The eluate was dried and ressuspended in m L of a 30 mmol L -1 tetraborate solution. Food samples. Red wine, strawberry yogurt, fish oil and enriched milk were obtained from local grocery stores. For the analysis of fatty acids, samples were saponified by treating mg of the sample with 5 mL of a methanolic NaOH solution 0.
Results and Discussion. Application of capillary electrophoresis to the determination of several metabolites related to Diabetes Mellitus has been focus of our research recently. This condition results from a deficiency in the secretion or action of a pancreatic hormone, insulin, causing severe metabolic disorders.
Typically, high levels of glucose are found in blood, which promote the glycosylation of hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying protein found in red blood cells, giving the so called glycated hemoglobin HbA 1c. HbA 1c can be used as indicative of the glucose concentration in the blood during the period of time red cells were exposed to it. An interesting feature of such analysis is that resolution of hemoglobins differing by less than 0. Another metabolic disorder associated with Diabetes Mellitus is the excessive production of the so called ketonic bodies pyruvic, acetoacetic acids, acetone and the reduced forms: lactic and b -hydroxybutyric acids.
For clinical diagnostics, each of the ions of the anion gap as well as the ketonic bodies are determined by distinct methodologies. Capillary electrophoresis can be used as a single analytical technique for the evaluation of the ketoacidosis condition in diabetic patients. Figure 1B illustrates the separation of pyruvate, lactate, acetoacetate and b -hydroxybutyrate in human blood serum. When indirect detection is used, peak identity is confirmed solely by spiking techniques. Analysis of other cations and anions involved in the anion gap is also possible using capillary electrophoresis.
During therapeutic monitoring, drug levels in blood or saliva are usually measured to adjust posology. Alternatively, hair specimens can be tested. Hair is a popular specimen for drug analysis as it is relatively non-invasive to collect, and provides a historical record of exposure, even though it does suffer from concentration variability due to hair type and drug affinity.
Hair is a complex tissue, an annex of skin, originating from a germination center located in the hair follicle, where matrix cells are in active proliferation. Drug incorporation into hair occurs from the blood circulation in a capillary located close to the germination center, but also from sebum and sweat secreted by glands associated with the hair root. After embedding in the hair matrix, drugs are protected from degradation and metabolism, lasting unaltered for a long time in this issue. Hair was first used to monitor chronic ingestion of toxic substances such as heavy metals.
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But at the present time, hair analysis is widely employed for the detection of drugs of abuse in various contexts violation of laws on narcotics, probation and parole monitoring, assessment of compliance with detoxification treatments, revocation of driving license, etc. From the analytical point of view, hair poses specific problems, including sample collection, preparation and extraction. Our research interests comprise the optimization of the separation of several opiates and metabolites by CE, as compiled in Figure 2A , as well as the analysis of morphine in hair samples of patients suffering from medullar lesion, receiving morphine via implantable intrathecal systems.
Figure 2B shows the results of a three-step methodology developed in our laboratory for hair analysis of such a patient: hydrolysis, ion-exchanger extraction followed by CE analysis in a low pH phosphate buffer. Peak identity was confirmed by spiking techniques. Cosmetic applications. The demand of cosmiatric products for skin care and hair treatment based on herbal extracts and essential oils has increased remarkably.
Considering the complex nature of such matrices, well-developed methodologies for quality control during industrial processing of the extracts and their storage as well as to monitor adulterations in raw materials and final products are highly desirable and the normalization of quality control procedures has been the focus of Brazilian legislation recently.
Capillary electrophoresis has been considered an appropriate alternative for the analytical evaluation of several different classes of naturally occurring compounds in herbal extracts and essential oils. In such matrices, peak identity is always confirmed by spiking techniques as well as by inspection of the on-line acquired UV- spectra. Proteins have been used in cosmetic formulations for more than twenty years. Proteins from animal sources and, more recently, from marine and vegetable sources, are now commercially available in a variety of structures and a wide range of molar masses.
Both vegetable and animal proteins differ by many factors including not only the specific origin, but also, size, electrical charge, polarity of the functional side groups and the type of attached moieities quaternary amines, fatty acids, silicones, etc. In general, the functional properties of proteins responsible for hair repair treatment and hair conditioning depend on one or more of the following physical characteristics: substantivity, penetration, film formation, moisture retention and gloss.
Specific functional claims made for proteins in skin-care applications include moisturization, improved elasticity, a soft and silky feel, a skin firming effect through film formation and relief from chapping and irritation due to detergents. However, not all proteins exhibit all of these characteristics to the same extent. For instance, high molar mass proteins are better at film formation, while proteins of low molar mass are better at moisture retention. Lately, the use of the high-molar mass native collagen, among other proteins of animal origin, has been strongly questioned as a consequence of the publicity around Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE.
Therefore, the use of proteins originating from vegetable sources represents a new trend in the market of personal care products.
However, vegetable proteins are typically insoluble in water and in order to make possible their use in cosmetic preparations, a hydrolysis procedure must be carried out. Our research interests comprise the characterization of protein hydrolysates of diverse origin keratin, silk fiber, milk, soybean, fish tissue, and cattle leather , in terms of electrophoretic profile, molar mass distribution and amino acid contents.
The hydrolysate was submitted to solid-phase extraction prior to injection. In Figure 4B , the aminogram of the intact product is depicted. Since the hydrolysis was conducted in acidic medium, a large number of amino acids can be visualized.
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Environmental applications. Low molar mass aldehydes are among the most abundant organic gases in atmosphere. A number of aldehydes are emitted to the atmosphere by indoor plastic, foam insulation, lacquers etc. Aldehydes are important precursor compounds of photochemical smog and their chemistry has been associated with the generation of harmful free radicals, peroxyacetyl nitrate PAN and ozone. Because of adverse effects of aldehydes on health, prevention and control strategies of these pollutants have demanded well-characterized and highly sensitive analytical methodologies.
In this context, capillary electrophoresis has become an interesting alternative technique for environmental analysis due to advantageous performance characteristics. All of them display smiles that show off their pearly white, perfectly aligned teeth.
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If we observe these faces more attentively, these dazzling smiles appear to be completely artificial. We can see that these people deliberately make an effort to open their lips to show their teeth. In my opinion, Hollywood stars do the same thing. When we have made this statement we can no longer remain unaware of the aggressiveness of smiles like these [ An asymmetrical tooth appears to us to be something charming kawai.
On the other hand, we esteem that having regular teeth shows that one has quite a cold character, even a cruel one zan-nin. Beautiful women in large towns have irregular teeth. The women in Kyoto are reputed and prized in this way for their irregular teeth. The Dr. Samuel D. Harris National Museum of Dentistry. If this hypothesis is not devoid of sense I should put myself at the very bottom of the scale.
Saint Jerome infra : painting of the Caravaggio, visible in Malta, in a room of St Johns Cathedral which gives the famous beheading of John the Baptist star billing translator first of the Gospels then of the Old testament from its original Hebrew, got his teeth filed down, it is said, to help him to pronounce Hebrew better. Jean, La Vallette, Malte.
Answer: They have both filed down their teeth, although not exactly for the same reasons. Japanese culture gives us, furthermore, a particular interpretation of the smileys or emoticons that embellish electronic mailing. Neutralising sensitivity can produce euphoria. Anaesthetising vigilance principle of reality can possibly release laughter principle of unreality.
That anaesthesia, the chemical relaxing of vigilance, can provoke laughter, it shows the conscious in its function of adapting to reality under the law of the slightest pain, and laughter, when it is much sought after and exploited, as a temporary suspension of sensitivity. It allows man to protect himself from difference or magically flee from danger, as a paradoxical adaptation to reality: a way of accommodating oneself to the world which denies the value of reality, an endocrine paradise.
Endocrine paradises. We can note that the paths of artificial paradises are not in fact different from the paths of natural paradises. Be it sacred or profane drunkenness, material or emotional drunkenness, all bring neighbouring biochemical processes into play.
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In Sanskrit, mada stands for intoxicating liquor, sexual excitement, serous fluid that oozes from the temples of an elephant on heat and pride personified. The aim of this cerebral analogy was brought to the fore in the s when the observation was made that the molecules of a solution of morphine injected into a patient found their way and subsequently fixed themselves to a specific site on the brain, in other words, there were natural receptors suited to the treatment of this substance.
But no vertebrate of natural substance, whose chemical composition is reminiscent of morphine, exists in the brain or in the body. Isolated in , morphine, an active element of the opium extract of white Poppy was abundantly prescribed at the end of the 19th century and its effect on the brain had been well known since the laboratory synthesis of an antagonist compound which inhibits its effects : naloxone, whose molecular structure is very close to the molecular structure of morphine.
But this substance belongs to a chemical family that bears no resemblance to the family to which morphine belongs morphine is an alkaloid, endorphins are peptides. The answer to this paradox lies in molecular architecture. In addition to novels, plays, and an autobiography , she wrote song lyrics and screenplays.
In the s, Sagan became more devoted to writing plays, which, though lauded for excellent dialogue, were only moderately successful. Afterward, she concentrated on her career as a novelist. Sagan was married twice. On 13 March , she married her first husband, Guy Schoeller, an editor with Hachette , who was 20 years older than Sagan. The couple divorced in June, In , she married Bob Westhof, a young American playboy and would-be ceramicist.
The couple divorced in ; their son Denis Westhoff was born in June She also had a male lover, Bernard Frank , a married essayist obsessed with reading and eating. She added to her self-styled "family" by beginning a long-term affair with the French Playboy editor Annick Geille , after Geille approached Sagan for an article for her magazine.
On 14 April , while driving her Aston Martin sports car, she was involved in an accident that left her in a coma for some time. She also loved driving her Jaguar automobile to Monte Carlo for gambling sessions. In the s, Sagan was charged with and convicted of possession of cocaine. At various times of her life, Sagan was addicted to a number of drugs. She was a long-term user of prescription pills, amphetamines , cocaine, morphine , and alcohol. When the police came for an inspection of her house, her dog Banko showed cocaine to them, and also licked the cocaine.