by Luperini and Cataldi, while the accademico d'Italia Alfredo Panzini gets no more than a dismissive aside. One might perhaps only remark that more might have been offered in a work of this type on the reading public and its tastes as is done occasionally, e. This leads to a more problematical consideration. Heedless of Gramsci, Luperini and Cataldi take a line similar to Spinazzola's regarding popular literature, which is dismissed as merely consumeristic.
Thus, no attention is paid to Guareschi or Fallaci, who have been among the most widely read of Italian writers, both inside and outside Italy. They are implicitly excluded from "the literary". Even works such as Il gattopardo and writers such as Bassani are belittled, with less than justice done to the debates that have surrounded them. This aristocratic exclusiveness is most massively evident in the treatment of women writers, who are given little space.
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Even if a claim could be sustained which I do not concede that as individual writers Italian women rank low in the literary league-table, there is at least a case for assessing their collective contribution as a category and the feminist critique whether explicit or oblique which they mount against the male hegemony.
Although, early on, we read: "Il progetto di emancipazione femminile [ Other omissions seem less significant in a work that cannot possibly aim at exhaustive comprehensiveness. Gallina and Bertolazzi do get usefully, if briefly, discussed, but we need not be surprised at not finding Pompeo Bettini, or even Ettore Cantoni, while the job of selection of course becomes harder still with the numerous writers that have surfaced in the last quarter of a century. This guide is, I think, a must for the library of every university that has students of Italian, and is a good buy also for serious individual students and teachers.
A Life in Works.
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New Haven: Yale UP, The most striking feature of this brilliantly structured volume is Hollander's ability to condense, in an erudite and at the same time communicative manner, the complexities surrounding Dante's works, their genesis, and dating. While not taking anything for granted and not assuming any preconceptions of Dante's production on the part of the reader, Hollander embarks upon a journey of discovery in which the two main fils rouges can be identified as the following: Dante's experimentalism, and the way in which the so-called minor works prepare the path for writing the Commedia and contribute to understanding it.
If we are to accept, as Hollander does, Petrocchi's dating for the Paradiso ; and if we respect the internal evidence provided by Monarchia In fact, Dante's masterpiece incorporates elements of his writings that had appeared, albeit in varying degrees, at times because of their interruption, in his early works Vita nuova, Convivio, De vulgari Eloquentia or his later output, mainly in Monarchia.
Hollander follows the unfolding of such production through a series of approaches that are stimulating and challenging for both the uninitiated and those who, although not daring to call themselves Dante scholars, are reasonably familiar with Dante's oeuvre. One such approach is evident from the very first pages, where Hollander highlights the importance of the Vita nuova and Dante's experimentalism by looking also at the poems that the author eventually did not include in his first major work; among those poems, one should certainly pay attention to the series of poems Dante exchanged with Dante da Maiano, in which casuistic love is analysed.
The figure of Beatrice in the Vita nuova is evidenced by Hollander in a chapter rich with scholarly exegesis and cross references to other scholars' contributions. Particularly essential are the notes in this and subsequent chapters, since they not only contain a plethora of information but are also an invaluable up-to-date bibliographical resource. Hollander does not shun tackling some of the more contentious issues, such as that regarding the donna gentile and the function of consolation for Dante's loss of Beatrice, both in verse VN 38, v. The connection is anticipated with a discussion of Dante's "meravigliosa visione" , which finds a parallel in the context expressed by the "quasi rapito" of Convivio Thus, chronologically, Hollander turns to the incomplete Convivio, where, as in the Vita nuova, prose and poetry combine to express the author's ideas.
The question of style, which anticipates the digression on the historical validity of a work of fiction in Inferno 16, is certainly of paramount importance, and Hollander treats it also by referring to Purgatorio 24 ca. At that juncture, Dante looks back from this vantage point and declares that his "style" began when he composed "Donne ch'avete," around Hollander sustains that this declaration "makes it clear that there was no group of poets who adopted the style before that time - if there was such a group at all.
XXIV, 58 was, in his opinion, a fellow practitioner" Following the chronological order, Hollander takes into consideration first Convivio 1; and, before looking at the remaining three books, he focuses on the question of style that Dante raises in the De vulgari Eloquentia. Convivio 1 represents an introductory treatise to what Dante intended to be an encyclopedic work, and its second part ties in with his defense of the Italian vernacular, which will constitute the backbone of the De vulgari Eloquentia. Books 2 and 3 of the Convivio confirm that the treatise was composed for a reader well acquainted with the Vita nuova, while only Convivio 4 broaches the relatively new subject of nobility.
In line with his approach to Dante as an experimentalist, but also as a reviser, a re-shaper of early formulations, Hollander concludes: "The prose of the Vita nuova supplies meanings for some of the earlier poems themselves; the prose of the Convivio does so still in more striking manner; Convivio and De vulgari Eloquentia approach the question of language from apparently different or even contradictory positions; the Comedy frequently engages its precursors in the continuing process of growth and self-definition" On the second page of this volume, Hollander had spoken of the "telling presence in Inferno I of phrases found in Convivio IV"; a section of the chapters on Convivio elaborates on the way that the Commedia corrects some of the positions assumed in Convivio.
In his treatment of the Commedia Hollander opts for a series of themes - truth and poetry, allegory, the moral situation of the reader, the moral order of the afterworld, politics, the poetry of the Commedia - inviting the reader to revisit the three cantiche with an investigating tool sharpened by a series of insights and cross-references to the works already viewed, and with an eye to the final section on Monarchia. Among the themes that Hollander pursues, three sections are reserved to Dante's three guides, who guide him through the afterworld.
In relation to Virgil, Hollander returns to the question of style and to the fact that the reading of the Aeneid strongly influenced Dante's notion of poetry. Hence derives Dante's belief that only a poetic work of considerable magnitude could attain poetic recognition, while also satisfying the poet's need to express himself on a variety of topics and to introduce a myriad of characters. We know, in fact, that previous works Vita nuova and Convivio had been characterized by a mix of poetry and prose.
In Hollander's treatment, of particular interest is the linking of Virgil with tragedy Inf. In relation to Beatrice, Hollander analyzes first her role in the Vita nuova and then, in the Commedia, her new role as a moral preceptor until she completes her task and returns to her place of glory in Heaven Par. The last section on Monarchia, preceded by the thematic elucidation on politics and a very succinct but comprehensive note on the Epistles, brings the volume full circle to the final part on the Latin works.
A very well organized index facilitates the consultation of works and references contained in the notes. The text of Hollander's volume is arranged in such a way as to satisfy both the reader who is stimulated into a quick consultation of the passage under discussion, and the one who is prepared to undertake more extensive research by referring to the bibliographical references given in the notes. Bruno Ferraro, University of Auckland.