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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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As you can see with both the design and the cuisine, it is less ornate and decorative than you see in the Tirol. Yet, after dining, the mountains call. Christian makes a point of skiing every day. It is this love of skiing, the mountains, and the region that make Der Wolf the perfect ski to lunch spot in Lech.

High above the lobby of the Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise, four gracious ladies and mountains, one and all. These gowned beauties are part chandelier, part Banff National Park heritage. By putting candles in their windows as guiding lights, the wives helped wayward parties find their ways home. Once a log cabin and today a landmark luxury property, a stay at this Rocky Mountain retreat is an homage to alpine history and mountain adventure.

The more than rooms and suites offer pillow menus and fluffy king beds. The newly renovated, lavish one and two bedroom suites feature private bedrooms with luxurious ensuites as well as a separate living room. Guest rooms overlook the mountains and the glorious expanse of Lake Louise and Victoria Glacier. Six dining choices leave room for debate, discussion, and ultimate satisfaction regardless of your choice.

Perhaps a fragrant fondue amidst authentic Swiss and Italian atmosphere in the wood-lined Walliser Stube? The elegant Fairview dining room provides a perfect vantage point for the panoramic splendor of Lake Louise through grand cathedral windows. Craft beers, a fabulous wine list, and live music rub happily alongside alpine-inspired food — and it all tastes so much better at 5, feet. A diverting shopping gallery includes precious jewelry, sportswear, and the not to be missed, Qiviuk, the chic boutique specialising in fine garments made from hand-harvested Canadian Arctic Musk Ox wool — softer, lighter, and warmer than cashmere.

The vision of Sir William Cornelius Van Horne, President of the Canadian Pacific Railway, has evolved to delights of night-owl snowshoeing beneath the stars, to crackling campfires in the forest and cups of hot chocolate at the ice bar in between spins round the natural skating rink. Guests now enjoy guided cross-country skiing, downhill skiing, snowshoeing, and hiking with guides from the Mountain Adventure Program.

For guests of every age and activity level, a wonderful winter adventure awaits. Long Live This is the year of the rock star Beatles Afghan Chic Right around the time The Beatles began to dabble in psychedelic Indian sitar music and the teachings of the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, they also discovered how incredibly cool long hair, beards, and beads looked when paired with shearling sheepskin or goatskin coats from Afghanistan.

The classic Afghan coats worn by the Fab Four were decorated with colorful, embroidered patterns on the outside. Fashion icon Cher has been turning heads since the s. In one memorable photo the raven-haired rock siren is posing with former partner and spouse Sonny, in the puffiest, fluffiest, fuchsia-colored Mongolian lamb sweater ever created!

And finally, for fans of natural fur, M. This eye-catching waist-length fox fur vest is the absolute height of psychedelic fashion. Throw on a few hippie beads and this black and blue beauty will have you primed and ready for your very own magical mystery tour of snow country! Can you say meeeeeow?!!! Cat lovers can choose from two types of feline ski wear. The first, a selection of black, beige, and white stylized cheetah spots print creations highlighted by the slimfit Airsyn PR Jacket, the boxy Yakima Bomber Jacket, and the form-fitting Yurock PR Pant.

For fans of more realistic looking jungle prints, the Micmacs Soft BG Jacket, a magnificent black waist-length softshell, with contrasting faux fur leopard sleeves, and the multi-purpose faux fur leopard Mohawak Vest are fantastic choices.

Snakeskin print is a major theme at the luxury Swiss fashion house this winter and is available in silver, hot pink and white, in a wide assortment of slimfitting ski jackets and pants. This incredibly sexy take on the U. This delicate white wine, made entirely from the rare Vital grape from the Lisboa wine region, is also delighting diners at Eleven Madison Park in New York City. Port has long been known as an after-dinner quaff — The Mariposa mid-mountain munchery in Deer Valley has served it for 30 years. Breaking his own record two years later, he ensured that media attention was firmly focused on Portuguese surfing, beaches, tourism, and exports.

Since then, a wave of wine has hit U. Obrigado Our Ski Tip patrons are often quite adventurous — the ski connection — and want to follow a new trail each time they visit us. Experience winter in the Canadian Rockies by immersing yourself in our magical snow globe. Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise is located in the heart of Banff National Park and amidst some of the most spectacular scenery in the world. Take advantage of countless winter activities right at our door step. Grab your skis or snowboard and hit the slopes, strap on a pair of snowshoes or cross country skis, or lace up your skates and begin exploring Lake Louise.

After an exhilarating day of winter adventure enjoy rejuvenating spa treatments, delicious food, tasty drinks and a luxurious yet relaxed mountain atmosphere. View our winter offers at fairmont. At this point it has basically become the house wine… a true crowd pleaser. Portuguese pours, such as Chryseia and Prazo de Roriz, reach wine lists via a state-controlled liquor system. The key innovation is Titanal Frame construction, a unique combination of metal and carbon fiber — light, lively and responsive in everything from powder to ice.

This is a popular red and we seem to be selling more lately. We definitely plan to increase the selections of dry reds going forward. This rustic — chic restaurant in boutiquebeautiful Hotel Jackson is fulfilling all the latest food fads of which Portuguese pours are one. Look out for persuasive Portuguese pours popping up all over the U. As for the Portuguese palate — if wines are not enough to tease your taste buds — try some of the fare hitting the slopes. Blue and orange are in. She expects Bogner, Toni Sailer, and Fendi to have strong designs, but confesses to having serious crushes on both the Aztech Mountain and Cordova collections.

Skiers will luxuriate in the utmost comfort with perfectly tailored footwear available from the boutique. A perfume corner showcasing Parfums de Marly and Memo Paris, and a jewelry window displaying pieces by refined designers such as Tess Van Ghert allow customers to complete. Guests come from around the world to ski this posh paradise, and they expect their boutiques and their outfits to match the surrounding glamour.

For 45 years, the Bernard Orcel boutique has catered to their needs. And their whims. French alpine racer and two-time Olympian Bernard Orcel opened his eponymous boutique in , after retiring from competition. Although ownership changed in , that prestigious reputation continues today. The boutique stocks the most exclusive brands in clothing, accessories, and ski equipment: The chalet-style boutique, located in Courchevel , carries everything one needs — from technical layers to evening wear — to ensure you always look in vogue. Equally importantly, the team is on hand to offer bespoke services, individual recommendations, and personalized experiences designed to augment your ski vacay in every way.

Bernard Orcel achieves that in part by working to create exclusive collaborations with famous brands each season. It partnered with a French ski company to create its own ski line comprising an all-terrain ski, a racing ski, and an off-piste ski, each with a jazzy design.

Exclusive capsule collections show the height of alpine designer fashion. The boutique offers clients a place to escape, relax, and unwind in a place of beauty and comfort. You wish it, Bernard Orcel makes it happen. The truck carries a full range of winter sports equipment as well as.

Saloons played an important role in Breckenridge history |

The collections ready-to-wear or ski wear are presented by a personal shopper from the team. Seamstresses adjust and perfect outfits. No two are alike. For example, guests at the opulent Les Airelles return for afternoon tea with hot drinks and sweet snacks while those at the hip and modern Le Melezin enjoy a Champagne bar. The boutique organizes the race and arranges for special guest racers. Whether daytime glamour or evening glitz, Bernard Orcel deftly works the magic that makes them sparkle.

Last season mindful snowboarding was reinvented at Blue Mountain, Ontario where Emily Gaus, inspired by a mindful. Sleep improvement is particularly beneficial in ski resorts where high altitude can lead to disturbed rest and wakefulness, both of which can be combatted by meditation techniques. All of this, she contends, leads to a faster, more effective learning curve for skiers. A tough assignment, but with over 40 years of skiing experience, I had long decided that the main obstacle to my piste, powder, and perpendicular performance was anxiety.

These fear-fighting fundamentals were reinforced for Cartier during mindfulness staff training at Jackson Hole with John Travis, meditation teacher and former ski racer. Being aware of everything without getting visually locked into staring at one temporary place. The momentum behind mountain mindfulness at Jackson Hole is co-owner Connie Kemmerer who has designed a new ski camp debuting this season.

Jayne Gottlieb, owner Aspen Shakti. Yoga at the Sundeck, Aspen Mountain. Invariably they chuckle, and it serves to at least relax them a bit. Balance in nature. Athletes have been 2.

Winter flow. Double Olympic gold decades. Olympian medalist Jamie Anderson. In my late teens I started yoga and meditation and that also helped a lot with overall life and snowboarding. At Squaw Valley, instructors are increasingly utilizing mindfulness methods to dispel fears and enhance enjoyment. Danny Sullivan integrates Buddhism, ashtanga yoga, and ujjayi breathing into his ski lessons. Resorts are combating female fears in tough terrain through women-only ski camps, many of which are incorporating yoga and meditation with gender-friendly teaching and camaraderie.

Increasingly, ski resorts are running pre-ski mountaintop yoga classes, juxtaposing mindful exercise with the beauty of the surrounding scenery. With deep breathing, wider vision, and a more aggressive downhill stance, I now have my own mountain mantras for mitigating double diamond descents like T3 at Jackson Hole and KT at Squaw Valley.

Albreda, Albreda! As it recedes into the valley below, we stand in silvery silence atop an untracked glacier, one of dozens that speckle the largest single tranche of heli-skiing terrain in the world. After nearly fifty years of pioneering and — many would say — perfecting the art of heli-skiing, I ask Mike what he considers his most special accomplishment. Thoughtfully, his eyes scan the peaky panorama. Big is undeniably beautiful here. Yet in recent years — quietly, discreetly — word has been spreading about an alternative, more exclusive experience.

A tiny postcode where champagne flows and helicopters fly. If this sounds appealing, Albreda Lodge is your perfect scenario. Some 30 miles up the road from Blue River, Albreda Lodge may constitute the ultimate private heli-ski retreat. With all the bells and whistles — handcrafted massive timbers, dining, bar, three-. His guest list has long featured a tony set of doctors, dentists, and dealmakers: Past non-bunkers at Blue River have included ski royalty icons Jake Burton and Marcel Hirscher, as well as more conventional crowned heads such as Princess Caroline of Monaco and the Aga Khan.

Once alighting at Albreda — the helipad is poised just steps from the door — everything is located under one snow Tended by a dozen employees, needs are met by a lodge manager, a full complement of bar and waitstaff, discrete housekeepers, an in-house massage therapist, and most importantly, a deeply talented private chef. Bespoke menus are designed to spec. What you want, when you want it — including the bounty of a thoughtfully curated wine cellar. The upper floor, reached by a striking saw-tooth iron staircase or by elevator, for the truly powder-addled knees in the house is home to a long corridor of bedrooms.

Each ensuite room is A grand master suite features a large bedroom and sitting room with slate fireplace, as well as a small kitchen. Sepia photos showcasing a half-century of heli-history line the hallways, including a series of hand-painted ski prints by Warren Miller himself. The ski shop has a wide variety of powder skis, as well as cross-country skis and snowshoes.

Who can argue with that? Mix and match your style with pieces that work as easily in a Los Angeles gym or on an Austin bar crawl as they do on the bowls of Aspen or on the sunny groomers of Gstaad. High-performance Japanese fabrics perfectly cut. Premium quality and harmonious colours. This new collection moves seamlessly from urban streets to powder-filled slopes. From tea at the Kulm to Tirolean sing-alongs at the Hospiz Alm, the brilliant prints, versatile combinations, and high-performance designs are equally at home in the powdery heights of Telluride, the deep bowls of Vail, and jogging along our beloved afternoon run through Central Park.

Try one on for size. Cuts feature sporty X-shapes for ladies and flattering V-shapes for gents. The Racing Collection provides the perfect mix of performance and style to slice off the seconds. Travel like a champ. Julia Mancuso is a world-class skier, fitness guru, role model, model, philanthropist, brand ambassador, and overall free spirit. And she loves Austria! Follow her as she shares hip hot spots and insider secrets.

History meets modern mountain food. Decadently delish. Find it and the St. The MooserWirt and the Krazy Kanguruh are famous or infamous. Be prepared to stand on tables dancing with your ski boots on. Anton is one of the few places in the world to offer a winter via ferrata. Grab some touring gear and get roped in for a rock climbing adventure across craggy peaks.

Untracked runs are your just reward. Owners Martin and Ingrid Prodinger look after their guests like they are longtime friends. Secret: Find Martin at the end of the night and join him for some homemade schnapps. The high salt content let me float all my worries away. Skiing through stunning scenery over 22 kilometers of piste and 5, meters of altitude, I was awed. Wait for your boot fitting at the in-house bar. Shopping and schnapps. Only a ten minute stroll to medieval Old Town, this steel and glass contemporary showstopper has floor to ceiling windows everywhere.

Panoramic mountain vistas guaranteed! Weary of the gorgeous view? Live like a local and go Figln! I dare you! Tip: seek out the cheese cave! Sweet tooth? She was untitled and not of royal blood.


Not only did he secretly marry her, he built her a castle where they lived happily ever after. The dishes star local ingredients that tantalize the tastebuds. If you have a hankering for comfort food, try Restaurant Gusto. The Diavola pizza will have you emptying every water glass on the table. It is sexy and innovative, and the views are ridiculous. Enjoy it by day or go all out and book a summit dinner. Oh, that eye candy! Craving more action?

Tear up the terrain! Restos galore. My favorite is the Hohe Mut Alm. Grab an XL beer and quench your thirst. Work on your biceps lifting that stein! A powerful, pixie-haired Canadian skier with a small, sinuous build, quick, dexterous feet, and the spring of a jungle cat. She can pierce an opponent with the sharpness of her gaze and silence a room simply by walking into it. Across Canada her name is synonymous, not just with skiing, but with sport, tourism, and senatorial politics… all that at the age of In her youth, in her Olympic prime, in the days she reigned as queen of ski racing, Nancy Greene she was fiercely magnificent.

Senate and the House of Representatives tied into one. Trailing behind her: a legion of pre-teen hockey players from small town Quebec. Security guards parted hastily to let them past — Greene is known, after all. Fame has tracked Nancy Greene through decades. She won Gold and Silver at the Olympic Winter Games in Grenoble, plus a second World Cup overall title — a feat unmatched by any female skier in the 20th century.

Like the U. Nancy and her husband, former ski coach Al Raine, helped place Whistler on the map in the s. They did the same for B. She lit the Olympic cauldron. A disabled arm, the result of a childhood injury, meant her mother eschewed traditional styles of skiing. I learned to ski by watching her. I learned to ski perfectly balanced. I knew what to do, so I did it. The following day Greene placed third in the slalom, even though, as she danced nimbly through the gates, she wiped out twice.

In her career as a ski racer, she was known for rubbing against the grain, taking new lines, and breaking down barriers to. Greene hit the roll over a road tunnel too fast, flew into the air, and smacked into an ice wall. One of my hands was bruised so I got a shot in my knuckles. Turned out I also had a broken tailbone, but it only hurt to sit down and stand up so I kept going.

Greene spent the off-season training like a fiend under the eye of an expert in military fitness. Better yet, Rossignol sent their star skier a revolutionary set of skis called Stratos and Greene was loving them. By the end of the season however, It came down to their second run in the slalom to decide the first ever female FIS World Cup overall winner.

Greene, the favorite, placed a devastating 10th place in the Olympic downhill. With tears of frustration fogging her goggles, she got back at it that very afternoon, driving herself through a slalom training course time and again to gain back confidence. The following day she rose from the ashes to place second in the slalom. Then, with the guts and grind Greene is known for, she trounced her competition in the Olympic giant slalom, beating Annie Famose in her native France by 2.

Not true. According to Greene, the delay in revealing her result was necessary as the astounding time was verified. Despite a recent cancer scare, her movements are snappy and athletic. Their move to Sun Peaks lit the obscure ski resort with the wattage of a mega spotlight. In , their endorsements helped send the Olympic Winter Games back to Canada. The interview is done. She thinks about it, stumbling for words — unusual for a talker like Tiger.

She pops up moments later with another group of kids she has found wandering aimlessly on The Hill. A small town with big snow. Andrew Findlay arrives in Fernie. Mother Nature takes over the snowmaking. Polar Peak is open. Forty-four years later he clearly still has the stoke. He told me they had two T-bars.

I thought, avalanche techs onto the fat cornice that curls like a frozen wave high above Lizard Bowl. Most mountain towns worship Ullr. In Fernie they pay homage to their own version of the snow god; the Griz. The legend stems from a sighting of a musket-carrying, grizzly-coat wearing mountain man dwelling in the Lizard Range.

He fires his musket into the clouds to unleash powder and is often spotted skiing. Locals love this special powder snow. Today, with Siggers as my guide, we grabbed an early lift up Elk Chair, carved some tidily swept carpet down to the Great Bear Express, and now are chomping at a Lizard Bowl untracked, save for those of a few patrollers that are like signatures on a vast and crumpled parchment.

With a nod from his staff, I follow Siggers and launch the traverse cat track, landing in the snorkel-deep fresh, each turn a mouthful of oxygenated fluff. Curiosity got the best of him. Car loaded with ski gear, he made the quantities, but with interior dryness, thanks to the Lizard Range, an anomalous string of peaks that runs perpendicular to the axis of long drive to Fernie, a coal mining town founded at the turn of the the Canadian Rockies, and seems to generate its own generously re- 19th century on the banks of the Elk River. On its doorstep was an Late in the morning, Siggers ruefully leaves me in the hands of his son Dylan.

Dylan is a cliff-hucking, park jibbing year-old who rides for LINE skis and is a talented videographer. We spend the remainder of the day mining the steep lines, salt and peppered with cliff bands and rocks, that spill off the ridge between Currie and Timber bowls. We sidle Its surface has been polished by a curious, late night Fernie tradition, the thought of which causes me to reflexively remove my elbows from the table.

The walls of the bar are papered with photos of skiers with moustaches in garishly colored stretchy pants, and others in various states of undress. When John Cusack and Director Steve Pink scouted ski resort locations to shoot scenes for Hot Tub Time Machine, their search ended at Fernie, which seems to have one ski boot perpetually lodged in the s.

If Pink needed to fill scenes with extras, locals dove into their retro tickle trunks and arrived on set en masse. Socher would wield a chainsaw to cut runs, wrench broken down snowcats, and often walk around the resort base picking up not only trash but also sticks that appeared out of place. Chalk it up it to German fastidiousness. But at the same time Socher had a slice of. Only after an inbounds avalanche knocked over a lift tower at the bottom of Lizard Bowl was he compelled by government regulators to establish an official avalanche control program, which.

Siggers ended up joining. In Socher sold the resort to Charlie Locke, a pioneering Albertan mountaineer-turned-ski resort entrepreneur and a maverick in his own right. The portfolio was scooped up by N. Murray Edwards, reclusive Forbes Alberta financier, major oil sands investor, and co-owner of the Calgary Flames. Mountain mining towns tend to foster cool ski communities. Fernie is no exception; founded on coal mining, it remains as much a resource town as it is a ski community. This is coffee nerd central, with new blends served each week. In , Whillans, opened The Valley Social and trusts in the conviction that great coffee in a welcoming environment breeds great community.

Back in , long before hipsters with man buns and plaid shirts started twisting the taps at craft breweries across North America, Fernie Brewing Co. Its beers, like Project 9 Pils named after a popular local mountain biking trail and. Previous page Dylan Siggers in powder heaven. Nevados is the go-to taco place in town. Downtown Fernie. Nevados owner Storm Largue ready to pour.

Robin and son Dylan Siggers at the Griz Bar. Sometimes it really is all just in the name. After the facial, I head into Griz Fest ground zero. After the requisite axe throwing competition, revelers grasping cans of Fernie beer in mittened hands hoot and holler as fireworks fill the sky, then turn their attention to the outdoor stage, where local three-piece power trio Small Town Dirtbags jams. Housed in a wide-windowed, one-story, brick-walled corner building, this popular restaurant has brought a spicy pan-Latin American menu to the wintry streets of Fernie. I decide to pair the spirit with an appy of patacones.

The restaurant slowly fills. I look Snowflakes flutter and sparkle in the street lights; just another overnight refresh. The rope drops, signaling a Le-Mans-style start, and we aim for the far end of the ridge. I point the boards downhill, gather some necessary momentum, then smear a turn, sinking up to my thighs in March bounty. Thanks Griz. The French have a reputation for so many things. Eating well. Making brilliant wine.

Even soi-disant excellence in the dark arts of the bedroom. And when it comes to skiing, their contributions are equally legendary. From building the first planned ski resorts to outfitting us in smooth, sexy stretch pants to sashay around them, France is mad about le ski. You need only look up, way up, to understand. Mont Blanc was first summited in Gradually skiing gained traction and in , Chamonix played host to the first Winter Olympics of the modern era. To this day, Chamonix jumps and the world follows.

No need to panic though. While continuing to lure its share of the shovel-and-backpack brigade, Cham also beguiles us mortals. The roughly 13 mile ungroomed route, while not without challenge, can be skied by most competent skiers with the assistance of a guide. When Emperor Napoleon III first visited the icy magnificence that is the Mer de Glace, officials declared it an official site of beauty and promptly constructed a road linking Geneva to Chamonix.

Chamonix Mont Blanc railway station. Les Vieilles Luges on-mountain restaurant 3. Edward Whymper statue pointing to the Mont Blanc summit. Alas, even during our current era of unpredictable winters, the presence-chamber occasionally overfloweth. Frankenstein would have been impressed. With exemplary bon chic, bon genre touches, its 20 rooms, suites, and dormitories are elevated with crimson-carpeted staircases, vintage industrial lighting and retro fabrics, all complementing the weathered patina of its original dark wood and granite bones. Sleep is deep beneath a starry black sky.

No fewer than 11 ski areas dot the length of the Chamonix Valley. At the foot of Mont Blanc snow can fall hard and fast, making the low timbered beams of Les Vieilles Luges the lunch spot of choice. A Whitetooth craft brew. Chamonix jumps and the world follows. In the shadow of Mont Blanc, Albert 1er is the ultimate refuge. Nighttime in Chamonix town center. Decadent dessert. Ideal for hard-skiing diners or hard-dining skiers any day of the week.

GM is all about the powder. At the end of the day, especially in springtime, Americanexpat skilebrity Gary Bigham and his band The Crevasse Holes can be heard playing at the bottom. Well skied, well earned. Before we leave this Savoyard siren, a serious last supper is in order. In a town where alpinism is a way of life, dining at Albert 1er is religion. One century, two Michelin stars, and four generations of hospitality form an elegant crucible here: Perrine, greatgrand-daughter of the founder, is at front of house; her husband, Chef Pierre Maillet, is at the helm.

In the calm of the linen-draped dining room, hushed conversation is muffled by fine cashmere sweaters and subtle cork pops. Delicate plates and glittering cutlery arrive and. A surprise from the kitchen, oysters with truffles, is delivered by a waitress in a sober, ink-black suit, a lick of scarlet lingerie peeking out…. Skiing, eating, and post-prandial comforts are taken seriously in this part of the world.

At the opposite side of town, and offering a totally different feel, is the recently resurrected five-star. And each morning, the pleasure of waking facing Mont Blanc. Lovely things line shelves at an array of shops that include Chanel, Ogier, Moncler, and the exquisite local fine wool producer Arpin. Browse antique prints and books and visit the bijou Alpine Museum, located inside a palace. For more sophisticated evenings, take in the jazz at Maison des Artistes, housed in a Art Nouveau villa.

Photographer: Poby poby. On Liza Dress Moncler price on request www. Cooper's positive view of lynching in a situation devoid of law can be seen in "The Virginian" and other early movies. This endorsement did not change until "The Ox-Bow Incident" was filmed in A stock plot formula found in some Western novels, but especially in the Western movie, is also found first in Cooper's novels. The woman motivates the man to be the hero and to protect her, her family, or her property.

She has no mother and travels or lives with her father on the frontier. This aging father is unable to protect his daughter: enter the hero. The capture-escape-pursuit-capture-escape formula has also been a very successful plotline [John Ford films "The Searchers" and "Two Rode Together" deal with reclaiming Comanche hostages]. The filmmakers usually followed Cooper's picture of the noble Indian whose lands have been appropriated by the white man or antithetically they portrayed the Indian as the blood thirsty savage.

If Western films [and novels] seem familiar, there is a good chance that the viewer has experienced the plot before. Once a writer finds a plot formula that works, it is usually reproduced with some minor changes. Cooper used a successful formula when he opened The Pathfinder with a similar scene that The Last of the Mohicans began. Cooper's use of formulae [contrary killings, Indian's thirst for blood usually white , friendships between Indians and whites, deaths and marriages] in the Leatherstocking Tales laid the formula foundation for Western film writers who ground out a glut of films and novels that resembled each other.

Cooper's formulae served B-Western films well from the 's until the early 's. Although a powerful saving force has long been an author's deus ex machina, Cooper in chapter thirty of The Deerslayer popularized the last minute military rescue. Cavalry charge and has been stock footage in many Western films. The Pioneers is important to the Western genre because in it may be found the basic plots used in writing the Western.

The novel is also crucial to understand Western writing because Cooper deals with the ownership of the land which was central in so many Western books and films. All of this action takes place, as Cooper so aptly described in his novels, on the edge of civilization: the frontier with its perils and exciting adventure awaiting in the next chapter or on the next reel of film. The Western should be with us for many years to come because the social problems that Cooper explored in his oeuvre still face each new generation. Cooper's Western building blocks: plots, characters, themes, and iconography are already being explored in the films and TV serials of our final frontier: space.

Despite the fact that Cooper furnished the Western film enduring characters, plots, themes and motifs, Cooper has not fared well at the movies. Jeffery Walker stated: "Cooper has been generally misinterpreted and misrepresented by filmmakers. Almost all of the film adaptations have concentrated on his plots, always to the novel's detriment …" [p. Starting in with a silent film, Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales have spanned nine decades of cinematography.

Unfortunately most of the attempts to put Cooper's stories on film have been assessed as weak to mediocre. Lee [p. David Wark Griffith and ending with the last attempt in by Michael Mann, Cooper's books have suffered Hollywood's penchant for remolding a good story into a Hollywood plot. As America's first professional writer, Cooper holds the distinction of being the first American writer to have a play produced based on his novel.

The Leatherstocking Tales have been the source of most of the films made from Cooper's books, and The Last of the Mohicans has been the book most often adapted to the screen. Griffith's first silent films for Biograph Studios was "Leather Stocking" in Cooper thus also holds the distinction of being the first American author to have his novel adapted for film.

Occasionally films were made using a few of Cooper's characters. Good examples of this practice are: "The Pioneers," Monogram, which had no resemblance to any of Cooper's plot; and the script of "The Last of the Redmen," Columbia Pictures, which took so many liberties with The Last of the Mohicans that it was difficult to recognize Cooper's story.

Although a few characters are reminiscent of Cooper's: a Huron renegade; a beautiful commander's daughter; and her officer admirer; there is no other connection with Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales. The Canadian TV series, "Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans," only alluded to the novel by paralleling some incidents in the first of the thirty-nine episodes, i.

Cooper was a hallmark against which other film writers were judged. Griffith's "A Mohawk's Way" stated, "It is the noble red man of James Fenimore Cooper that we see in this film -- the Indian of romance who, as some people claim, never existed, but who is nevertheless the ideal type for story telling. The hero Tim McCoy and some Indian police stop a war. A Variety critic ["Rush"] March 21, commented that, "McCoy undertakes the job supported by a handful of Indian police a historical detail that isn't often played up in movies or fiction.

He also noted that this film contained "spectacular Indian fighting stuff" and that the "melodrama is dealt with in terms of Fenimore Cooper instead of the Old Scout dime novel style. Cooper's books were very popular in Europe and many were adapted to the European stage [Harris]. It was inevitable that European attempts would be made to put Cooper's books on film with the advent of that medium.

Spaghetti Westerns" were low budget films usually made in Europe, with an nternational assortment of actors, directors, technicians, and scenery. These films tried to impersonate American B - Westerns, but were often rated "Z. Movie serials started in the silent era and continued through their brief Golden Age: to Perhaps the classics were serialized to appease the PTA and the parent's complaints about violence. Many children read the same classics in school that their parents and teachers had read. The classic serials were both familiar to the children and assuaged parental opposition to film violence.

British writer Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe was the first classic adapted to the silent serial screen in , and French author Jules Verne's Around the World in 80 Days followed in Universal filmed both serials. Cooper became the first American author to be added to the cliffhanger serialization format with ten chapters of "Leatherstocking.

Thirty-nine episodes for Western radio programs were also produced in the 's from Cooper's books. Other than the early silent film "The Spy," which received excellent reviews, Hollywood has only drawn ineffectively upon Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales. Writers, producers, and directors should also be aware of the potential for dramatic films from some of Cooper's untapped novels: a Revolutionary War novel with an accurately depicted battle scene, a frontier novel of kidnapping, love and death, a novel of survival locked in a frozen sea, and even a trial novel which might have some appeal today.

Although Cooper was the first to develop the sea novel, Hollywood has neglected the vast number of Cooper's sea stories whose dramatic potential could rival Hollywood's rendition of "The Sea Wolf," "Moby Dick," "Mutiny on the Bounty," or The Hornblower series. Hollywood has not yet begun to exploit Cooper's potential on the wide wide screen. May we not have long to wait before more of Cooper's dramatic tales are adapted to film. Titles may vary by different distributors and in different countries. Films may be retitled from the announced title on release or when released in different formats.

A reel was a unit of measurement for early films. It was usually feet in length and ran for ten minutes. Sources are cited for single listings of a film. Griffith; camera: G. Edwin Thanhouser Film Company released the movie November 10th. Dillon; cinematographers: Philip R. Dubois, Charles E. Seitz; written by Robert Dillon; release date: 23 March One in 3 reels; Chs. Directed by George B. Lambert; sound: John L. Harrison and E. An Edward F. Finney production; screenplay: Arthur St. Claire; photography: James S. Brown, Jr. Bagler; music: Alexander Steinert; copyright: by Zenith Pictures.

Arthur Rank Film Distribution. Conway; executive producer: Charles E. Sellier, Jr. Schweitzer; Executive producers: Charles E. Conway, rated R. Premier August 11, in Paris [where Cooper lived from ]; opened in U. September 25; general release: November 6; screenplay by M. Lauren, Canada, Madacy Music Group, , two videocassettes min. Later, as the film industry developed, only the star's names were used.

Giving credit to all technical and acting personnel came much later. The following cast listings are taken from the sources in the bibliography, hence, some lists of casts may be incomplete. George O. Nicholls as the Col. Baker [p. Synopsis: Story line has the Col. When they rest at a mountain stream, Big Serpent and the scout lead the horses in the shade of the wood.

The scout returns to tell Leather Stocking and Uncas that he was attacked and that the horses were killed. Leather Stocking and Uncas volunteer to lead the party to the fort. They are almost surrounded by Indians but escape to the stockade where a spirited battle occurs.

When only two charges are left to fight the bloodthirsty Indians, Leather Stocking disguises himself as a bear and swims the torturous river at the back of the stockade knowing that the Indians would not waste bullets on game when the enemy is present. He falls exhausted at the soldiers' quarters. The soldiers arrive in the nick of time at the stockade to save the survivors being burned at the stake. Uncas accompanies the party on their way and the film ends with his standing alone on the brow of a hill -- the last of the Mohicans.

Powers released the movie on August 1st. Directed by Edwin Thanhouser. Released November 10th. Brown [suffering ptomaine, pleurisy, and falling off a parallel bar kept Tourneur in bed for 3 months hence Brown did much of the direction, but Tourneur scrutinize all the rushes, gave the last word on retakes, and directed most of the studio scenes], screenplay by Robert A.

Duncan Heyward, James Gordon as Col. Munro, George Hackathorne as Capt. It cuts to Fort Edward and an interior scene with Cora playing the harp for her beau, the slightly effeminate Capt. Randolph who was created for the film , Maj. Heyward, and Alice. Uncas arrives at the door with news of enemy movements and then Magua with a message from Col. Following Capt. Randolf's treason and his death as he hides in an ammunition dump which is blown up , the fort falls.

After the massacre Magua pursues and captures Cora and Alice. The last reel contains the climatic trial at the Deleware camp with Talemund.

The Garland Library of Narratives of North American Indian Captivities at Cornell

Magua takes Cora into the wilderness. As Cora fights off sleep on the top of the cliff, Magua struggles with her and repeatedly stabs at Cora's arms as she dangles from the edge of the cliff and ultimately falls to her death. Uncas tries to save her but after a gallant struggle is killed and dies reaching for her hand in the book they both die on the ledge. Hawkeye shoots Magua at the top of the falls and he washes over a waterfall "more than a thousand feet high.

The gory scenes of mothers murdered and infants tomahawked were taken from D. Griffith's massacre. Stills indicate that the "bear" scene was shot but cut from the film. Munro, Mischa Auer as Gen. Chapter Titles: 1. Unknown; 2. Flaming Arrows; 3. Rifles or Tomahawks; 4. Riding with Death; 5. Red Shadows; 6. The Lure of Gold; 7. The Crimson Trail; 8. The Tide of Battle; 9. A Redskin's Honor; The Enemy's Stronghold; Paleface Magic; The End of the Trail.

Synopsis: Story line has Cora, Alice, their singing teacher, and Major Heyward journey through enemy territory. Hawkeye, the Mohicans, or various members of the party are captured, killed, blown up, burned, etc. The daughters are captured at least a dozen times by Magua or by Dulac and then rescued. Uncas, his father, and Hawkeye see that justice is done. The Sagamore is killed by Dulac and Uncas performs the rituals befitting the last of the Mohicans. The actors spoke their lines with self-conscious deliberation as they did in many of the early talkies ; the photography was often poor: the fight scene on the cliff in the last episode was shot on a cloudy day and turned out gray and murky; the massacre of the Mohican tribe in the first reel remains a memorable action.

Seitz, 91 minutes. Duncan Heyward, Hugh Buckler as Col. Winthrop, Frank McGlynn, Sr. Return to Table of Contents Synopsis: Story line has most of the novel's incidents in the film. Scott holds back the Hurons as the others reach the safety of the fort which is subsequently overwhelmed.

Scott is captured, tortured, and to be burned at the stake when Wilcoxon Heyward arrives with troops to save Scott at the last minute. Hawkeye and Alice and Uncas and Cora fall in love in this version; Magua knocks Uncas off a cliff and Cora, his white lover, jumps after him; Chingachgook kills Magua; and Hawkeye goes to Alice his women.

Many of the sets shot on a sound stage looked unreal especially the Indian camp. Cora was portrayed as a blond and Alice donned dark-hair. This was the first talkie to feature Indian "grunts and yelps. Munro, Frederick Worlock as Gen. Magua tells Gen. Webb that the French are attacking from the South. This scene gives the rational for the daughter's heading for Fort William Henry which is not provided in any other film nor in the book Hawkeye leads the group after Magua leads them astray.

They abandon their horses and baggage and are chased down the river to an island where they hide in a cave. Hawkeye and Uncas go for help, and the group is captured. Hawkeye and Uncas rescue them, and they hide in an abandoned cabin. As they approach the fort, the defeated column is leaving and is attacked by the Indians. Monro is shot; Uncas kills Magua and although mortally wounded rides for help; Alice screams, runs out and is stabbed; the cavalry arrives and saves the survivors; the film ends with Hawkeye standing by Uncas' grave.

The scenario took many liberties: Hawkeye talked in a thick Irish brogue; Chingachgook was dropped as a character; Davy was added for juvenile box office draw; danger was more often invited than avoided. The picture's only distinction was that it was in color. Synopsis: Story line is about the founding and growth of America in the "s as seen through the adventures of U. Synopsis: Story line has Delaware Indians falsely accused of various crimes against settlers. Hawkeye and Chingachgook attempt to prove the truth. Munro, Noel Coleman as Gen. Magua leads the girls, Heyward, and another soldier into an ambush.

Hawkeye leads the survivors to an island cave. After a fight, the Indians capture the girls and Heyward. Hawkeye has gone for help. Hawkeye and the Mohicans helped by Gamut rescue the group and barely get them to the fort. Hawkeye and the Mohicans are captured, tortured, and saved by Montcalm. The final scene at a waterfall has Uncas jumping down and missing Magua who kills him; another Indian stabs Cora; Magua kills him and fights Chingachgook.

Magua is thrown down the waterfall. Cora and Uncas are buried, and Hawkeye proclaims his friendship to Chingachgook. They depart together. Conway, producer: Robert Stambler, teleplay: Stephen Lord. Webb, with Dehl Berti, John G. Heyward escort Cora and Alice to their father. Magua and his Huron warriors are the determents. The group is captured and saved. There are long fight scenes and a chase on the lake. At Tamenund's village Cora is given to Magua who takes her to a high promontory.

The rescuers arrive. Chingachgook kills Magua in hand-to-hand combat after Uncas, sacrificing himself to save Cora, is shot by Magua. There are no scenes of the surrender at the fort nor of the massacre; Cora is permitted to live, but David Gamut is killed. Full length cartoon, Hanna-Barbera Studio, , ; 1 videocassette 49 min. Synopsis: Story line has Magua leading the girls and Heyward. They meet Hawkeye, Uncas and Chingachgook on the trail. Uncas chases Magua away. They leave the horses and enter canoes.

Stopping at an island for the night, they stay in a cave. Chingachgook gives Alice his necklace. Hawkeye and Uncas swim for help. Alice has a little dog Pip which yips, and they are captured. Hawkeye and Uncas to the rescue. Chingachgook and Magua plunge over a cliff. Arriving at the fort they find it burned and empty. That night Uncas and the two girls are captured. Uncas and Alice are saved from the stake by the necklace Alice is wearing. Hawkeye returns to the woods. Uncas, the last of the Mohicans, leaves to find other Mohicans and build a tribe. Alice and Pip run after him, and they all ride off together.

Synopsis: Story line has Chingachgook and Uncas surrounded by Hurons. His father is killed, but Uncas is saved by Hawkeye. Magua leads Heyward and the girls; they rest for the night; Hawkeye catches Heyward off guard; tell the truth about Magua. Next day they set off; Hawkeye scouting ahead; party is captured again; Hawkeye saves party. Raft takes them to cave; Hawkeye and Uncas go for help; party is captured; Uncas asks Tamenund for help; they capture Magua and prisoners; Magua slips away and they get to the fort.

Washington wants to surrender and fight another day and Munro agrees. The women leave and are captured. Uncas and Hawkeye are captured; all are to be burned at the stake. Tamenund arrives; Magua and Uncas fight high on a cliff; Magua fall to his death. Montcalm's troops save them. Tamenund admonishes Uncas and Hawkeye to work for peace between peoples. Screenplay by M. Munro, Patrice Chereau as Gen. Beams, Colm Meaney as Maj. Ambrose, Mac Andrews as Gen. Curtis Gaston as 1st Soldier, Eric A.

An ambush leaves the trio unprotected and Hawkeye, his adopted father and brother lead them to the Fort. Hawkeye and Maj. Heyward love Cora, and Uncas loves Alice. After the fall of the Fort and the massacre comes the chase and capture. At the Indian encampment, Heyward offers his life for the girls [preempting Hawkeye's offer], and Magua leaves with Alice.

Hawkeye shoots the screaming Heyward as he is being burned to death. There is an action packed finale on a majestic ridge where Alice commits suicide rather than be with Magua; Uncas tries to avenge her death, but is killed by Magua; and Chingachgook revenges his son by killing Magua. James Fenimore Cooper did not predict that his book would become a classic, but time has proven its endurance. Michael Mann's expressed great confidence in his film when he commented, "It's going to be a classic. To date reviews of the film have not yet bestowed classic status upon the forty million dollar plus movie version.

The largest movie set ever built east of the Mississippi was the six million dollar reconstruction of Fort William Henry. On a bluff overlooking Lake James, between Marion and Morganton North Carolina, the , square foot fort was a virtual museum of frontier America. Medicine jars of the period, blackened cooking pots, and stacked muskets attested to the attention paid to historical accuracy. Most of the props: handmade uniforms and shoes, birchbark canoes, and woven baskets were made by local craftspeople. Mann felt that Linville Gorge gave him the perfect backdrop for shooting scenes in the wilderness of 18th century New York.

The rugged country challenged the construction crews. Moving heavy equipment and hundreds of cast members in the mountains only to be rained out or to have the director change his mind proved to be frustrating and costly. The company closed out its 6 month filming in the mountains six weeks behind schedule due to heavy rains throughout the summer of By October the budget had exceeded forty million dollars. When the film was completed, the production company was required by law to restore the area. Mann fired his first cinematographer and the costume designer.

Cooper on Film

The hair stylist quit. The film was plagued by nearly a dozen wildcat work stoppages: initially by American Indians Russell Means helped negotiate improved working conditions and exempts Mann from any blame for the problems and then by local extras. The extras protested poor pay, and wanted better working and living conditions. Director Mann was quoted as saying that laying "dead" on the damp and rocky ground for hours without breaks for multiple retakes was normal on location shooting. Extras outside of Hollywood "don't know what to expect.

Rather than paying union wages and benefits, local workers had to individually negotiate with the company. The company kept individual contracts secret, and no one knew [unless employees shared with each other] what anyone else was earning. Housing, quality of meals, and transportation also varied with negotiation. Return to Table of Contents 1. Premiere, Vol.

Ibid, Vol. Miami Vice in buckskin. Alleva, Richard. Ansen, David. Newsweek, "Mann in the Wilderness," Vol. Arnold, Gary. Times September 20, Mann says. I think it must have been similar to the way the original historical events had left an impression on Cooper, reconstructing them 75 years later. Madeleine Stowe admits, "There were days when you felt so lost amid or extras, with seven cameras planted all over the place to capture a vast scene.

Michael will not roll the cameras until he feels everything is totally right. He's far and away the most exacting director I've ever worked with Wes Studi and Russell Means Studi's Magua The 'bad' Indian has good reasons to be bad. Barker and Sabin, pp. Berger, Arion. Mohicans captures its historical moment -- the dissolution of Indian tribes that played by the settlers' rules and lost, and the stirrings of Revolutionary fervor and female emancipation. Bernard, Jami. New York Post September 25, , p. But wait -- here comes the swelling score again, the theme music for the Daniel Day-Lewis, bare-chested yard dash!

Blake, Richard A. Bonham, Kevin. Herald February 16, Those who win parts will have to take a three-week survival training course The actors have to be willing to cut their hair for the filming, possibly in the Mohawk style Stowe; as the daughter of a British officer she "falls in love with Hawkeye, though in the book she falls for Uncas, the noble Indian.

Britton, Bonnie. Tarzan in buckskins Cartright, Bob. Comer, Brooke. Denby, David. Mann sees everything visually -- as an effect. He loads these effect one atop the other as the movie grandly - but not, I would guess, commercially -- slips through his fingers. Dubner, S. New York, Vol. Ebert, Roger. Engel, Joel. David Webster, a wilderness survival trainer, gave the actors lessons in 18th century military techniques.

But coming up with accurate Indian dialogue proved more difficult. The Hurons spoke Wyandot a now-defunct language. The Mohican language has also died out. In the Huron village, many extras spoke Onondaga. Wes Studi Magua spoke mostly Mohawk, "although he occasionally reverted to his native Cherokee.