The term of each licensed optometrist member of the Board, one being appointed each year, shall be five 5 years, or until a qualified successor is appointed. The lay member of the Board shall serve a term coterminous with that of the governor and shall serve at the pleasure of the Governor. The Governor is hereby authorized to appoint a member of the Board of Examiners in Optometry at the expiration of any term or whenever, for any reason, a vacancy may occur on said Board.
Vacancies shall be filled for the unexpired term only. It shall organize by selecting one of its members as president, one as vice-president, and one as secretary and treasurer the latter to give bond, approved by the Governor , and shall meet at least twice a year, and at such place or places as it may select. A majority of the Board present shall constitute a quorum, and its meetings shall at all times be open to the public.
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The Board may adopt a code of ethics for the practice of Optometry. A licensed optometrist may establish a practice in not more than two office locations in accordance with rules and regulations established by the Board of Examiners in Optometry. Practice in a governmental institution shall not be counted as one of these locations. Each office shall be registered by the Board and shall maintain such equipment and personnel as required by the Board. Every candidate successfully passing such examination shall be registered by the Board as possessing the qualifications as required by Section et seq.
Every optometrist desiring to use dangerous drugs and controlled dangerous substances as specified in Section 1 of this act shall have satisfactorily completed courses in general and ocular pharmacology at an institution accredited by the Council on Post-Secondary Accreditation or the United States Department of Education.
The Board of Examiners in Optometry shall approve such courses and shall certify those qualified by such training to use dangerous drugs and controlled dangerous substances as specified in Section 1 of this act. The use of any such pharmaceuticals by an optometrist or the obtaining of same by an optometrist shall be unlawful unless said optometrist is in possession of a current certificate as provided in this section.
Such optometrist shall furnish evidence to any pharmacist or other supplier from whom such pharmaceuticals are sought as to his holding a current certificate. The Board may, in its discretion, issue said certificates to practice, to persons otherwise qualified under this act, who have established by legal proof their knowledge of optometry, as shown by previous examination in any state of the Union; provided, the examination in said state was, at the time taken, of an equal standard with that of this state; provided, further, that citizens of this state are by the statutes of said state, admitted to practice on like conditions.
The Board shall have the power to revoke or suspend any certificate granted by it pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, for fraud, conviction of crime, unprofessional and unethical conduct, habitual drunkenness, exorbitant charges, false representation of goods, gross incompetency, contagious disease, any violation of any rule or regulation promulgated by the Board pursuant to the provisions of this chapter or any violation of this chapter.
No person shall practice optometry under any name other than the proper name of said person and it shall be the same name as used in the license issued by the Board of Examiners to said person. Before any certificate is revoked or suspended, the holder thereof shall be provided with notice and hearing as provided for in the Administrative Procedures Act, Sections through of Title 75 of the Oklahoma Statutes. The Board, after the expiration of the period of three 3 months after the date of said revocation, may entertain application for the reissuance of said revoked certificate and may reissue said certificate upon payment of a reinstatement fee not to exceed three times the annual renewal fee.
The Board shall have the right to promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to put into effect the provisions of this chapter.
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Said rules may prescribe which acts are detrimental to the general public health or welfare and may prescribe a minimum standard of sanitation, hygiene, and professional surroundings, and which acts constitute unprofessional or unethical conduct. Said conduct shall be grounds for revocation or suspension of the license or certificate issued pursuant to the provisions of Section of this title. If an out-of-state license or certificate of an optometrist who also holds an Oklahoma license or certificate is suspended or revoked for any reason, his Oklahoma license may come under review by the Board.
Should the out-of-state suspension or revocation be on grounds the same or similar to grounds for suspension or revocation in Oklahoma, the Board, after notice and hearing pursuant to the provisions of this section, may suspend or revoke the certificate of said optometrist to practice in Oklahoma.
In the event of default of payment of such license fee by any person, his or her certificate shall be revoked by the Board of Examiners who shall take such action only after notifying the person in default by registered mail and allowing him fifteen 15 days in which to comply with this requirement. All fees and charges collected by the secretary-treasurer of the Board shall be paid on the first day of each month into a revolving fund in the State Treasury to be designated as the "Optometry Board Revolving Fund".
This fund shall consist of all moneys received by the Board of Optometry other than appropriated funds.
The revolving fund shall be a continuing fund not subject to fiscal year limitations and shall be under the control and management of the Board of Optometry. Expenditures from this fund shall be made pursuant to the purposes of Sections through of this title and without legislative approval.
Matrix metalloproteinases have been implicated in degrading these scaffolding proteins, resulting in erosion. Patients with EBMD, a congenital condition, have an anterior epithelium that does not adhere well to the basement membrane due to morphological changes in the epithelial cells or basement membrane matrix.
Adhesions between the palpebral conjunctiva of the eyelids and the corneal epithelium in dry eye patients contribute significantly to RCES in many patients. Individuals with ocular rosacea are particularly at risk due to meibomian gland dysfunction and resultant evaporative dry eye. Owing to the recurrent nature of this condition and its resistance to commonly used therapies, patients often make repeated visits to their ophthalmologists.
There are many treatment options for RCES, each of which has varying degrees of efficacy. Patients must be assessed on a case-by-case basis so that treatment regimens are individualized.
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Medical treatment options should be explored before resorting to more invasive surgical alternatives. For recovering patients whose epithelium is healing, we recommend bland ointment to prevent surface aggravation. We also recommend the frequent application of preservative-free artificial tears during the day and bland ointment or hypertonic saline ointment at bedtime to promote recovery, especially in patients with dry eye or ocular rosacea. If this regimen fails, surgery may be considered.
Due to the attendant risks, surgery should be reserved for patients who have failed aggressive medical therapies. It should not be performed as an initial form of treatment. It should be noted that ASP has fallen out of favor as a surgical treatment for RCES in many practices, as it can cause scarring, glare, and blurred vision, and has a high failure rate in preventing further erosions.
We advise that all patients who are treated surgically be monitored postoperatively with a follow-up appointment scheduled two to four weeks after the procedure. If symptoms have improved or are completely eliminated, we recommend prophylactic treatment with lubrication as described above to prevent a recurrence. If symptoms recur, oral doxycycline and topical steroids may be administered twice daily for two to three weeks.
Several options exist for treating RCES.
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However, the underlying condition, if overlooked, can result in recurrent erosions and debilitating symptoms. Based on clinical evidence, combination therapy with oral tetracycline, topical corticosteroids, and lubrication is the most effective treatment for RCES. Thakrar is a medical student and Dr. Hemmati is assistant professor of ophthalmology and surgery; both are at the University of Vermont in Burlington.
The authors report no related financial interests.