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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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The Educator cannot hope and may not try to find it out by psychoanalytical methods.

Salem [Schule Schloss Salem] (First Edition)

It can and will be revealed by the child coming into close touch with a number of different activities. But these activities must not be added as a superstructure to an exhausting programme of lessons. We do not hesitate to say: often the spiritual difference in age between a boy of 15 and a boy of 11 is greater than of a man of 50 and a boy of You may make him happy in this way — I do doubt it — but you certainly disqualify him for the battle of life. Allow him to engage in enterprises in which he is likely to fail, and do not hush up his failure.

Submitted photo.

Schule Schloss Salem - Schüler zeigen ihr Salem

Hahn developed a set of principles to guide education at the school. Give the children opportunities for self-discovery.

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Make the children meet with triumph and defeat. Allow him to engage in enterprises in which he is likely to fail, and do not hush up his failure. Teach him to overcome defeat. Give the children the opportunity of self-effacement in the common cause. Provide periods of silence. Train the imagination.

Kurt Hahn - his political and educational ideas

The power to resist the pressing stimulus of the hour and the moment cannot be acquired in later life; it often depends on the ability to visualize what you plan and hope and fear for the future. Make games important but not predominant. In fact you restore the dignity of the usurper by dethroning him. Free the sons of the wealthy and powerful from the enervating sense of privilege. Let them share the experience of an enthralling school life with sons and daughters of those who have to struggle for their existence. The Nazis threw Hahn in jail.

But he had powerful friends in England who got him out. In , Hahn fled to Britain. Gordonstoun House, c. Photo: Gordonstoun. Hahn was profoundly depressed. He had lost his school and his country.


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He went to Moray, Scotland, a place that had special significance for him. As a teenager, Hahn had apparently suffered a severe case of sunstroke, probably while hiking. It affected him for the rest of his life. He had to avoid prolonged time outside, and always wore a hat. At times fluid would build up in his brain and he would have to spend several days resting in a dark room. There is some dispute about the sunstroke story. In any event, Hahn did take precautions throughout his life to avoid the sun, and did spend periods convalescing in darkened rooms. The man in the back on the left is Kurt Hahn.

During one of these periods of rest while studying at Oxford, Hahn went to Moray. The weather there was cool and rainy, perfect for a man who could not tolerate sunlight. Returning to Moray in , he met old friends who encouraged him to start a school there.

Kurt Hahn und die Schule Schloss Salem (German Edition)

Less than a year later, in April of , Hahn founded Gordonstoun, on a 17th century estate near the rocky coast of the North Sea. At Gordonstoun, Hahn was able to further develop what quickly became a distinctive and highly coveted approach to education. Prince Philip and Prince Charles went to Gordonstoun. This was the kind of education rich people were willing to pay for. The school still exists today.

Gordonstoun is co-ed now, but in the beginning it was just for boys. All those years reading classics at Oxford had instilled in Hahn a deep appreciation for the ancient Greek ideal that education should be aimed at producing a complete person, one who had developed intellectually, morally, aesthetically — and physically too. At Gordonstoun, every day began with a run before breakfast. Hahn was not a big fan of competitive sports, however. The Michael Kirk, built in , was used regularly as the school chapel in the early days.

Students had to walk to chapel in contemplative silence. Hahn was a big believer in the power of failure.

Pelham Lindfield Roberts

He thought children needed to experience failure, so they would learn how to persevere when things are hard. It is our business to plunge the children into enterprises in which they are likely to fail, and we may not hush up that failure. An exhibition of student projects in Duffus Village Hall c.

Everyone learns both individually and as part of a group. Every aspect of an Expeditionary Learning school encourages both children and adults to become increasingly responsible for directing their own personal and collective learning. Learning groups are small in Expeditionary Learning schools, with a caring adult looking after the progress and acting as an advocate for each child. Older students mentor younger ones, and students feel physically and emotionally safe.

Success and failure All students need to be successful if they are to build the confidence and capacity to take risks and meet increasingly difficult challenges. But it is also important for students to learn from their failures, to persevere when things are hard, and to learn to turn disabilities into opportunities. Collaboration and competition Individual development and group development are integrated so that the value of friendship, trust, and group action is clear. Students are encouraged to compete not against each other but with their own personal best and with rigorous standards of excellence.

Diversity and inclusion Both diversity and inclusion increase the richness of ideas, creative power, problem-solving ability, and respect for others. In Expeditionary Learning schools, students investigate and value their different histories and talents, as well as those of other communities' cultures. Schools' learning groups are heterogeneous. The natural world A direct and respectful relationship with the natural world refreshes the human spirit and teaches [ clarification needed ] the important ideas of recurring cycles and cause and effect.

Students learn to become stewards of the earth and of future generations. Solitude and reflection Students and teachers need time alone to explore their own thoughts, make their own connections, and create their own ideas. They also need time to exchange their reflections with others.

Service and compassion We are crew, not passengers. Students and teachers are strengthened by acts of consequential service to others, and one of an Expeditionary Learning school's primary functions is to prepare students with the attitudes and skills to learn from and be of service to others.

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