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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Finally it has been declared today that this concert will not take place: there is even talk about the disbanding of the society that founded it. These gentlemen do not give the true reason, which is thought to be the disorder in the fortune of Mr.

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Audry, farmer general, one of their strongest supports: they say they have determined to abandon their establishment only because they fear they are not able at present to offer as brilliant and varied concerts as those they have performed until now. Whatever the reason, music enthusiasts are bound to miss this concert that had aroused taste for Italian music, and where, played in choice detached fragments, it had produced the greatest effect.

This was a school where many an amateur had been trained who eventually contributed considerably to the revolution of our music. The Psalm 40 39 , from which the phrase is borrowed, is used neither in the liturgy for the dead nor in any other. This source superimposes different states of the work, from the irst version to one that is dificult to date because of the complexity of the score. It is a grand motet in its own right that can be performed independently of the mass, as conirmed by some ten performances at the Concert Spirituel documented between and It seems likely that for practical reasons both versions coexisted for a long time, because the presence of trombones that were then new in Paris required importing musicians from Germany, which means the second version could not permanently replace the irst.

The score dated November is probably a revision done after this irst performance. The publisher has done no critical work, contenting himself with slavishly copying the autograph score; it seems Gossec did not proofread the edition, for unknown reasons, which is surprising for such an important work in his career. The numerous layers of the autograph are inextricable, and it would be vain to try to offer a realistic critical edition, since the older versions have been altered by the numerous corrections deletions, scratchings - out, glued - on parts. The edition, by contrast, reveals an actual ixed state of the work matching a precise dated layer of AC.

Gossec gave the irst performance of his Mass for the Dead, where he made known the effect of trombones in an orchestra of two hundred musicians. These unknown instruments and this gathering of two hundred elite artists were a double novelty in Paris at the time. Gosset [sic], with horns, clarinets and kettledrums.

Elevatio pie jesu. They have all the wind instruments as accompaniment.

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The missal, L1, is our literary source for the entire liturgical text of the Messe des morts. And L2 is the sole source not only to state that the offertory text is a literary creation by Gossec himself, but also to present the punctuated texts of the irst two numbers with their French translations. See below Notes for performance. One could consider having the haute - contre sing the tenore part of the Pie Jesu.

One nevertheless wonders whether the bassoons should not also play the continuo part, in particular in the large choral tutti, generally accompanied by the strings and the continuo. Three facts lend weight to this hypothesis: 1. The custom in France was for the bassoons to double the continuo part in the tutti. In the numbers of the Messe des morts where the bassoons have separate parts, besides the independent sections, they double the basso continuo see Introduzione, Mors stupebit, Pie Jesu.

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The AC autograph includes instructions for copying out the separate orchestral parts. In No. The term basso continuo does not necessarily require polyphonic instruments to ill in the harmonic framework. It refers only to the orchestral bass that plays throughout the work. Nothing justiies therefore the use of the organ in this work. Moreover, the records of the Concert Spirituel24 mention only men for the haute - contre choir parts, women and castrati singing the upper parts.

It is therefore obvious that Gossec uses the word contralto as a literal translation of haute - contre in Italian and that these parts are intended for French - style light tenors. The Italian contralto is sung by castrati whose voice has been rendered lower by age, or by women who have particularly cultivated the lower register and are actually what we call bas - dessus. Musique, Paris, Panckoucke,, vol. Les spectacles de Paris, Paris, - Te decet hymnus Deus in Sion : et tibi reddetur Ps. A hymn, O God, becometh thee in Sion: and a vow shall be votum in Jerusalem : exaudi orationem meam ; ad paid to thee in Jerusalem.

O hear my prayer: all flesh shall come te omnis caro veniet.

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Quantus tremor est futurus, How much tremor there will be, Quando Judex est venturus, when the Judge will come, Cuncta stricte discussurus! Tuba mirum spargens sonum The trumpet, scattering a wondrous sound Per sepulchra regionum, through the sepulchres of the regions, Coget omnes ante thronum. Mors stupebit, et natura, Death and nature will marvel, Cum resurget creatura, when the creature arises, Judicanti responsura. Quid sum miser tunc dicturus? What am I, miserable, then to say?

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Quem patronum rogaturus, Which patron to ask, Cum vix justus sit securus? Juste Judex ultionis, Just Judge of revenge, Donum fac remissionis, give the gift of remission Ante diem rationis. Ingemisco, tamquam reus, I sigh, like the guilty one: Culpa rubet vultus meus : my face reddens in guilt: Supplicanti parce, Deus. Qui Mariam absolvisti, Thou who absolvedst Mary, Et latronem exaudisti, and heardest the robber, Mihi quoque spem dedisti.

Oro supplex et acclinis, I meekly and humbly pray, Cor contritum quasi cinis ; [my] heart is as crushed as the ashes: Gere curam mei finis. Lacrymosa dies illa, Tearful will be that day, Qua resurget ex favilla on which from the ash arises Judicandus homo reus.

I go and shall not return. The students, aged 12 to 18, first attended an awareness-raising session to understand the issues related to capital punishment and to become familiar with arguments for its abolition.

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On this occasion, the French students met Ahmed Haou, a Moroccan formerly sentenced to death, who shared his experience of the death sentence and imprisonment after he was convicted for writing slogans against the political regime. The international jury of human rights defenders and graphic designers received entries and selected around 30 drawings.

These posters will help raise international awareness on the need to achieve full and final abolition of the death penalty. Alberto Montero, colegio Legamar, Madrid. Il n'y a sans doute rien de semblable sur le continent. Depuis , Catherine Francblin est critique free lance. Elle doit montrer le rang et la place de la Nation. Quel symbole des tiraillements de la politique romaine du Second Empire! Depuis , la Villa Bonaparte est devenue Ambassade de France. Elle est par excellence le lieu de rencontre entre la France et la Curie romaine.

Svenska Dagbladet , 29 juin Son prochain livre - une biographie sur Louis XIV - sortira en Au grand salon, les quais de Stockholm, peints par Albert Marquet, voisinent avec le parc du Luxembourg vu par Chapelain-Midi. Nombreuses sont les raisons de cette fascination et de cet attachement.

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Laurent Bili Ambassadeur de France en Turquie depuis Paul Claudel, Correspondances , L'actuel site de l'ambassade de France constitue un patrimoine historique exceptionnel auquel la France accorde une importance capitale. Danielle Elisseeff est historienne et sinologue.