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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Between April and will require an enormous investment of time and resources. November Portugal experienced an atmosphere of joy and fear, between the revolutionary excitement and the danger of civil The greatest impact, however, will be in how this new legal war. Mexico legal practice. For now, the A. Drawing on a based on analysis of newspapers and other witnesses of the time.

Or The profound changes faced by the Mexican legal community can we say, on the other hand, that the language is the same underscore the continuing role of rhetoric in contemporary everywhere in the world? The Mexican case also makes carefully analyzed. Il secondo testo this principle really compulsory? If yes, how much violence there riguarda Mt 11—12, dove le due sequenze estreme ruotano is in this necessity?

Il terzo testo riguarda il consider that something has been demonstrated or, at least, well- capitolo delle parabole del Regno: Mt 13, dove le due sequenze, argued Rh. Starting from this passage we will try to think over the Monarchen auf Schritt und Tritt. Dennoch sind diese Lobreden relationship between persuasion, violence and necessity.

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Actually, the Aristotelian analysis of the principle of non- Dabei ist festzustellen, dass solcherlei Reden bereits rhetorisch contradiction is a very stimulating case study for someone stark schematisiert und reglementiert sind und sie sich auch interested in the phenomenon of persuasion, because it obliges sprachlich an antiken bzw. Diese und aspects?

In this way "Tullius" grandes catastrophes dans sa longue histoire. Longinus is often thought of as the progenitor of the John Ward has shown, from the twelfth century on, "rhetorical sublime": a specifically technical-verbal concept of commentaries such as Thierry of Chartres' treat the sublimity. This paper investigates how late medieval authors and reception in his treatise anticipates and, in an important received the complicated tradition of Ciceronian authorship sense, helps create the conditions of the emergence of the so- developed in a variety of commentaries.

It argues that late Middle called "aesthetic sublime" of Burke and Kant. I thus argue that the English authors sometimes used the name "Tullius" rather than Longinian sublime is as philosophical as it is rhetorical, as "Cicero" to distinguish the Rhetorica ad Herennium from the De subjective as it is verbal or artistic technical.

This paper represents a summary of the first part of my monograph under review, The Theory of the Sublime from Longinus to Kant. Commis du peuple, retirez-vous! Like in and memorably violent speech. Scholars have tended to focus antiquity, the shift was sometimes seen as evidence of the their inquiries on schoolbooks that are original compositions, collapse of political oratory into mere flattery.

In accordance to ancient authors, education, the use of Terence in the rhetorical — and emotional — political laudation has been taken to have functioned intrinsically training of boys has not been explored. My method, their rulers, however in a constantly subservient manner. One however, is more circumscribed. I propose to examine the kinds important point of departure in my interpretation is the and frequency of emotional language in two influential works. Of interest to Esquilo vv. La escena resultante es vraisemblance. Der Vortrag wird auf questi, il rapporto tra il generale e le truppe.

Imitatio in the Progymnasmata Hauptquellen des Vortrages sind antike, insb. Both Bonner and che su tale materia la letteratura occidentale abbia prodotto.

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Mack, A History of Renaissance Rhetoric, pp. Indeed in both his dialectic and rhetoric, Willich affirms the identity of the Imitation is basic to all the progymnasmata. The rhetorical two arts in all matters pertaining to invention and even subject exercises teach the good qualities of literature to the students, matter. The lectio would have been appropriate when lectured as a professor of medicine, and served as the personal students read fables aloud, imitating different animals.

They physician of Joachim II of Brandenburg whom he accompanied on would then also have practiced listening, trying to discern the his campaign against the Turks in Reflecting his training and moral of the fable. The praelectio would fit the analysis of practical experience, Willich's works on medicine include an narratives, especially the close reading done in refutation and anatomy textbook, two works in German on treating the plague, confirmation. Memoria would have been taught in fables, stories and two works on urinalysis one an early example of a text and the memorable sayings in chreiai and maxims.

Paraphrasis is requiring hand-colored illustrations. Willich thus inverts the one of the topoi used in the chreiai and maxims. The paraphrase emphases of Melanchthon, who wrote on anatomy and physics serves to put the quoted saying into the words of the student as and referred frequently to medical topics. Yet both produced a thesis for elaboration. The transformation from one form to dialectical treatises that incorporated an expansion of the loci another, conversio, fits both the fable and the chreia. A more arguably derived from their studies of the works of Galen.

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In advanced form of transformation is the move from outward Willich's case, however, the changes are traceable in his medical description in the exercise descriptio to the inward presentation works. These reflect what has become known as the "medical of the object or person described in the ethopoeia. All the renaissance" of the sixteenth century, when a new emphasis on exercises were primarily written, but would also have been the careful observation of symptoms and subsequent methods of performed in the classroom, hence combining recitatio with diagnostic inference co-existed with humoral physiology.

Willich subsequent correction by the teacher, correctio. Under different circumstances, Frankfurt Oder , founded in , where he first matriculated. A in his Dialogus de oratoribus 1. Quintilian's De causis corruptae Willich also wrote an Erotematum Dialectices first published in eloquentiae may well have set the ground for the argumentation that was reprinted several times across the sixteenth that would from then on revolve on the reform of education, the century see Green and Murphy's Renaissance Rhetoric Short Title mentalities and cultural life: the rationale for the works where Catalogue, p.

Like Melanchthon's Elementorum incipient state of the arts but rather the decadent state of Rhetorices of and his Erotemata Dialectices of , Willich's education. A most singular example of all that is what happened in maestros parisinos Petrus Ramus y Omer Talon. En el presente Portugal. The A. Los casos de Jorge Luis School Declamation and Debate during Segregation Borges y Octavio Paz Based on heretofore unexamined archives, this paper El latinoamericano no es un "bon sauvage", sino que asimila examines an extracurricular network of rhetorical pedagogy and creativamente los aportes de otras culturas para crear un practice for developing the rhetorical and citizenship skills of producto cultural nuevo.

Oswald de Andrade se refiere a la young African Americans between to the Prairie View "antropofagia" para aludir a este procedimiento por el cual los Interscholastic League. Black schools and colleges formed los aportes de la cultura occidental. De ese modo, Borges y Paz destacaron la State Department of Education to form a central association to especificidad de la literatura latinoamericana. This new league operated for a half century with the explicit goal of encouraging and showcasing the speaking talents of African American students from rural and urban areas alike.

At its height, the League enrolled schools, many with multiple teams. Parents and community Meyer, Perelman y Olbrechts-Tyteca. Many Vidal. Another result was that the rhetorical topical systems of the De inventione was superimposed on Ars Frank, David A. University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, poetica to systematize, augment and discipline Horace's own less USA didactic views of character types, according to age, sex, social The Universal Audience in Global Rhetoric status, occupation and national character.

A handout with John of Garland, deeply influenced by the overtly rhetorical several tables will be distributed. I existed for about four centuries — is largely accepted in noted among other things that in these speeches Demosthenes contemporary scholarship see, e. Opposing this view, the proposed paper documents overall strategy.

This observation led me to investigate the use of numerous sophists and explores geographical diversity of witnesses by these two orators further, and also to consider the sophistic professional activity during and just after the Hellenistic use of witnesses by other Greek orators in private litigation in the era.

A preliminary investigation concerning linguistic usage of the fifth and fourth centuries BCE. The results have been most words sophistes, sophisteuein, sophisteia in Strabo, Dionysius of interesting, and I would like to present some of them in a paper Halicarnassus, Plutarch, Diogenes Laertius, Philostratus, at ISHR Athenaeus, and the Suda produces a list of thirty-eight sophists I have calculated the frequency of witness testimony in all the whose professional activities arose in the time between private speeches and will present these numbers in tables in a Aeschines and Nicetes.

Professional locations of these sophists handout. They show a clear increase in the use of witnesses include twenty-four sites: Alexandria Philostratus the Egyptian, during the fourth century, with Isaeus acting as a transition to Theodotus of Chios, Theodorus Atheos , Antioch Diotrephes , Demosthenes and Apollodorus, the latest of the group. Moreover, the distribution of of Hippo. The assumed audience of these activity. A comparison of sophistic locations before and after commentaries as well as the relation between argumentation and Nicetes produces interesting similarities.

Main centers of didactics present there will be approached in this work. Finally, we sophistic activity before Nicetes represent significant locations of will reflect upon some constitutive characteristics arising from the sophistic professionals afterwards, and the two most important history of the occidental way of arguing about certain modes of centers in both lists are Athens and Rome see Bowie Also, reading and explaining texts, especially with respect to Gn.

While Rhetorical Strategies in the Biblical Commentaries of the Byzantine production of progymnasmata started afresh Jerome and Augustine on Genesis around the year , the first pieces carrying melete in the title — or classified by modern scholarship as meletai — appear in the The act of writing commentaries must always be motivated twelfth century e. More and bring about effects and consequences. Such act, therefore, examples survive from the late thirteenth and early fourteenth always brings up an underlying polemic of some sort, whether it centuries: most prominently a corpus of thirteen pieces is scientific, philosophic, or social in nature.

Along the same transmitted under the name of Georgios Pachymeres, albeit in a underlying line is the audience towards which the commentary is single sixteenth-century manuscript. In order to convince and persuade a given audience of the Georgios Kyprios, produced three pieces; Thomas Magistros in best way of interpreting a text, it would be impossible to avoid Thessalonike three pairs one of which, in dialogue with some rhetoric strategies.

Further always been analyzed in light of the relationship between occasional pieces survive from the quills of well-known rhetors polemics, knowledge dissemination and argumentation, which such as Nikephoros Gregoras, Demetrios Chrysoloras or Manuel II leads us to the question of control over the interpretation and Palaiologos. Demostene, privo dei the gnostic tradition, I argue for a rereading of the normative map diritti politici e in esilio dopo lo scandalo arpalico, indirizza delle of Christian rhetoric that we have, for too long, relied on.

This paper thus seeks to shine a light on one of cimentarsi in un genere letterario diverso da quello che lo ha reso these texts, the Gospel of Mary. In tracing the rhetorical grande. Ultimately, this project works to reread retorico-letterario, prima ancora che storico-politico, delle Christianity through a slanted lens, to pick up an alternative text Epistole di Demostene, pezzi diffusamente letti e studiati nelle and retell the story, and to continue the feminist effort to scuole di retorica tardoantiche come testimoniano i papiri di II reimagine the borders of the Christian rhetorical tradition.

If poetry is a species of music, might we of Transition in the History of Scholarly Rhetorics view its musical settings as a kind of poetry? Studies of early modern music and rhetoric tend to analyze how baroque Scholarly rhetorics in the latter half of the twentieth century composers used music to represent poetic text. Likewise, as scholars parallels between the compositional craft of the two sister arts?

As theorists, both define their arts in similar terms, qualities of scholarly rhetoric. Curiously, these disturbances divide their practical treatises into large topics of meter and seemed to reify — if not generate — the very dichotomies that consonance, and employ terminology that reveals implicit and poststructuralist and deconstructionist critical theory attempts to formal links between poetic and musical rhyme.

As composers, challenge. Indeed, at these moments, scholarly rhetorics tend to both craft works built on short motifs, reveling in kaleidoscopic fall back on established terms in order to investigate new patterns of consonant permutation. That is, scholars relied on core clusters of terms that made up extant frameworks for analysis — what Kenneth Burke Three parallels between the compositional craft of the poet called terministic screens. Molinet and the composer Tinctoris warrant particular attention.

First are the formal links between poetic rhyme equisonance and This paper suggests that certain historical moments of musical unison equisonanza. Third are shared conventions of rhythm and another. Modern musicologists have ignored a recent suggestion established scholarly commitments, such as textocentrism, are that composers consciously employed the cursus tardus at rendered invisible as new forms and technologies become the musical phrase endings, based in part on the appearance of these talking points of discourse.

Quand il traite de sophistes parlant et buvant, academic discourse in general. Lives of Ten Orators d-f; Dion. Lives of Ten Orators a, e; Cic. De or. Brutus 32; Philostratus Lives of Soph. This paper considers the ways in which such biographical notices concerning orators' voices have figured in the stylistic evaluation of their texts, from Greaney, George Hofstra University, Hempstead, antiquity to the present.

It will argue that modern idea of a hate crime, in that enhanced punishment — or a this bio-stylistic procedure contributed to the development of distinct punishment — attached to a conviction on this charge. The main text I will scholarly commentary on the Rhetoric. Some interpreted historically as deficient, unimportant or merely overviews appear as epitomes so dense or gnomic that they may ostentatious, while political or legal discourse, somehow have been used only in a classroom where a teacher could mattered and matter more fundamentally to authentic civic life.

I will show that this is problematic, as it reduces contemporary Some overviews were paraphrases of sections or of the entire attention to the crucial role that epideixis plays in modern treatise, sometimes so modernized that little sense remains of the discourse. Rhetoric as a classical treatise. And some overviews were synoptic As often interpreted, epideictic rhetoric contains at its heart a of rhetoric as a whole; their titles usually include a phrase like ex striving toward communal values, what Nicole Loraux refers to as Aristotele, Cicerone, et Fabio. They begin as early as Theophilus de a focus on identification and affinity is at the heart of epideixis.

They are further, that criticism be seen as a compelling form of published in every corner of Europe, and for many schoolboys contemporary epideixis. Notable is the sheer difficulty writers faced in longer at the behest of formerly more unified cultural ideals it is reducing these disparate rhetorical studies to a single unified through acts of criticism that we form emergent communities, discipline.

USA , and making their theoretical points by debating specific Heidegger and Rhetoric c. The last kind 3 to identify our new historiography that foregrounds rhetorical were often commentaries only in name and rather contained topics Heidegger found interesting around emotion, creative writing loosely associated with the base text. Such was Heidegger's Through this sustained internal conversation, in both oral and work. But this final move invites a perspective that is not exactly written modes which co-existed over several centuries , Arabic Heidegger's, as I conclude with a pressing issue of the Weimar rhetoric achieved an internal vibrancy and a diachronic cohesion, Republic — rhetoric beyond personal responsibility — that was which made it able to persist for a millennium in a geographical forced in a way we still find terribly compelling.

As such Arabic rhetoric China from a rhetorical perspective. The focus of this study is on remained a dynamic discipline until the onset of modernity and the effectiveness of English reports of China Daily from a thereby differs for instance from the field of grammar, which perspective of western rhetoric, with the news report of justice codified a largely unchanging subject matter classical Arabic or and the law as a sample. It focuses on the following aspects: who arabiyya. In the analysis of the Prior to the earliest treatises on poetry in the first half of the disseminator, the author adopts the rhetorical theory ethos, ninth century A.

In analyzing the audience and the effect of the context of complete compositions, and suggests that in report, the author holds that the middle class in the English- performance his singers varied his music even more richly than speaking countries should be the principal targeted audience due the printed record of his music indicates. The relations between to their influence on public opinions. In conclusion, we maintain Renaissance music and oratory were reciprocal, and the rhetorical that the key in international communication situation is to skills of ex tempore musical embellishment may have implications differentiate between Chinese and foreigners.

Hall, Bianca Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA Hatzilambrou, Rosalia National and Kapodistrian Musica Poetica in Practice at the Court of Ferrara University, Athenai, Greece Time in Greek Oratory and Rhetoric — the Case of Rhetorical elocutio provided the primary gauge of competence Isaeus for composers and musicians alike during the Renaissance, and singers performed in the manner of great orators whose goal was With the exception of the aspect of kairos, time is to move the passions of their audiences through their actio and underrepresented in the teachings and works of ancient pronuntiatio.

The adoption and adaptation of classical rhetorical rhetoricians. Edwards in I. Less well-understood today, particularly for modern edd. Time is indeed a constituent of top Renaissance music — and such understanding requires analysis of importance in the narrative of attic forensic oratory. However, particular exemplars. Thus, orators delle donne. Under the direction of Luzzasco Luzzaschi, these attempted to persuade their audience by manipulating, stressing women performed secular music at the court of Ferrara and or concealing the temporal relationships between the various became known for their musical skills, especially musica poetica.

These presenting examples from the forensic speeches of the fourth alternatives are based on contemporary treatises by Diego Ortiz, century orator Isaeus, which render clear that time was an aspect Girolamo dalla Casa, Giovanni Bassano, Riccardo Rognioni, of primary rhetorical importance, and therefore subject to Giovanni Luca Conforti, and Giovanni Battista Bovicelli, which rhetorical manipulation.

Naturally we use of Style," in which presenters will examine the work of key writers technical terms of camerawork in order to describe narratological in antiquity for the way style directly interacts with — and at times, phenomena. A fascinating instrument of editing a film is the match cut. In a This paper in particular focuses on how nonhuman animals broader sense a match cut is any cut that creates spatio-temporal often show up at moments when heightened sensation receives continuity. One movement usually is presented in various shots the attention of style theorists Aristotle, Demetrius, Dionysius of from different angles.

We are so used to this means that we do Halicarnassus, and Longinus.

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When nonhuman animals appear in not even notice these cuts while watching a film. As a way to show how matching the colours, shapes, movements or even sounds of shot animals bring rhetoric to its or the senses, this paper will A to those of shot B. Animals figure prominently in Demetrius's Horace links two sections of a poem by using a certain word he discussion of cacophony as well as grandeur produced by "harsh had used at the end of one section again in the following section words.

In doing so, the paper Matchcutting, London — New York Maurach, Gregor: Lateinische Dichtersprache, Darmstadt Singers of early Baroque music are only starting to rhetorike and as possibly the first full-scale one in Latin, De understand how closely elocutio is tied to place and time, and inuentione ca. The rhetoric. Most precepts found in Inu.

In contrast to the Auctor of the Rhetorica ad Herennium, are a product of the musical stile moderno in which a the young Cicero repeatedly acknowledges his Greek sources, melody over a figured bass fuses rhetorical elocutio with musical discusses or judges Greek rhetoricians, including Aristotle, delivery. Unlike Rhet. Even at that include copious lists of sixteenth-note runs as a less obvious level Greek influence is found, like in the variations and expansions of cadential formulae.

These have been 'Kulturentstehungslehre' in the proem to Book 1. Even some curious crossbreeds are found when Roman would generate unexpected feelings and new ideas. It is, however, political terminology is applied to Greek history. It is even context of other events in music history. Monteverdi and Artusi debated the seconda the Greeks in Inu. Stroup , R. Rhetoricians in Western culture tend to treat gesture grammatically—in terms of diction, syntax and As Robert Maryks documents in his book, The Jesuit Order as punctuation, as well as in our criticism and pedagogy.

But gesture a Synagogue of Jews, Jews figure prominently in the early years of does not act like speech. Pinning motions to particular exigencies the Order, having had a leading role in its founding and then is exhausting. Maryks analyzes "pro- and begin to explain why many teachers and theorists of rhetoric have anti- converso" texts, as does Mark Rastoin in Du Meme Sang que been quick to dismiss it.

Notre Seigneur, another book that explores Jewish-Catholic This paper argues for a different rhetoricity of gesture through intersections at the dawn of the order. More recently , a comparative analysis of gesture dictionaries. Instead finds notably absent any discussion of rhetoric or any study of of parsing individual gestures for meaning, I read patterns of Jewish influences on Jesuit rhetoric.

This session will work description, example, capture and disclaimer. I argue for gesture toward filling that important gap. Finally, hybridity in that which is often purported to be an undisturbed, I discuss the implications of my analysis for a cultural history of pure lineage of the "Tradition. Gesture is neither nonverbal, nor merely antecedent to linguistic persuasion. Teniendo como base estos precedentes y modern taxonomies.

This paper determinar su valor en el ambiente de las declamaciones latinas attempts to narrow the resulting gap, providing an analysis of the del siglo I d. In particular, the first part of the a set of evaluative tools for the use of the 28 topoi in the work, in which Dio recounts how he was shipwrecked on the classroom and beyond. Is more at stake here than the indulgence of rhetorical and sophistical cleverness? Dio has, however, shown us that from poetry clever tipo de discurso en el Renacimiento.

Aunque Nannini ha men can prove anything. What then is to be put in its place? However, in Africa, particularly, in Nigeria, the society Geschichte der Rhetorik vor. This paper traces the intersection of golden biographies of the Die folgenden 10 Minuten sind der Frage gewidmet, wie sich two legendary orators. Although some scholars, such as George A. Murphy, have identified this ideal as Aristotle, other corpus beyond De Oratore connects personal, secular duties to a scholars Jeffrey Walker claim that Isocrates is actually closer to divine force across the universe.

Cicero used Epicurean and Stoic this ideal. It is my claim that a close reading comparing the theories, as well as religious culture of his time, to place rhetoric rhetoric of Cicero and Isocrates clearly shows that Cicero adopted in a sacred-secular understanding that prioritized individual and showed a preference for the rhetorical techniques, practices, positioning in the universe. The I have already made in Advances in the History of Rhetoric My theology in De Natura Deorum and his critique of religion in De presentation will be centered on the deliberative rhetoric of Divinatione, I will advance the theology that comes with a Isocrates and Cicero.

The question I try to answer is which Ciceronian view of eloquence and wisdom as the two chief eternal features of Isocratic rhetoric are adopted by Cicero and what that values from which all duties and practices follow. I will start by briefly reviewing the scholarship have understood his system of rhetorical thought. This presentation will follow in the tradition of progymnasmata. In than from Aristotle to advance his argument. Rhetoric and narrative collude as life-sustaining folgen. However, the reciprocal relations which differentia specifica zwischen den partes orationis und den partes plausibly existed between the classic rhetoric and the visual arts dialogi aus den Augen zu verlieren.

And Werner Kallmayer aus rhetorischer bzw. Sie werden in die Fragestellung mit einbezogen. So hat schon Cicero De zu diesem Zweck wendet er verschiedene Strategien an. Dabei ist von stylistics: his exilic corpus—his text, himself—is exilis slight, thin, besonderem Interesse, welche Motive der Selbstdarstellung shriveled. Ars Kennerly, Michele Penn State University, University dictaminis was originally invented by the courts of church hierarchs and secular sovereigns.

This paper is a study of Latin letters written by Vytautas the Great of Grand Duchy of Lithuania with Both a catalyst for rhetorical action and a criterion of its a special focus on their translation problematic. Curiously, both words can refer also to The main challenge to anyone who attempts to translate the a part of the body sensitive to piercing weapons, especially the above mentioned letters is the complexity and specifics of neck or the head. The main goal of royal letters writings from exile. A few poems later he opens his fifth exilic The present paper intends to bring to light the most covert book-roll by deeming it a swansong 5.

The sound and sense rhetoric aspects of epistola regia, which might be easily lost in of the book-roll thus mimics the sight of its author. Ovid blames translation. Therefore, if lost in Phronesis in the Ancient Greek and Chinese Civiliza- research or translation, it would be a definitive deprivation of full understanding of medieval rhetoric.

Second, I will give some time to think about the reason why Plato did criticize Alphabet in This paper would uniquely combine the recent methodology particular and written culture in general. The main text for this of functional sentence perspective and traditional analysis of will be some passages in Phaedrus. Based on this, I will trace the rhetoric figures in classical Roman rhetoric texts.

As strategies to achieve desired informational structure vary from Die politische Rede ist in der Regel eine Rede, die language to language we chose translations in French and irgendwelche Angelegenheiten je nach ihrer Wirkung und Lithuanian as their structures differ greatly. In text. Having that in mind, we strongly believe that our research diesem Prozess offenbart er die Wirkung seines Ethos, um das can contribute not only to a better understanding of Roman Vertrauen des Publikums zu gewinnen.

Jahrhunderts n. Ovid aristotelische Affektenlehre. Die vorliegende rhetoric Arbeit sucht Antworten auf diese Fragen in der aristotelischen Rhetorikschrift. Since then, the die Pathostopoi, die sich beim Argumentieren einsetzen lassen. From the perspectives of new gender studies, Enthymemen suchen, sondern sich von der Stillehre anleiten intercultural studies, regional research and globalization criticism, lassen. Such disucssions - Knappe, Gabriele.

Juanita Feros Ruys, John O. Ward, and Melanie Heyworth, eds. The Classics in the Medieval and Renaissance Classroom. In: Essays and Studies in honor of Carleton Brown. Toronto: University of Toronto marked interest in the creative elaboration of particular literary Press. Retracing well-worn ground of background would automatically entail inferior literary merit cf. I will assess the creative potential of the apparatus is also expected to travel.

The physical world may or rhetorical exercises laus, comparatio, descriptio and allocutio — may not provide the material to map out a new terrain. Gezeigt wird, wie about the emergence of a new grand narrative in local Goethe in der arabischen Literatur ein exotisches Doppel der disguise? Dabei In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when Greece forcierte er einerseits die Autonomie der Literatur und damit die was under Ottoman rule, traditional education in rhetoric Abgrenzung von Rhetorik und Poetik, nahm andererseits als nonetheless persisted in Greek-speaking communities outside Schriftsteller zentrale rhetorische Techniken der Textproduktion and inside the Ottoman Empire.

Since in the Latin West the Jesuits kreativ auf. Die Verbindung von Abgrenzung und Aneignung der were a leading power in education in that period, Jesuit rhetorical Rhetorik wiederholt sich gegen Ende seines Lebens mit Blick auf teaching was also adapted for use by Greek-speaking students. A careful reading of the Rhodian Greek language. Lithuania Both examples nicely illustrate the influence of Jesuit teaching Cicero between Greek and Latin: Interaction be- on higher education among Greeks of that period. Without abandoning and Sidebottom Further recurrent themes include the this principle, we propose a different approach to the question, notions of justice and injustice, piety and impiety, and the namely we try to explore the purpose of his translations and dialogue of the past with the present.

This sensation is not limited to the verbal arts; art translation and rhetoric. This an educational function. And on contrary, in the hands of the paper explores the relationship between style aesthetics and skillful orator, such as Cicero, translations became a significant shared sensation to create community experiences and public tool of intercultural communication, and the main principles of memory in late republic and early empire as fundamental to rhetoric were inevitably applied to translation.

The translations Roman civic life, particularly as the inhabitants of the Roman made by Cicero in his mature years were meant to introduce empire became increasingly diverse, as part of a panel on "Senses notable works by Greek authors to his fellow countrymen, or of Style" organized by Debra Hawhee. The translators of whom the authors of this presentation Rhetoric, Aesthetics, Sensation, and Memory in Im- are a part have devised a translational approach, which sets as its perial Rome goal the elimination of unnecessary influences of historically predominant intermediary languages e.

German, Russian and loanwords borrowed from them, in order to show the still not fully The end of the Roman Republic marks a shift toward an recognised functional abilities and possibilities of the Latvian emphasis on style in rhetorical practice. The open-minded attitude behind this view is invaluable rhetoric. Even though the view is indeed based on the fact that already been published. Such equations and suggestions are too sweeping, , Dudley Fenner , Abraham Fraunce , Thomas could create false cultural dichotomies, and can limit comparative Granger , Samuel Wotton , Thomas Spencer , studies.

Informations- und Kommunikationsutopien. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. Han, Byung-Chul Kultur und Globalisierung. Berlin: Merve Verlag. Laozi Der Tod ist ein Irrtum. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Moral und Pathologie. More, Thomas In: Ysuaki Kawanabe Ed. Nakada, Makoto and Capurro, Rafael Nakada, Makoto and Tamura, Takanori Ethics and Information Technology.

Ethics and Information Technology, 7, Siemons, Mark In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, J anuar , Nr. Strauss, Leo Persecution and the Art of Writing. After the conference an email exchange took place among a number of colleagues and myself in which we evaluated some of the philosophical and societal issues at hand and the stakes involved and whether or not we were able to trace to any length the myth of Ariadne's thread in digital labyrinths.

For those who may not be familiar with this myth, I can first say briefly that it is a myth about a guide to freedom, which is not a myth at all but something we all have a need for. As for the concept of labyrinth itself, its design and initiatory function, I note that it is part of many cultural heritages throughout the world Kern I use the concept of labyrinth in order to address issues of knowledge and power that might allow us — but who constitutes 'us' and who are we in the digital age?

In order to do this, we must be aware that our being-in-the-world with others is not identical with the reification of ourselves on the Internet. I call this the ethical difference. He answered me as follows:. Only when they are combined together the meaning of Dao can emerge. Joseph Brenner found this issue being closely related to his research on "Logic in Reality" Brenner Jullien analyses the way or Dao of the indeterminate that is expressed in classical Chinese with words such as air, wind feng or atmosphere. Wind circulates or 'impregnates' what is and what is not: "The grass must bend, when the wind feng blows across it.

This differs from the Platonic and Aristotelian views that matter is 'in-formed' by forms. This makes possible that the forms which are at the bottom and not at the top open themselves to the indeterminate. The pictorial result is the "great image that has no form. He found that the translator uses the form breath-energy, breath-image, breath-phenomenon, breath-resonance and breath-spirit for the words in French starting with souffle: "The Chinese also conceived of atmosphere by means of another binomial linked to wind and explicitly associating the visible and invisible.

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Wang Wei indicates this as a principle:. Jane Marie Todd. In my dissertation I mentioned this but did not follow the track further. What remained forgotten in my analysis leads him to informatio as aletheia and to Aristotelian and Platonic metaphysics with the predominance of beings and not of being as a process of giving.

Michael Eldred writes:. All exchange presupposes a mutuality of some kind, no matter how defective Even subjugation to the other is a kind of exchange. Mutual exchange is a kind of at least double or complex multiple movement resulting from the intertwining of the exercise of the powers of the exchangers. Following the discussions on social and ethical issues during the Vienna conference, a group of colleagues — among them Rainer E.

The acronym corresponded to the room where a session of the Vienna Summit on ethical issues of the information society took place that had the particularity of being difficult for the participants to find! This was also a general issue for most participants searching for their session rooms in the labyrinthine building of the Technical University of Vienna. The labyrinth was built by Daedalus, a famous craftsman, for King Minos to imprison the Minotaur. The Minotaur, half-man, half-bull is a symbol of evil since his only role in existence was to eat maidens sacrificed by Minos to his gods.

Today, we are inside digital labyrinths guided by threads that look like Ariadne's but often make us unable to be aware of the labyrinth as a labyrinth, i. They are threads of business, not of love. In his "History of Philosophy" Hegel writes that to know that "a human being is free" makes an "incredible difference" "ein ungeheurer Unterschied" in human history although such knowledge does not mean its realization Hegel , It is not a question of looking for an outside to the digital labyrinth s in the sense of avoiding the historical challenges of the digital age.

It is, instead, a question of how far we are able, again, to see the labyrinth as a labyrinth, i. I agree with Peter Fleissner, professor emeritus of Design and Assessment of New Technologies at the Vienna University of Technology, that any restriction by social, political and economic structures hindering the emancipatory development of people is an essential indicator for the transformation of the present information societies.

Freedom is not a property of a worldless and isolated subjectivity, but a relation between human beings in a shared world that is concerned with their mutual respect and fairness also in their relation to the natural world to which we belong. Both relations, to ourselves and to the world, are today mediated by digital technologies. They give rise to the belief that to be means to be digital and, particularly, that I am a human being only as far as I am in the digital world reifying or 'in-forming' my self as digital data and believing that I am eventually a digital being.

I call this belief digital metaphysics that I distinguish from digital ontology, in which the digital understanding of being is acknowledged as a possible today predominating way of understanding ourselves and the world. The difference between 'is' and 'as' is not only an ontological but an ethical one Capurro a. The ethical difference between who and what we are, or between our selves and our data, is one of Ariadne's threads Capurro, Eldred, Nagel The task of translating information in the sense I proposed at the Vienna Summit can be understood as one of Ariadne's threads of emancipation from the knowledge and power structures of the digital labyrinth.

Looking for a language of "mutuality" Peter Fleissner , i. This is not only a theoretical but also a practical task about different kinds of exercises of resistance and resilience at the macro- and micro-levels in order to transform ourselves and our societies into more free and fair ones in the digital age Capurro They can be elements of the landscape, forces of nature, as well as beings and the qualities that these beings express; they can also be the spirits of venerated dead persons.

In Shinto, kami are not separate from nature, but are of nature, possessing positive and negative, and good and evil characteristics. Though the word kami is translated multiple ways into English, no one English word expresses its full meaning. The ambiguity of the meaning of kami is necessary, as it conveys the ambiguous nature of kami themselves. Pfullingen , ff. J denen die Expression zugeordnet bleibt als die Art der Befreiung. Unser deutsches Wort dichten, tihton, sagt das Selbe. F Worin das "mehr" beruht, konnten Sie nicht sagen. J Doch jetzt kann ich einen Wink folgen, den beide Worte bergen.

F Wohin winken sie? J In das, von woher das Widerspiel beider zueinander sich ereignet. F Und das ist? F Das ist ein wundersames und darum unausdenkbares Wort. Ich gebrauche seit langem nur ungern das Wort "Sprache", wenn ich ihrem Wesen nachdenke. J Welches Wort gebrauchen Sie?

F Das Wort "die Sage". Es meint: das Sagen und sein Gesagtes und das zu-Sagende. F Vermutlich das Selbe wie zeigen im Sinne von: erscheinen- und scheinenlassen, dies jedoch in der Weise des Winkens. J Der Weg dahin ist weit. Wo sie jedoch als Quell des Denkens springt, scheint sie mir eher zu versammeln als zu schweifen. Dergleichen ahnte schon Kant, wie Sie selber zeigen. J Das bleibt wahr. J Wie meinen Sie dieses harte Urteil? J Inwiefern? J Sondern? Aber ich kann nicht antworten. F Dies vor allem. Aber ich meine jetzt zuvor etwas anderes.

J Wir stehen jedoch mitten in der Gefahr nicht nur zu laut vom Geheimnis zu reden, sondern sein Walten zu verfehlen. F Keineswegs. Sein Gesprochenes kann freilich nie in die Form einer wissenschaftlichen Abhandlung eingehen J weil dadurch die Bewegung des hier verlangten Fragens zu leicht erstarrt. J Dann verstehe ich Ihr Bedenken nicht.

J Dann entschwindet ihr Wesen. J Darin bewegen wir uns ohne Zweifel. J Mir scheint, wir bewegen uns jetzt im Kreis. J Was ist dann, wenn es so ist? F Dann ereignet sich der Abschied von allem "Es ist". F Als die Ankunft des Gewesen. J Aber das Vergangene geht doch, ist gegangen, wie soll es kommen?

F Das Vergehen ist anderes als das Gewesen. J Wie sollen wir dieses denken? F und das Selbe bleibt wie die Botschaft He mentions that in Japanese they use mono and koto, where mono refers to things in there being while koto refers to what is happening. The world is the whole of what is happening, not of the things.

Libraries are full of mono. Nishida himself practiced Zen and tried to systematize the eastern thought in terms of the western philosophy to overcome the separation between subjectivity and objectivity. Capurro himself has deepened his interest in Zen Buddhism and Japanese thought e. Capurro b, c and promoted friendships with Japanese thinkers. The interaction between them is expected to bear fruitful outcomes in the development of information ethics. I think that one of the attractive characteristics of mobile phones for boys and girls is that they provide them with means with which they can communicate among themselves without being disturbed by their parents or family members.

The participants want to get connected all the time or they want to feel the potential connection with others by sending e-mails or by just keeping their mobile phones on Nishimura In my view, we need to create some sort of shared field among the participants in which various aspects of communication such as persuasion, transmission of information, greeting and so on can take place.

These utterances and facial expressions have nothing to do with the content or essence of the communication, but at the same time they are indispensable when communication itself occurs. We need a certain sort of meta-communication when we talk with each other or are engaged in interactive actions. Take for instance the following poem haiku by Matsuo Basho :. Of course, the phatic function is not dependent on speech in this case. According to Nishimura, and I think so too, we are now facing serious confusions at the level of meta-communication.

For example, we can't live alone, but we have to live by sacrificing others to live a better life, or as Fromm pointed out, we need freedom and on the other hand we fear freedom and escape from freedom Fromm We dislike too close friendships. We are facing a kind of confusion or collapse of meta-communication. Mobile phones are a token of a need for easy meta-communication. In this sense, we Japanese face the situation which might be called phatic overload.

This might be referred to as distorted phatic overload which is motivated by simple greed, in one way, and by a sense of poverty of communication or human relations, in another. The intention of sending a message to a receiver is mostly represented as being the sender and the receiver originally separated from each other and connected by a medium. His concept of information as possible selections from a repertoire of physical symbols is the opposite to the ordinary meaning of information as communication of something new.

Warren Weaver remarked:. The word information, in this theory, is used in a special sense that must not be confused with its ordinary usage. In particular, information must not be confused with meaning. In fact, two messages, one of which is heavily loaded with meaning and the other of which is pure nonsense, can be exactly equivalent, from the present viewpoint, as regards information. Shannon and Weaver , p. What is excluded is not only the shared world but also the moods in which human senders and receivers experience their common being-in-the-world itself.

As Heidegger taught us, this emotional tonality is a pre-theoretical experience of embeddedness that precedes the separation between subject and object. This is the reason why I think it is important to develop an intercultural philosophical angeletics in order to be aware of this Western bias as well as to describe different ontic angeletic situations and forms of sharing the world. They always want to know whether they are in communication or not and they always feel constant anxiety about not keeping in contact with the outer world.

The phatic function is closely related with the use of mobile phones, blogs or SMS that provide them us with moods or illusions enabling them us to have a feeling as if we were always in contact with the outer world. In my view, these remarks show typical cases of Japanese ways of understanding the world pre-ontologically and existentially.

The following views reflect these ways of understanding the world, i. Words, people, events, things and experiences are related to one another as a fluid or active process of interchange of articulation and non-articulation of things. The traditional Japanese self-understanding is based on a place of secret inner minds which seem to be sustained by traditional emotional sensitivity mono-no-ahare. People can share the meanings of this traditional emotional sensitivity, but the sadness coming from it is confined to each person. This is a kind of fragile relationship between persons with fragile minds that underlies the desire to share the same meanings of existence in this world whilst at the same time keeping apart from each other.

This is an interesting topic for intercultural angeletics. To put this another way, we might say that Japanese people live in mental situations leading them to constant pursuit of the meaning of life and human relations as well as to meta-communication or shared cultural, existential contexts determining their life, human relations and ways of communication.

This research, done in , is based on samples of Japanese university students. His interpretation of these data can lead to misunderstandings in some ways. I try to interpret the data as follows:. Students with an orientation toward strong and constant friendship and with an orientation toward moderate, not strong but also not weak, i.

Do you have a cold? In order to understand some problems related with Japanese phatic communication and with intercultural angeletics, we should take into consideration, using this as an example, the Japanese orientation toward or the pursuit of the meaning of good communication, good human relations and good human living.

I discussed the meanings of Japanese blogs, Japanese popular songs, the Japanese sense of privacy as subject matter for communication via SMS or blogs in my papers Nakada , ; Nakada and Capurro What is exactly meant, from the point of view of angeletics, by the original connection between a sender and a receiver?

And as you know, his studies on aphasia and agnosia are strongly associated with Jakobson's studies on language and aphasia Merleau-Ponty The phatic function might be considered to be the only function that birds have in common with human beings. This is very interesting too. Then we human beings and other creatures would have 'the original connection' in the dimension of the phatic function! But each function, understood as a basic mood, makes the world openness or ontological dimension, manifest in different ways, at least in the case of Dasein. According to Luhmann, these three dimensions constitute the concept of communication.

In this model there is an original and recursive relation between sender and receiver. This means, if I understand you correctly, that the phatic function is an essential element of communication because it enables a distinction to be made within the process of communication itself each time when a selection of a meaning takes place. Is my understanding correct? Cybernetics has taught us that every receiver can turn into a sender. This relationship, called the transference phenomenon, takes place from both sides.

We can distinguish roughly the following conceptions:. I shall try to explain this issue later.

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Each interpretation is based on a process of message transmission. Which means that hermeneutics presupposes angeletics. Hermes is first and foremost a messenger, no less than an interpreter and translator. Of course, a philosophical angeletics is no less ambitious than twentieth century hermeneutic philosophy. We should also make a distinction between an ontic or empirical science of messages and messengers, and a philosophical angeletics. As an empirical science, angeletics is not necessarily reduced to the phenomenon of human communication but can include also all kinds of messages and messengers in the natural sciences.

Let me further explain what I understand by angeletic philosophy and, correspondingly, by a philosophical angeletics, using other Heideggerian themes, without going into a detailed textual analysis or exegesis of Heidegger. As Jean-Luc Nancy, following Heidegger, remarks, philosophy and particularly hermeneutics can be understood as the presentation of a message. The task of thinking is of the kind of being a messenger Nancy , ; Capurro This can be expressed in simple terms by saying that we human beings are finite beings and are aware of our givenness as well.

Sheehan It is in original unity and difference with its Here. The message is the world. Dasein announces its facticity with the phatic dialogical! Humans as the Here of Being are messengers of Being, letting beings be what they are. He writes:. The messenger must already come from the message. But he must also already have gone toward it. Heidegger , , my translation RC.

It is the opposite of the kind of messengers we call ambassadors Botschafter. There is an original unity and difference between Being and Dasein beyond or prior to any ontic separation of sender, message, messenger and receiver. I think that today this double-bind casting of Being is done from a perspective of the digital. Loneliness and anxiety are moods through which, as Heidegger taught us, we discover the truth, that is to say, the finitude of being-in-the-world-with-others.

We receive and pass on — and sometimes try to bypass — the message of Being because we are originally the Here of its disclosure. Although we mostly live immersed in the given openness of everyday existence, exchanging messages and maintaining communication through the phatic function, we have the potentiality to grasp a given historical disclosure of Being as a possible one, that is to say, to change its truth.

An example of this at the level of an ontic region is the so-called paradigm change in science where the pre-ontological messages facts that are supposed to prove or falsify a theory are re-interpreted when the theory, with all its biases, pre-conceptions and pre-suppositions, its instruments, institutions, traditions, etc. This opens the debate as to which are the ethical criteria for making a distinction between a messenger of Being and its opposite a charlatan , with all degrees in between.

One important criterion for this difficult ethical task that is always endangered by manipulation and self-deception is whether the messenger maintains critically the openness of Being or proclaims an absolute truth. Another criterion is whether other messengers also remain critical with regard to the alternative casting of Being as passed on to them, or whether they develop from there, say, a political ideology, a mere worldview or a theoretical dogma I thank Michael Eldred for an enlightening e-mail exchange on this issue.

I've struggled with the problem why a lot of people are influenced by fiction or the imaginative representation of the mass media, even though they know the difference between the reality facts and the fictions copies of reality. This problem can't be solved if we think that facts or messages of some facts are the first original and the mediated portrayal news, dramas are the copies of the first-hand realities. And now I know that we have to think about the presupposition that the message of Being is first and the human messenger is second.

This is my personal understanding. Now, I feel that we are close to the core questions of mediated and aesthetic expressions as well as of communication itself. I wonder how we as messengers can send this kind of discussion to a broader range of possible receivers. I wonder also how we can relate this kind of discussion to the problems of information ethics and robo-ethics in an academic or theoretical as well as in a practical way in order to address difficult matters such as youth's wrong-doings as an expression of the loss of identity, or the loss of sense of fundamental relations between human beings, the poverty of meaning in our minds and so on.

I am also thinking about comparing the phatic function in different cultures. Some of my graduate students come from various countries. Hideo Kobayashi says that if we try to make good use of active wisdom, we have to get rid of selfishness. This means that the interpretation of some poems or novels can't be separated from the imaginative relations between authors and readers.

I remember having heard a story about nodding robots. Even nodding robots enable people to communicate more easily, for example, when speaking on the telephone, even if the nodding robots are just showing fake agreement. It is strange that some autistic patients can communicate with robots more easily than with human beings in some cases, according to studies on human-robot-interaction Feil-Seifer and Mataric In my view, we can explain these phenomena in such a way.

Human communication consists of different levels and in many cases patients with, for example, agnosia, autism or schizophrenia,have difficulty dealing with or understanding information or meanings at the meta-level of communication. I gained this insight from Bin Kimura Kimura and Masakazu Yamazaki Yamazaki ; fake communication with robots might enable patients to deal with the meanings at the meta-level more easily because this sort of communication has a simple structure. So in this sense, the distinction between fake and real is not so important.

Hideo Kobayashi did not study Heidegger or Gadamer but he knew that these questions regarding the relations between texts and readers are important. From this perspective, Socrates is not a sender but a messenger of ideas that come to him from beyond. In the middle of the tale we read about Princess Asagao, daughter of Prince Momozono, brother of the Emperor, who has been courted in vain by Prince Genji, her cousin, from his seventeenth year onward. Genji is now thirty-three years old. In Chapter 20 Murasaki Shikibu tells the story of the problematic relationship between Genji and Asagao.

At the beginning of Chapter 21 she writes:. Lady Asagao expressed great displeasure at this lavishness and, if the presents had been accompanied by letters or poems of at all a familiar or impertinent kind, she would at once have put a stop to these attentions. But for a year past there had been nothing in his conduct to complain of. From time to time he came to the house and enquired after her, but always quite openly.

His letters were frequent and affectionate, but he took no liberties, and what nowadays troubled her chiefly was the difficulty of inventing anything to say in reply. Murasaki Shikibu , Princess Asagao is in trouble. Should she answer or not? Should she continue a formal and, at least for her, meaningless phatic communication? But, of course, it is Murasaki Shikibu herself who gives such an answer by writing this story. This connection between ethics and aesthetics seems to be characteristic of Japanese culture to the present day.

The irresistible amorist is a pessimist at heart, weighed down by a sense of misfortune, by the weight of an unhappy karma. At the age of thirty we find him haunted by the impermanence of worldly things, and on the point of embracing a monastic life. Throughout the story, even in its saddest episodes, there runs a thread of delight in beauty. All the love talk is interspersed with enjoyment of colour, shape, and perfume, and a continual exchange of poetic messages. Sansom , In this sense, we can say that the Here of Being or the structure of a culture is at best understood if it is conceived and lived as a place where messages pass through instead of being blocked.

This is one of the lessons of Chinese Taoism. One is the level of fixed moral rules and the other one is chaos, where such rules are invisible and can be violated Yamaguchi In his pursuit of love affairs, he violates, on the one hand, fixed mores and, on the other, through the connection between ethics and aesthetics, his life reproduces the cultural norms. We are very close to the core of problems from which our mutual understanding and some misunderstanding arose. I think that our dialogue itself is a realization of an angeletic relationship and shows the importance of intercultural angeletics.

Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache. Frankfurt am Main Orig. Das System an der Geschichte aufgezeigt. An Outline. Grundlegungsfragen der Internetethik. Munich , pp. Frankfurt am Main Goffman, Ervin: Frame Analysis. Cambridge MA In ibid. Pfullingen , pp. Tokyo In Thomas A.

Sebeok Ed. Cambridge MA , pp. Paris German translation by E. Weinmayr: Zwischen Mensch und Mensch. Darmstadt Kuhn, Thomas S. Lacan, Jacques: Le transfert. Livre VIII. Livre VII, Paris Luhmann, Niklas: Soziale Systeme. In Maria Botis Ed. Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiry. Athens , pp. Sudweeks, H. Hrachovec, and C. Ess Eds. Stanford Shannon, Claude E. It is often also translated as "humanity towards others", but is often used in a more philosophical sense to mean "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity".

However, this view is challenged and contextualized by Christian B. The society is still active at the beginning of the 21st century, however, now it plays only a ceremonial role. Members of the Ekpe society are said to act as messengers of the ancestors ikan. The economics of the society is based on paying tribute to the village ancestors.

Only males can join, boys being initiated about the age of puberty. Members are bound by oath of secrecy, and fees on entrance are payable. The Ekpe-men are ranked in seven or nine grades, for promotion to each of which fresh initiation ceremonies, fees and oaths are necessary. The society combines a kind of freemasonry with political and lawenforcing aims. For instance any member wronged in an Ekpe district, that is one dominated by the society, has only to address an Ekpe-man or beat the Ekpe drum in the Ekpe-house, or blow Ekpe as it is called, i.

Ekpe members always wear masks when performing their police duties, and although individuals may nonetheless be recognized, fear of retribution from the ikan stops people from accusing those members who may overstep their limits. Formerly the society earned a bad reputation due to what the British viewed as the barbarous customs that were intermingled with its rites. At least in the past, very large sums, sometimes more than a thousand pounds, were paid to attain these upper levels.

The trade-off is that the Amama often control the majority of the community wealth. The Amama often appropriate hundreds of acres of palm trees for their own use and, with the profits they earn, ensure that their sons achieve comparable rank, which has the effect of limiting access to economic gain for other members of the community.

The Ekpe society requires that its initiates sponsor feasts for the town, which foster the appearance of the redistribution of wealth by providing the poor with food and drink. The Ekpe-house, an oblong building like the nave of a church, usually stands in the middle of the villages.

The walls are of clay elaborately painted inside and ornamented with clay figures in relief. Inside are wooden images to which reverence is paid. At Ekpe festivals masked dancers perform. Some of the older masks show horns and filed teeth. Non initiates and women are not allowed to come in contact with the masked dancers. As the religion has spread around the world, the name of this Orisha has varied in different locations, but the beliefs remain similar.

Eshu is known as the "Father who gave birth to Ogboni", and is also thought to be agile and always willing to rise to a challenge. Exu is known by various forms and names in Afro-Brazilian religions. It is, in general, made of rough clay or a simple mound of red clay. They are similar to those found in Nigeria. Ritual foods offered to Exu include palm oil; beans; corn, either in the form of cornmeal or popcorn; farofa, a manioc flour. Four-legged male birds and other animals are offered as sacrifice to Exu. He appears as a bawdy trickster to foil the colonialist Prospero in Act 3, Scene 3.

Names and worship of Esu. Roots and Rooted. Retrieved 1 August Pelton University of California Press. Lopes, Nei Translated by Richard Miller. He is the messenger of Olofi. He differs somewhat from Exu, who in this case is seen as his brother, by having dangerous and less aggressive characteristics. In Afro-Brazilian religion Elegbara is one of the titles of Exu.

Adeoye, C. Ibadan: Evans Bros. Nigeria Publishers. Not much has been published on the role that African philosophy can play in thinking about the challenges arising from the impact of ICT on African societies and cultures. Most research on ICT from an ethical perspective takes its departure from Western philosophy. Let us review very briefly some recent works on African philosophy that are relevant in a negative or positive sense to the subject of this conference. The terms '"information" and "communication" are absent, not even listed in the index.

I explicitly acknowledge modern reason without assuming that its manifestations are inviolable, particularly when they serve the purposes of colonialization. I locate ethical discourse between the particular and the universal. My aim, following the Kantian tradition, is universality, but I am aware, with Aristotle, that moral and political utterances are contingent, subject to different interpretations and applications based on economic interests and power structures.

We are all equal, and we are all different. It consists of the principles of sharing and caring for one another. What is the relation between community and privacy in African information society? What kind of questions do African people ask about the effects of information and communication technology in their everyday lives? Olinger, Johannes Britz and M. They write:. The South African government will attempt to draft a Data Privacy Bill and strike an appropriate balance within the context of African values and an African worldview. The task of such an analysis would be to recognize the uniqueness of African perspectives as well as commonalities with other cultures and their theoretical expressions.

This analysis could lead to an interpretation of ICT within an African horizon and correspondingly to possible vistas for information policy makers, responsible community leaders and, of course, for African institutions. Sie ist stark von Ideen Machiavellis inspiriert. Ihm widmete er seine Schrift. Der Autor selbst ist an allen Diskussionen beteiligt. Der Autor glaubt, dass das gesprochene Wort in einer mythischen Vergangenheit eine magische Kraft besessen habe.

Anhand der aktuellen Kontroverse wollte Patrizi die Unbrauchbarkeit der etablierten aristotelischen Dichtungslehre zeigen. Dabei machte er unter anderem geltend, schon Homer habe sich ebenso wie Ariost nicht an die Regeln dieser Poetik gehalten. Die beiden ersten Dekaden, die Deca istoriale und die Deca disputata , wurden gedruckt. Es ging um das verlorene Werk Daphnis oder Lityerses des hellenistischen Dichters Sositheos , das wohl ein Satyrspiel war. Patrizi war mit dem Dichter Luca Contile befreundet. Er verglich die antike Liebesdichtung mit derjenigen der Renaissance.

Es besteht aus vier Dialogen. Deshalb stimmten die Herrscher von Ferrara im Jahrhundert nur widerwillig der Einleitung des Renowassers in den Po zu oder verweigerten die Genehmigung.

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Der Papst setzte eine Untersuchungskommission ein, in der Scipione di Castro, ein politischer Ratgeber ohne ingenieurwissenschaftliche Kompetenz, tonangebend war. Di Castro schrieb ein Gutachten, in dem er zum Ergebnis kam, die Anlandung sei nicht vom Reno verursacht. Dennoch habe noch nie jemand der Ehre eine eigene Schrift gewidmet und philosophisch untersucht, worin sie eigentlich bestehe. Diesem Mangel soll der Barignano abhelfen. Jahrhundert verwendet. Es sind rund hundert Briefe Patrizis erhalten geblieben, darunter ein als Quelle besonders wichtiger Brief vom Juni an Bernardino Telesio , in dem er dessen philosophische Prinzipien kritisch untersucht, und ein autobiographischer Brief an seinen Freund Baccio Valori vom Januar Der Stil ist sachlich und trocken, ohne literarischen Schmuck.

Mit seinen Lehren in unterschiedlichen Themenbereichen wollte sich Patrizi als Kritiker traditioneller Denkweisen und Finder neuer Wege profilieren. Generell ist Patrizis Philosophie durch den Vorrang der deduktiven Vorgehensweise charakterisiert. Damit erstrebte er eine Wissenschaftlichkeit, die sich am Vorbild des mathematischen Diskurses orientieren sollte.

Jahrhundert noch vorherrschte, war die Raumvorstellung an den Begriff des Ortes gebunden. Dieser Denkweise stellte Patrizi seine neue Raumkonzeption entgegen. In Bezug auf das, was in ihm ist, ist er indifferent. Diese Auffassung entsprach dem damaligen Kenntnisstand; die analytische Geometrie , die den Begriff der Zahl erweitert und kontinuierlich macht, war noch nicht entdeckt.

Offen blieb die Frage nach der Form dieses Bereichs. Statt dessen nahm er an, dass sie sich frei im Raum bewegen. An der Vorstellung einer harmonischen Struktur des Kosmos im Sinne der platonischen Naturphilosophie hielt er jedoch fest. Umgeben ist die materielle Welt in Patrizis Modell von einem unendlich ausgedehnten, homogenen, leeren Raum. Gott muss erschaffen. Aus ihnen geht die materielle Welt hervor. Sie bilden eine komplexe ideale Einheit, die allem stofflichen Sein innewohnt und ihm als Existenzbedingung vorausgeht. Damit sind deren verschiedene Dichtegrade gemeint.

Diese Kosmologie hat auch einen erkenntnistheoretischen Aspekt. Ihre Klarheit muss nicht erst vom menschlichen Beobachter gesetzt und produziert werden. Bei der Untersuchung der Zeit setzte sich Patrizi mit der Begriffsbestimmung des Aristoteles auseinander, die er einer fundamentalen Kritik unterwarf. Nicht die Zeit messe die Bewegung, sondern die Bewegung die Zeit. Mit der Bestimmung des spezifisch Menschlichen durch Abgrenzung vom Tierischen befasste sich Patrizi in der Pampsychia , dem dritten Teil der Nova de universis philosophia.

Das relativ Einfache ist stets zugleich das Umfassende, da es das relativ Komplexe und Mannigfaltige aus sich hervorbringt. Innerhalb dieser Ordnung der gesamten Wirklichkeit nimmt der Mensch eine Mittelstellung ein. Den Ausgangspunkt bildet die Bestimmung des menschlichen Lebensziels. Damit soll tyrannischem oder oligarchischem Machtmissbrauch vorgebeugt werden. Ein besonders wichtiges Staatsziel ist die Erziehung der Kinder zur Tugendhaftigkeit. Optimal sei die Mischverfassung der Republik Venedig , in der Aspekte der unterschiedlichen Staatsformen kombiniert seien.

Ihm wendet sich der Philosoph in seiner Auseinandersetzung mit der historischen Dimension des Lebens zu.