Your Gay Friend

The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Contract of Betrayal: Spectras Arise Trilogy, Book 2 file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Contract of Betrayal: Spectras Arise Trilogy, Book 2 book. Happy reading Contract of Betrayal: Spectras Arise Trilogy, Book 2 Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Contract of Betrayal: Spectras Arise Trilogy, Book 2 at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Contract of Betrayal: Spectras Arise Trilogy, Book 2 Pocket Guide.

An excellent read and I highly recommend it. I have to admit, this installment didn't really do it for me. I wasn't very impressed with Aly's character. And she was weak. She got hit a lot and didn't seem to hit back much. She felt more like a tag-along, or a secondary character in CoB, not offering much input but to disagree or bitch or deny.

I've grown ti I have to admit, this installment didn't really do it for me. I've grown tired of the group she hangs around, and especially of Eleanor-- I also wasn't too impressed with her brother except at the very end. Honestly, at this point, the most interesting person is Rajcik, and as psychotic as it seems, I'd prefer him as a love match for Aly.

Though he'd, of course, have to have a slight change of character and become completely loyal to Aly even if he stayed psycho. Loyalty means more to me than almost anything else, and the fact that her team kept things from her means it's time for her skip out. I still really like the author's writing style and would like to continue reading her novels. I know I'm just being a snoot about the story. I tend to bond with the main heroine, and when things don't go according to me, then I get frustrated.

It's a character flaw I acknowledge but am not proud of. When your first novel earns widespread critical praise, the stakes are immediately raised for the second, especially when both books are part of a planned trilogy. Taking place months after the explosive finale of Defiance, protagonist Aly Erickson, a military deserter and former smuggler with trust issues, has begun to settle into a more sedate life as a member of the Agate Beach colony of non-citizens on Spectra 6.

Aly is shocked when Rob Cross, her former lover and an ex-soldier turned transport contractor for the Admin — the shadowy and dictatorial government overseeing that corner of the galaxy thanks to its powerful military, the Corps — appears to deliver some contraband material to Agate Beach. No spoilers, but rest assured the arrival of Cross on Spectra 6 sets off a chain reaction of events that leads Aly and her compatriots into the heart of Admin territory as they fight for their lives and freedom.

The pace is quick, surprising twists are well-placed and the frequent action sequences are exciting and well written by Ms. Salyer, herself a former Army paratrooper. As a character, Aly is flawed and fascinating, and I greatly enjoyed slipping back into her combat boots for this second go-round. Much more comfortable taking action than talking about her feelings, Aly joined the Corps quite young so even at thirty her emotional development is somewhat stunted.

Oh, yes. It is quite a roller-coaster, but integrated so seamlessly into the over-arching storyline that this reader never felt distracted. The conclusion of Contract of Betrayal provides a solid set-up to the final book of the trilogy, which looks to be just as exciting and action-packed as the first two entries.

For more on Ms.

Get A Copy

Salyer and her writing, check out her blog, Alternative Reality Engineer. As a reviewer, I try to avoid spoilers, but please take my word that there are plenty of major plot twists and fun surprises tucked into Contract of Betrayal. Both the storyline and universe created in Contract of Defiance are skillfully continued in the second book. Salyer uses book two in the series as an opportunity to introduce some interesting new characters. I absolutely love the introduction of the character of Quantum.

I especially liked this quote from Contract of Betrayal: The loathing I felt for the way they wore out lives-the same way machines wear out gears-for their convenience and greed… As a reader, I always want the exploited underdog to come out on top. Salyer also uses parts of her second book to add further detail to both characters and plot lines that were developed in Contract of Defiance. This helped to bring closure to certain elements of the story that felt unresolved to me. This also enabled me to better understand some of the inner conflicts of her protagonists, especially Aly and Vitruzzi.

Overall, this book is a real thrill ride. I would highly recommend this for fans of action, mystery or military Science Fiction. Although the storyline was a little tighter than the first book in the series, there were still a few loose strands for me that prevent me from giving Contract of Betrayal a five star review.


  • Ascent Towards Madness.
  • Contract of Betrayal, Spectras Arise Trilogy - Tammy Salyer - Google книги.
  • Reiki II (Catalan Edition);
  • Guest Appearances?

Mar 12, E. Aly Erickson is back and better than ever! The first book, Contract of Defiance, created a universe populated with a variety of exciting and well-rounded characters. The adventure that begins in Contract of Defiance transitions smoothly to Contract of Betrayal, and the characters continue to naturally develop as they face new challenges. Salyer introduces several new characters in this book and seamlessly weaves the Aly Erickson is back and better than ever!

Salyer introduces several new characters in this book and seamlessly weaves them into the existing cast, providing more depth and complexity to an already rich series of relationships. Some of the character interactions originating in the first book are expanded and developed in this story, and we find out more about the backgrounds of some of the main characters, which equates to being able to relate to them all the more.

Salyer's characters are the foundation that support the story, each bringing their own individual flavor to the overall story, and doing their part to advance the story smoothly and effectively. The story builds smoothly around this superb cast, picking up where the action in Contract of Defiance ended. Having completed their original mission, Aly, Vitruzzi, and the rest are working on a new plan for taking on the Admin when things are thrown into chaos by the arrival of a new ship to Agate Beach. Complete with rekindling of old flames, battles with old enemies, and of course, a good dose of betrayal, Aly has her plate full once again.

Without giving any spoilers, let me just say that the action picks up quickly and progresses at a rapid, yet controlled pace throughout. Things come to a fulfilling conclusion for the crew, while still dangling the promise of even more excitement to come in the last book of the trilogy. Salyer has a very smooth and easy reading narrative style, and both of the books in this trilogy can easily draw you into a single-sitting completion if you aren't careful. Jul 22, E. Fisch rated it really liked it Shelves: sci-fi , badass-ladies , own-it , ebooks.

Once again, flawless cover art. I love how it's unique but still maintains continuity with the first book. I know they say to never judge a book by its cover, but when I see a book with awesome cover art, I expect that book to be good. And it was good. But I'm not sure if I enjoyed it as much as Book 1, hence the 4 star rating. I wasn't a huge fan of the whole love triangle thing, even though I had a sneaking suspicion it wouldn't last. It just added some unnecessary drama, in my opinion, even th Once again, flawless cover art.

It just added some unnecessary drama, in my opinion, even though it ended up being pretty relevant in terms of character interactions during the later parts of the book. The whole 3rd quarter or so of the story seemed to move a little slow for me too, but that may just have been because I got really busy and wasn't able to devote the proper time and energy to reading. The pace definitely picked back up at the end, and I finished the book in one sitting. We get some plot twists thrown at us and get to see some intense action.

One thing I've appreciated about this series so far is how Ms. Salyer writes fight scenes, something I've always struggled with as a writer. Hand-to-hand brawls in particular are very well-done, and as I'm reading I can almost feel everything happening. One of my favorite things about reading a series is re-visiting familiar characters. It always kind of feels like being reunited with old friends; when the story begins, there's sort of a "where-are-they-now?

I've really enjoyed Vitruzzi's character from the beginning but I felt like she really shined in this book. I've got Contract of War already loaded onto my Kindle and I can't wait to get started on it and see where this story goes! Such a fantastic follow-up to the thrilling "Contract of Defiance". Continuing in Salyer's style of incredibly visual writing, I kept being reminded of the "Alien" series of films, how often the plot was driven by interstellar couriers and warriors of all stripes having to deal with the unexpected of space travel.

Except in this novel you get to see the travelers for once at rest in a makeshift home on ground on an actual planet, instead of only up in space. I'd always wondered about that while Such a fantastic follow-up to the thrilling "Contract of Defiance". I'd always wondered about that while watching the "Alien" movies — who are these scientists, doctors, smugglers, soldiers when they aren't en route somewhere? I suppose they would have to be, the universe in Tammy's world is in a right mess.

As with the first novel, the writing is marvelous, the descriptions so vivid you feel like you're actually there, and Salyer sucks you so far into her world I felt disoriented looking away from the pages. This is a trilogy so make sure you start with the first book. Locke received his B. His career at Oxford, however, continued beyond his undergraduate days. The rank was equivalent to a Fellow at any of the other colleges, but was not permanent.

Locke had yet to determine what his career was to be. At this point, Locke needed to make a decision. The statutes of Christ Church laid it down that fifty five of the senior studentships should be reserved for men in orders or reading for orders. Only five could be held by others, two in medicine, two in law and one in moral philosophy.

Thus, there was good reason for Locke to become a clergyman. Locke decided to become a doctor. The new leader of the Oxford scientific group was Robert Boyle. Boyle was, however, most influential as a theorist. He was a mechanical philosopher who treated the world as reducible to matter in motion. Locke read Boyle before he read Descartes. When he did read Descartes, he saw the great French philosopher as providing a viable alternative to the sterile Aristotelianism he had been taught at Oxford. The commonwealth of learning is not at this time without master-builders, whose mighty designs, in advancing the sciences, will leave lasting monuments to the admiration of posterity: but every one must not hope to be a Boyle or a Sydenham; and in an age that produces such masters as the great Huygenius and the incomparable Mr.

Newton, with some others of that strain, it is ambition enough to be employed as an under-labourer in clearing the ground a little, and removing some of the rubbish that lies in the way to knowledge …. Locke knew all of these men and their work. Sydenham was an English physician and Locke did medical research with him. He writes:. Presumably this will reveal the degree of certainty of the knowledge based on such ideas.

David Thomas was his friend and collaborator. Locke and Thomas had a laboratory in Oxford which was very likely, in effect, a pharmacy. In Lord Ashley, one of the richest men in England, came to Oxford in order to drink some medicinal waters there. He had asked Dr. Thomas to provide them. Thomas had to be out of town and asked Locke to see that the water was delivered. As a result of this encounter, Ashley invited Locke to come to London as his personal physician. Living with him Locke found himself at the very heart of English politics in the s and s.

Lord Ashley was one of the advocates of the view that England would prosper through trade and that colonies could play an important role in promoting trade. Ashley persuaded Charles II to create a Board of Trade and Plantations to collect information about trade and colonies, and Locke became its secretary. In his capacity as the secretary of the Board of Trade Locke was the collection point for information from around the globe about trade and colonies for the English government. In his capacity as the secretary to the Lords Proprietors, Locke was involved in the writing of the fundamental constitution of the Carolinas.

There was a monetary crisis in England involving the value of money, and the clipping of coins.


  • See a Problem??
  • Oracle VM Implementation and Administration Guide (Oracle Press);
  • John Locke (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)!

Locke wrote papers for Lord Ashley on economic matters, including the coinage crisis. While living in London at Exeter House, Locke continued to be involved in philosophical discussions. He tells us that:. Were it fit to trouble thee with the history of this Essay, I should tell thee, that five or six friends meeting at my chamber, and discoursing on a subject very remote from this, found themselves quickly at a stand, by the difficulties that rose on every side.

After we had awhile puzzled ourselves, without coming any nearer a resolution of those doubts which perplexed us, it came into my thoughts that we took a wrong course; and that before we set ourselves upon inquiries of that nature, it was necessary to examine our own abilities, and see what objects our understandings were, or were not, fitted to deal with. This I proposed to the company, who all readily assented; and thereupon it was agreed that this should be our first inquiry. Some hasty and undigested thoughts, on a subject I had never before considered, which I set down against our next meeting, gave the first entrance into this Discourse; which having been thus begun by chance, was continued by intreaty; written by incoherent parcels; and after long intervals of neglect, resumed again, as my humour or occasions permitted; and at last, in a retirement where an attendance on my health gave me leisure, it was brought into that order thou now seest it.

Epistle to the Reader, N: 7. He recalls the discussion being about the principles of morality and revealed religion Cranston —1. Thus the Oxford scholar and medical researcher came to begin the work which was to occupy him off and on over the next twenty years. In after Shaftesbury had left the government, Locke went back to Oxford, where he acquired the degree Bachelor of medicine, and a license to practice medicine, and then went to France Cranston The Edict of Nantes promulgated by Henry IV in was in force, and so there was a degree of religious toleration in France.

Louis XIV was to revoke the edict in and French Protestants were then killed while some , went into exile. In Shaftesbury was imprisoned in the tower. His imprisonment lasted for a year. In , after the mysterious murder of a London judge, informers most notably Titus Oates started coming forward to reveal a supposed Catholic conspiracy to assassinate the King and put his brother on the throne.

This whipped up public anti-Catholic frenzy. Though Shaftesbury had not fabricated the conspiracy story, nor did he prompt Oates to come forward, he did exploit the situation to the advantage of his party. In the public chaos surrounding the sensational revelations, Shaftesbury organized an extensive party network, exercised great control over elections, and built up a large parliamentary majority.

As the panic over the Popish plot receded, Shaftesbury was left without a following or a cause. Shaftesbury was seized on July 21, and again put in the tower. He was tried on trumped-up charges of treason but acquitted by a London grand jury filled with his supporters in November.

At this point some of the Country Party leaders began plotting an armed insurrection which, had it come off, would have begun with the assassination of Charles and his brother on their way back to London from the races at Newmarket. The chances of such a rising occurring were not as good as the plotters supposed.

Memories of the turmoil of the civil war were still relatively fresh. Eventually Shaftesbury, who was moving from safe house to safe house, gave up and fled to Holland in November He died there in January Locke stayed in England until the Rye House Plot named after the house from which the plotters were to fire upon the King and his brother was discovered in June of Locke left for the West country to put his affairs in order the very week the plot was revealed to the government and by September he was in exile in Holland.

He also wrote and published his Epistola de Tolerentia in Latin. The English government was much concerned with this group. They tried to get a number of them, including Locke, extradited to England. In the meanwhile, the English intelligence service infiltrated the rebel group in Holland and effectively thwarted their efforts—at least for a while.

The revolt was crushed, Monmouth captured and executed Ashcraft Ultimately, however, the rebels were successful. This became known as the Glorious Revolution of It is a watershed in English history. For it marks the point at which the balance of power in the English government passed from the King to the Parliament.

Locke returned to England in on board the royal yacht, accompanying Princess Mary on her voyage to join her husband. It is worth noting that the Two Treatises and the Letter Concerning Toleration were published anonymously. Locke had met Damaris Cudworth in and became involved intellectually and romantically with her. She was the daughter of Ralph Cudworth, the Cambridge Platonist, and a philosopher in her own right.

During the remaining years of his life Locke oversaw four more editions of the Essay and engaged in controversies over the Essay most notably in a series of published letters with Edward Stillingfleet, Bishop of Worcester. In a similar way, Locke defended the Letter Concerning Toleration against a series of attacks.

Nor was Locke finished with public affairs. In the Board of Trade was revived. Locke played an important part in its revival and served as the most influential member on it until The new Board of Trade had administrative powers and was, in fact, concerned with a wide range of issues, from the Irish wool trade and the suppression of piracy, to the treatment of the poor in England and the governance of the colonies. During these last eight years of his life, Locke was asthmatic, and he suffered so much from it that he could only bear the smoke of London during the four warmer months of the year.

Locke plainly engaged in the activities of the Board out of a strong sense of patriotic duty. After his retirement from the Board of Trade in , Locke remained in retirement at Oates until his death on Sunday 28 October Locke is often classified as the first of the great English empiricists ignoring the claims of Bacon and Hobbes. Locke explains his project in several places. Perhaps the most important of his goals is to determine the limits of human understanding.

Locke writes:. For I thought that the first Step towards satisfying the several Enquiries, the Mind of Man was apt to run into, was, to take a Survey of our own Understandings, examine our own Powers, and see to what Things they were adapted. Some philosophers before Locke had suggested that it would be good to find the limits of the Understanding, but what Locke does is to carry out this project in detail.

In the four books of the Essay Locke considers the sources and nature of human knowledge. Book I argues that we have no innate knowledge. In this he resembles Berkeley and Hume, and differs from Descartes and Leibniz. So, at birth, the human mind is a sort of blank slate on which experience writes. In Book II Locke claims that ideas are the materials of knowledge and all ideas come from experience. Experience is of two kinds, sensation and reflection.

One of these—sensation—tells us about things and processes in the external world. The other—reflection—tells us about the operations of our own minds. Reflection is a sort of internal sense that makes us conscious of the mental processes we are engaged in. Some ideas we get only from sensation, some only from reflection and some from both. Locke has an atomic or perhaps more accurately a corpuscular theory of ideas. Ideas are either simple or complex.

Contract of Betrayal, Spectras Arise Trilogy - Tammy Salyer - Google книги

We cannot create simple ideas, we can only get them from experience. In this respect the mind is passive. Once the mind has a store of simple ideas, it can combine them into complex ideas of a variety of kinds. In this respect the mind is active. Thus, Locke subscribes to a version of the empiricist axiom that there is nothing in the intellect that was not previously in the senses—where the senses are broadened to include reflection. Book III deals with the nature of language, its connections with ideas and its role in knowledge.

Book IV, the culmination of the previous reflections, explains the nature and limits of knowledge, probability, and the relation of reason and faith. Let us now consider the Essay in some detail. The role of Book I of the Essay is to make the case that being innate is not a way in which the understanding is furnished with principles and ideas. Locke treats innateness as an empirical hypothesis and argues that there is no good evidence to support it. In pursuing this enquiry, Locke rejects the claim that there are speculative innate principles I.

Locke rejects arguments from universal assent and attacks dispositional accounts of innate principles. Why should children and idiots be aware of and able to articulate such propositions? Locke says:. It seems to me a near Contradiction to say that there are truths imprinted on the Soul, which it perceives or understands not; imprinting if it signify anything, being nothing else but the making certain Truths to be perceived. Locke then proceeds to attack dispositional accounts that say, roughly, that innate propositions are capable of being perceived under certain circumstances.

Until these circumstances come about the propositions remain unperceived in the mind. With the advent of these conditions, the propositions are then perceived. Locke gives the following argument against innate propositions being dispositional:.

Rise-Origa

For if any one [proposition] may [be in the mind but not be known]; then, by the same Reason, all Propositions that are true, and the Mind is ever capable of assenting to, may be said to be in the Mind, and to be imprinted: since if any one can be said to be in the Mind, which it never yet knew, it must be only because it is capable of knowing it; and so the Mind is of all Truths it ever shall know. Thus, even if some criterion is proposed, it will turn out not to do the work it is supposed to do. When Locke turns from speculative principles to the question of whether there are innate practical moral principles, many of the arguments against innate speculative principles continue to apply, but there are some additional considerations.

Thus, one can clearly and sensibly ask reasons for why one should hold the Golden Rule true or obey it I. There are substantial differences between people over the content of practical principles. Thus, they are even less likely candidates to be innate propositions or to meet the criterion of universal assent. In the fourth chapter of Book I, Locke raises similar points about the ideas which compose both speculative and practical principles. The point is that if the ideas that are constitutive of the principles are not innate, this gives us even more reason to hold that the principles are not innate.

He examines the ideas of identity, impossibility and God to make these points. In Book I Locke says little about who holds the doctrine of innate principles that he is attacking. For this reason he has sometimes been accused of attacking straw men. John Yolton has persuasively argued Yolton that the view that innate ideas and principles were necessary for the stability of religion, morality and natural law was widespread in England in the seventeenth century, and that in attacking both the naive and the dispositional account of innate ideas and innate principles, Locke is attacking positions which were widely held and continued to be held after the publication of the Essay.

But there are also some important connections with particular philosophers and schools that are worth noting and some points about innate ideas and inquiry. Locke rather clearly has in mind the Aristotelians and scholastics at the universities. It is an expression of his view of the importance of free and autonomous inquiry in the search for truth. Ultimately, Locke holds, this is the best road to knowledge and happiness. Locke, like Descartes, is tearing down the foundations of the old Aristotelian scholastic house of knowledge.

See a Problem?

The attack on innate ideas is thus the first step in the demolition of the scholastic model of science and knowledge. Ironically, it is also clear from II. In Book II of the Essay , Locke gives his positive account of how we acquire the materials of knowledge. Locke distinguishes a variety of different kinds of ideas in Book II.

Locke holds that the mind is a tabula rasa or blank sheet until experience in the form of sensation and reflection provide the basic materials—simple ideas—out of which most of our more complex knowledge is constructed.

Committee for the Abolition of Illegitimate Debt

While the mind may be a blank slate in regard to content, it is plain that Locke thinks we are born with a variety of faculties to receive and abilities to manipulate or process the content once we acquire it. Thus, for example, the mind can engage in three different types of action in putting simple ideas together. The first of these kinds of action is to combine them into complex ideas.

Complex ideas are of two kinds, ideas of substances and ideas of modes. Substances are independent existences. Beings that count as substances include God, angels, humans, animals, plants and a variety of constructed things. Modes are dependent existences. These include mathematical and moral ideas, and all the conventional language of religion, politics and culture.

The second action which the mind performs is the bringing of two ideas, whether simple or complex, by one another so as to take a view of them at once, without uniting them. This gives us our ideas of relations II. The third act of the mind is the production of our general ideas by abstraction from particulars, leaving out the particular circumstances of time and place, which would limit the application of an idea to a particular individual.

In addition to these abilities, there are such faculties as memory which allow for the storing of ideas. Having set forth the general machinery of how simple and complex ideas of substances, modes, relations and so forth are derived from sensation and reflection, Locke also explains how a variety of particular kinds of ideas, such as the ideas of solidity, number, space, time, power, identity, and moral relations arise from sensation and reflection.

Several of these are of particular interest. Locke also made a number of interesting claims in the philosophy of mind. He suggested, for example, that for all we know, God could as easily add the powers of perception and thought to matter organized in the right way as he could add those powers to an immaterial substance which would then be joined to matter organized in the right way. His account of personal identity in II. Locke offers an account of physical objects based in the mechanical philosophy and the corpuscular hypothesis.

The adherents of the mechanical philosophy held that all material phenomena can be explained by matter in motion and the impact of one body on another. They viewed matter as passive. Some corupscularians held that corpuscles could be further divided and that the universe was full of matter with no void space. Atomists, on the other hand, held that the particles were indivisible and that the material world is composed of atoms and the void or empty space in which the atoms move.

Locke was an atomist. Atoms have properties. They are extended, they are solid, they have a particular shape and they are in motion or rest. They combine together to produce the familiar stuff and physical objects, the gold and the wood, the horses and violets, the tables and chairs of our world. These familiar things also have properties. They are extended, solid, have a particular shape and are in motion and at rest.

In addition to these properties that they share with the atoms that compose them, they have other properties such as colors, smells, tastes that they get by standing in relation to perceivers. The distinction between these two kinds of properties goes back to the Greek atomists. This distinction is made by both of the main branches of the mechanical philosophy of the seventeenth and early eighteenth century.

Both the Cartesian plenum theorists, who held that the world was full of infinitely divisible matter and that there was no void space, and the atomists such as Gassendi, who held that there were indivisible atoms and void space in which the atoms move, made the distinction between these two classes of properties. Still, the differences between these two branches of the mechanical philosophy affect their account of primary qualities.

In the chapter on Solidity II. The primary qualities of an object are properties which the object possesses independent of us—such as occupying space, being either in motion or at rest, having solidity and texture. The secondary qualities are powers in bodies to produce ideas in us like color, taste, smell and so on that are caused by the interaction of our particular perceptual apparatus with the primary qualities of the object. Our ideas of primary qualities resemble the qualities in the object, while our ideas of secondary qualities do not resemble the powers that cause them.

Locke also distinguishes a second class of secondary properties that are the powers that one substance has to effect another, e. Among the issues are which qualities Locke assigns to each of the two categories. Locke gives several lists. Another issue is what the criterion is for putting a quality in one list rather than another. Does Locke hold that all the ideas of secondary qualities come to us by one sense while the ideas of primary qualities come to us through two or is Locke not making the distinction in this way? Another issue is whether there are only primary qualities of atoms or whether compounds of atoms also have primary qualities.

Related to this issue is how we are supposed to know about particles that we cannot sense. It seems clear that Locke holds that there are certain analogies between the middle sized macroscopic objects we encounter in the world, e. These analogies allow us to say certain things about the nature of particles and primary and secondary qualities. For example we can infer that atoms are solid and that heat is a greater rate of motion of atoms while cold is a slower motion.

But these analogies may not get us very far in grasping the necessary connections between qualities in nature. Yet another issue is whether Locke sees the distinction as reductionistic. If what we mean by reductionistic here is that only the primary qualities are real and these explain the secondary qualities then there does not seem to be a clear answer. Secondary qualities surely are nothing more than certain primary qualities that affect us in certain ways.

This seems to be reductionistic. And while Locke holds that our ideas of secondary qualities are caused by primary qualities, in certain important respects the primary qualities do not explain them. Locke holds that we cannot even conceive how the size, figure and motion of particles could cause any sensation in us.

So, knowing the size, figure and motion of the particles would be of no use to us in this regard see IV. Locke probably holds some version of the representational theory of perception, though some scholars dispute this. On such a theory what the mind immediately perceives are ideas, and the ideas are caused by and represent the objects which cause them. Thus perception is a triadic relation, rather than simply being a dyadic relation between an object and a perceiver.

Such a dyadic relational theory is often called naive realism because it suggests that the perceiver is directly perceiving the object, and naive because this view is open to a variety of serious objections. Some versions of the representational theory are open to serious objections as well. If, for example, one treats ideas as things, then one can imagine that because one sees ideas, the ideas actually block one from seeing things in the external world. The idea would be like a picture or painting.

Join Kobo & start eReading today

The picture would copy the original object in the external world, but because our immediate object of perception is the picture we would be prevented from seeing the original just as standing in front of a painting on an easel might prevent us from seeing the person being painted. One philosopher who arguably held such a view was Nicholas Malebranche, a follower of Descartes. Antoine Arnauld, by contrast, while believing in the representative character of ideas, is a direct realist about perception.

Locke follows Arnauld in his criticism of Malebranche on this point Locke, , Vol. IX: Yet Berkeley attributed the veil of perception interpretation of the representational theory of perception to Locke as have many later commentators including Bennett. Woozley puts the difficulty of doing this succinctly:. Woozley A review of this issue at a symposium including John Rogers, Gideon Yaffe, Lex Newman, Tom Lennon, and Vere Chappell at a meeting of the Pacific Division of the American Philosophical Association in and later expanded and published in the Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , volume 85, issue 3 found most of the symposiasts holding the view that Locke holds a representative theory of perception but that he is not a skeptic about the external world in the way that the veil of perception doctrine might suggest.

He is also puzzled about what material and immaterial substances might have in common that would lead us to apply the same word to both. These kinds of reflections led him to the relative and obscure idea of substance in general. For we have no experience of that supporting substance. It is clear that Locke sees no alternative to the claim that there are substances supporting qualities.

He does not, for example, have a theory of tropes tropes are properties that can exist independently of substances which he might use to dispense with the notion of substance. In fact, he may be rejecting something like a theory of tropes when he rejects the Aristotelian doctrine of real qualities and insists on the need for substances. But, it is also quite clear that he is regularly insistent about the limitations of our ideas of substances.

Bishop Stillingfleet accused Locke of putting substance out of the reasonable part of the world. But Locke is not doing that. It seems to imply that we have a particular without any properties, and this seems like a notion that is inconsistent with empiricism. We have no experience of such an entity and so no way to derive such an idea from experience.

Locke himself acknowledges this point I. The real essence of a material thing is its atomic constitution. This atomic constitution is the causal basis of all the observable properties of the thing, from which we create nominal essences. Were the real essence known, all the observable properties could be deduced from it. Locke claims that the real essences of material things are quite unknown to us.

Thus, Ayers wants to treat the unknown substratum as picking out the same thing as the real essence—thus eliminating the need for particulars without properties. This proposed way of interpreting Locke has been criticized by scholars both because of a lack of textural support, and on the stronger grounds that it conflicts with some things that Locke does say see Jolley 71—3. This is a strong indication that Locke thinks issues about language were of considerable importance in attaining knowledge.

At the beginning of the Book he notes the importance of abstract general ideas to knowledge. These serve as sorts under which we rank all the vast multitude of particular existences. Without general terms and classes we would be faced with the impossible task of trying to know a vast world of particulars. In his discussion of language Locke distinguishes words according to the categories of ideas established in Book II of the Essay.

So there are ideas of substances, simple modes, mixed modes, relations and so on. It is in this context that Locke makes the distinction between real and nominal essences noted above. Perhaps because of his focus on the role that kind terms play in classification, Locke pays vastly more attention to nouns than to verbs. Locke recognizes that not all words relate to ideas. This thesis has often been criticized as a classic blunder in semantic theory. Kretzmann, however, argues persuasively that Locke distinguishes between meaning and reference and that ideas provide the meaning but not the reference of words.

Thus, the line of criticism represented by the quotation from Mill is ill founded. In addition to the kinds of ideas noted above, there are also particular and abstract ideas. Particular ideas have in them the ideas of particular places and times which limit the application of the idea to a single individual, while abstract general ideas leave out the ideas of particular times and places in order to allow the idea to apply to other similar qualities or things.

Berkeley argued that the process as Locke conceives it is incoherent. In part this is because Berkeley is an imagist—that is he believes that all ideas are images. If one is an imagist it becomes impossible to imagine what idea could include both the ideas of a right and equilateral triangle.

Michael Ayers has recently argued that Locke too was an imagist. Locke thinks most words we use are general III. Clearly, it is only general or sortal ideas that can serve in a classificatory scheme. Salyer also uses parts of her second book to add further detail to both characters and plot lines that were developed in Contract of Defiance. This helped to bring closure to certain elements of the story that felt unresolved to me. This also enabled me to better understand some of the inner conflicts of her protagonists, especially Aly and Vitruzzi.

Overall, this book is a real thrill ride. I would highly recommend this for fans of action, mystery or military Science Fiction. Although the storyline was a little tighter than the first book in the series, there were still a few loose strands for me that prevent me from giving Contract of Betrayal a five star review.

Mar 12, E. Aly Erickson is back and better than ever! The first book, Contract of Defiance, created a universe populated with a variety of exciting and well-rounded characters.

Account Options

The adventure that begins in Contract of Defiance transitions smoothly to Contract of Betrayal, and the characters continue to naturally develop as they face new challenges. Salyer introduces several new characters in this book and seamlessly weaves the Aly Erickson is back and better than ever!

Salyer introduces several new characters in this book and seamlessly weaves them into the existing cast, providing more depth and complexity to an already rich series of relationships. Some of the character interactions originating in the first book are expanded and developed in this story, and we find out more about the backgrounds of some of the main characters, which equates to being able to relate to them all the more.

Salyer's characters are the foundation that support the story, each bringing their own individual flavor to the overall story, and doing their part to advance the story smoothly and effectively. The story builds smoothly around this superb cast, picking up where the action in Contract of Defiance ended. Having completed their original mission, Aly, Vitruzzi, and the rest are working on a new plan for taking on the Admin when things are thrown into chaos by the arrival of a new ship to Agate Beach.

Complete with rekindling of old flames, battles with old enemies, and of course, a good dose of betrayal, Aly has her plate full once again. Without giving any spoilers, let me just say that the action picks up quickly and progresses at a rapid, yet controlled pace throughout.

Things come to a fulfilling conclusion for the crew, while still dangling the promise of even more excitement to come in the last book of the trilogy. Salyer has a very smooth and easy reading narrative style, and both of the books in this trilogy can easily draw you into a single-sitting completion if you aren't careful. Jul 22, E. Fisch rated it really liked it Shelves: sci-fi , badass-ladies , own-it , ebooks. Once again, flawless cover art. I love how it's unique but still maintains continuity with the first book. I know they say to never judge a book by its cover, but when I see a book with awesome cover art, I expect that book to be good.

And it was good. But I'm not sure if I enjoyed it as much as Book 1, hence the 4 star rating. I wasn't a huge fan of the whole love triangle thing, even though I had a sneaking suspicion it wouldn't last. It just added some unnecessary drama, in my opinion, even th Once again, flawless cover art. It just added some unnecessary drama, in my opinion, even though it ended up being pretty relevant in terms of character interactions during the later parts of the book.

The whole 3rd quarter or so of the story seemed to move a little slow for me too, but that may just have been because I got really busy and wasn't able to devote the proper time and energy to reading. The pace definitely picked back up at the end, and I finished the book in one sitting. We get some plot twists thrown at us and get to see some intense action. One thing I've appreciated about this series so far is how Ms. Salyer writes fight scenes, something I've always struggled with as a writer.

Hand-to-hand brawls in particular are very well-done, and as I'm reading I can almost feel everything happening. One of my favorite things about reading a series is re-visiting familiar characters. It always kind of feels like being reunited with old friends; when the story begins, there's sort of a "where-are-they-now? I've really enjoyed Vitruzzi's character from the beginning but I felt like she really shined in this book. I've got Contract of War already loaded onto my Kindle and I can't wait to get started on it and see where this story goes! Such a fantastic follow-up to the thrilling "Contract of Defiance".

Continuing in Salyer's style of incredibly visual writing, I kept being reminded of the "Alien" series of films, how often the plot was driven by interstellar couriers and warriors of all stripes having to deal with the unexpected of space travel. Except in this novel you get to see the travelers for once at rest in a makeshift home on ground on an actual planet, instead of only up in space. I'd always wondered about that while Such a fantastic follow-up to the thrilling "Contract of Defiance".

I'd always wondered about that while watching the "Alien" movies — who are these scientists, doctors, smugglers, soldiers when they aren't en route somewhere? I suppose they would have to be, the universe in Tammy's world is in a right mess. As with the first novel, the writing is marvelous, the descriptions so vivid you feel like you're actually there, and Salyer sucks you so far into her world I felt disoriented looking away from the pages.

This is a trilogy so make sure you start with the first book. I'm blown away. View 2 comments. This second installment in the Spectras Arise Trilogy picks up a bit after Contract of Defiance leaves off. Then, all the fun begins, and I will say no more about the plot! I really liked how it didn't take long at all for the shitstorms to really begin. This book is actio This second installment in the Spectras Arise Trilogy picks up a bit after Contract of Defiance leaves off.

This book is action packed. I felt like this one moved faster and had a few more twists and turns than the last book, and the ending definitely left me wondering what is going to happen next. I am enjoying reading this adventure through Aly's eyes, but I do wish she would stop assuming so much about what other people are thinking and just talk to them already.

However, I think her character is interesting - she shows no fear when she has to blow someone's head off, punch someone in the face, or rescue a friend from a dire situation, but, when it comes to sharing her feelings and communicating with others, she is terrified. I mean, don't we all know people like that? Looking forward to the next one! Aug 15, Jerry rated it it was amazing. I shouldn't have been surprised by how good this book was. Honestly, I expected the sophomore effort to be a little off of the brash freshness of the first. I was wrong.

From the opening page to the hanging conclusion this book was a romp at many levels. For a first person POV Salyer weaves many threads and deep character development. You feel you know these people by the end of the book. And they are people, flawed and broken, you want to know. Pace and imagery are the key to moving this kind o I shouldn't have been surprised by how good this book was. Pace and imagery are the key to moving this kind of suspense fiction forward and she does both with wordcraft that is a joy to read and calls you back.

It is one of those books that I kept wanting to use up my free time. I kept looking for weaknesses in the story or in the world she had created but I was unable to find anythign that would have suspended my disbelief. Tammy Salyer is a master storyteller. I already loaded up book three and am going to dive right in. Stop reading this review and just get the book! May 02, Steph Bennion rated it really liked it Shelves: sci-fi. This is an action-packed blast of a sequel which pretty much carries on in the same vein as the first.

It's a good, solid sci-fi thriller. What I didn't like was that the plot was far too similar to that of the preceding book; also, the ending seemed rushed, with the main driver of the plot view spoiler [ the prisoners seized from colony hide spoiler ] ending up being resolved away from the main narrative. The love triangle also irritated me, especially as the book's title pretty much gave aw This is an action-packed blast of a sequel which pretty much carries on in the same vein as the first.

The love triangle also irritated me, especially as the book's title pretty much gave away how that would end.