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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Soon, I will start a research project on commoning as post-doc in Coimbra at the Centre of Social Study. As an activist, I fought against the privatization of water in Naples between and Paris Dauphine. I am working for a local non-profit organisation in Brussels where we support citizen groups and advocate for more participation in urban planning. We are also part of the collective Commons Josaphat in Brussels. I participated in the IASC in Utrecht and would like to be more informed about what is happening around the topic of the commons internationally.

My name is Kitty de Bruin, i'm Dutch and i live since my retirement in France south west with my husband on a small farm with an orchard, chickens and veggie garden. During my professional life i worked in the computer industrie Northern Telecom, Digital Equipment and others as transing, sales and marketing manager. In i worked as president for a NGO to stimulate teleworking in the Netherlands. Always as subcontracter, because i hate administration. In i started an website to converge the transition initiatives in France www.

I plan to hand that over to youngsters end of this year. Since Digital was very involved in open networks, internet , and all this open functonality is now locked by huge providers , i would like to work together and use my expertise where it is needed. My vision is than common and open will be the future, and with initiatives like this, the change could be a bit faster.

I 'm a full time volunteer. SMart is a social enterprise born in Belgium in that works on the principle of mutualisation. It is currently on the verge of becoming a cooperative and helps freelancers develop their activities in a secured frame. Previously I was involved in the internationalization of SMart and addressed issues of professional mobility of artists and cultural professionals. Professionally, i am working for Community Land Trust Brussels,an association that provides permanently affordable housing for low income groups on community land.

As an activist, I am involved in Commons Josaphat, a collectif that strives for the development of the Josaphat wasteland in Brussels as a neighborhood with the commons as guiding principle. I have recently joined a startup and am now a software entrepreneur. I also play the guitar in a band. Eclectic person, I used to study the biology and the psychology. I worked in numerous contexts: secretary-accountant, the project manager in a Web agency and as a freelance, storekeeper shop of fair trade and organic products Always with the writing in counterpoint: columnist, journalist, editorial webmaster, blogger After a burn-out, I found the way of a new coherent social activity by creating www.

I am an artist, an activist and a social educator. I studied Fine Arts and also Intercultural Education, and have been working and doing some research on inclusive education. I work for Citizenship Academy, based in Lisbon, and our main goal, as a non-profit association, is to promote active citizenship through the empowerment of persons and other organizations. I am currently responsible for one project in CA, which is community building in a social neighbourhood in Lisbon.

Having lived in Libya, Austria, Poland and his native Bulgaria, he initiatlly researched minority rights, hate speech and discrimination issues before Wikipedia and the ACTA negotiations sparked his passion for digital rights and the commons. He is now dedicated on promoting the structural and functional public domain. Dimi loves coffee, hates carrot juice and considers Twitter a benign version of the internet. My broad research focus is sustainable lifestyles and new economic paradigm. My narrower research interest is on commons' governance and local currencies.

As a teenager, she became active in the anti-apartheid movement within South Africa. Dove played a leading role in feminist and anti-militarist organisations and from the mids, served the non-racial labour movement. Dove in currently active in TNI's New Politics project, which is in the process of becoming a decentralised think thank on counter-hegemonic politics to boost the development of desirable, viable and achievable alternatives aimed at transcending current oppressive and exploitative structures.

I want to join the mailing lis of ECA and connect Faircoop and the Bank of the commons with the European commons assembly. Juan has been working as sound designer and editor since He has worked in socially engaged documentaries as well as big fiction film productions, such as Keep on Rolling, Grupo 7, Carmina o revienta, La mujer y el agua or Bolivian Woman. Coming from Valencia East coast of Spain , as a social consultant at Empodera consultores www. Since , I have been engaged in several participatory action research projects on Social and Solidarity Economy and the management of the commons in Southern Europe, as well as North and South America.

I am currently carrying out a 6-year research project, funded by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation, entitled "The Emerging Action Fields of Solidarity Economy", which analyses the factors that promote the social and economic sustainability of commons-oriented alternative economic projects. I started to get involved with the whole commons-thing in - at first mainly out of an intellectual interest but I very soon realized that there is so much more to it. So I participated in the first German-speaking commons summer school out of which the Commons-Institut was founded.

That is what I am still an active part of. I took this energy to first write my Thesis M. Politics, Economics and Philosophy about the commons and now I am writing on my PhD in Economics about conflicts in water management and the possibilities of commoning. I am arguing that through the shift in paradigms and societal structures that commoning may initiate conflicts can be tackled in new ways. So, you already see that I am really convinced of the transformative potential of commoning.

But the commons is not only something that I think write and talk about but something that I practice. For example in our commons housing project and the community-supported agriculture project that I am part of. In my view the transition can only be done through commoning which is why I am convinced that we should also take the commons assemblies as spaces of commoning. Only if we practice commoning among ourselves the processes that we create can carry ourselves as well as develop enough strength so that an actual transformation can take place.

My research is concerned with the notion of the commons and its link to that of urban sustainable transition. It consists of two main parts.

Human Sciences and the Digital Age in Late 20Th France

On the one hand, I am interested in the work of actors who give shape to the notion at the encounter between theory and politics - hence my interest for the work of many participants to Commonswatch. On the other hand, I am involved in three key sectors with regard to urban transition: that of waste, energy and urban nature. In each case, my research targets citizen initiatives that appear to comply to the minimum definition of a commons: community reuse centers; renewable energy cooperatives and community gardens. I investigate the actual practices of these actors, the manner in which they interact with other actors and the State, as well as the narrative they use to describe their activities.

I lead this part of my research in two main cities: Paris and Berlin. A crucial point to make regarding my research concerns methodology, which can be described as mainly inductive. As a matter of fact, my ambition is to account for what actually happens on the ground - for what counts in the eyes of the people involved, depending on the situations and the social worlds in which they engage. Such an approach entails understanding the history and development of the movement as an exploratory process.

It means taking the back and fourths, the negotiations as well as the concrete support of action as significant elements as to what it actually mean to "give shape to the concept of the commons" in a given context. This is why my engagement on the field translates into intensive note-taking provided, of course, that information is not presented as confidential. It seems to me that such a material i.

Daniela Festa is a jurist and social geographer. Her main research themes are: urban processes and project; urban movements, active citizenship, urban self-organised practices. Participatory democracy and participatory budget; Urban commons; Town planning practices affecting issues of spatial justice, urban democracy, right to the city; Lawmaking bottom up process. How processes of mutualism-commoning are rimapping the use of territory.

I am working the commons and sport. In , she concluded her PhD thesis at the European University Institute in Florence on the governance of common-based peer production, and have numerous publications in the field. She is the principal investigator for the European project P2Pvalue: Techno-social platform for sustainable models and value generation in commons-based peer production.

She is also responsible of the experts group BarCola on collaborative economy and commons production at the Barcelona City Council. I am part of Commons Josapaht citizen and associative initiative to create a neighborhood as a commons. In an other hand, I have coordinated with others the "Temps des Communs" in Belgium and Brussels last year. I am one of the founders of the Transition movement Transition towns and work for Transitionentwork.

International Institute of Peace Studies & Global Philosophy

I have a particular interest in that i coordinate the learning function of Transition network and am interested in what makes a knowledge commons work. Mexican independent activist, creative and researcher. Founder and coordinator of the Archipelago Initiative, conformed to activate and connect new knowledge and learning around the practices of recovery, regeneration and creation of the commons, and thus nourish the multiple movement of community recovery based on critical thinking, particularly in Latin America and the social and community experiences in which it is expressed.

I currently participate and facilitate spaces for critical dialogue, knowledge and wisdom exchange, and revitalization of the community. For the last 30 years, he has been participating in a broad range of activities agriculture, forestry, recreation, community organisation, non-formal education that compose the subsistence mountain ridge polycultural family farming system and self-reliant community. It was during his internship research on "sustainable communities" that he encoutered for the first time the concept of "permaculture".

I have a background in Sociology and am originally from the UK. For my thesis I'm exploring the institutional change and governance conditions required to foster the realisation of the urban commons. I'm really interested in comparing the place-based specificities of urban commons between different governance regimes and historical contexts. I'm the initiator of speakGreen.

I am working as a transformation catalyst, personal growth supporter and social dynamics host in the Middle East and Sub-saharan Africa. I coordinate the Source network of the New Economics Foundation. The New Economics Foundation is the only people-powered think tank. We work to build a new economy where people really take control. Source is an online network bringing together academics, policy professionals and civil society organisers from across Europe — committed to tackling the biggest economic, environmental and social challenges we face today.

She worked in Strasbourg at the European Court of Human Rights and the Permanent Mission of Italy to the Council of Europe; she was involved in works for the implementation of the European Landscape Convention, the instruments dedicated to participation, management, protection and cooperation. H Then she worked at the General Directorate of Local Authorities, Urban Planning and Finances at the Autonomous Region of Sardinia, at the Task Force of Municipalities' Association for the adaptation to the Regional Landscape Plan of the Urban Plans, in Detailed Plans of historic centers, and the development of participating laboratories to planning and pilot projects for local development.

She obtained a Master of Community Planning and one in EU Planning and Policies and management of complex projects in international cooperation, promoted by the University of Cagliari in coordination with the organizations of the Third sector. She is an active partner of the Association An Island - Shared Idea Un'Isola - Idea Condivisa that practices of exercise of right to the city and promotes urban opportunities for active participation also with the institutions. She would like to do ActionResearch on legal arrangements and dispositives that are able to governing and to embrace transformations, to find new intervention tactics.

She would like to study the coherence with the European urban policy and to work on the design of public policies and services. We are about 8 people now, living together under common economy and resources, working in fronts like sharing economies, networking, culture, degrowth, eco-gardening, social activism, communication Inside this network we have been building close relationships all around our region from Galiza to Porto among several collectives and agents working in diverse stuff like techs, urbanism, arts, integral revolution, philosophy, local commons, direct democracy We have common applications like annual meeting fairs, digital networks and tools for collaboration.

Nicolas Haeringer est sociologue. Co-initiator of the Commons Network. Advocate on acccess to knowledge and access to medicines for TransAtlantic Consumer Dialogue My name is Jamie. I serve as the Executive Director of the Institute for a Sustainable and founder of the Commons Health Network, established to connect and advance place-based models of health creation and a new operating system. I also serve as the Coordinating Director of The Food Commons, a new economic paradigm and whole system approach for regional food combining community ownership and vertical integration to create wealth and good food access, with a successful prototype in Fresno California.

Jamie led the successful US healthcare mercury elimination efforts and initiated and directed the national Healthy Food in Healthcare Campaign. Working at the nexus of health, healthcare, food systems and community he has received recognition as a national thought leader and for lifelong public health leadership and advocacy. He speaks and consults internationally. Since I work as independent author, activist and scholar, with a variety of international and domestic partners; I do quite a bit of networking f.

I've been editing and co-authoring several books on the Commons, among them: Who Owns the World? Was mehr wird, wenn wir teilen", My new passion is to integrate the approach and thinking of Christopher Alexander as a philosopher of wholeness and enlivenment with the socio-economic and political rethinking and reshaping of the world. I plan to work on a Patterns Language of Commoning. I have a background in community-engaged research, sustainable and alternative food initiatives and organisational values and am relatively new to the commoning network and community of practice. She has been developing and co-creating community-based learning spaces and large-scale learning events for the past 15 years.

Amanda is a originally a social worker and a senior advisor for municipalities and govs. Four years ago she became involved in the collaborative economy movement of OuiShare and the P2P Foundation. She organized hackathons on p2p solutions and collaboration from a completely open source perspective, OuiShare meetups and a satellite event of OuiShare Fest and co-organized the Peer Value Conference in Amsterdam.

She specializes in p2p dynamics, digitalization issues and collaboration as a core topic in all that she does. As the next phase of p2p she sees a global connection of nodes that are currently connected by several initiatives that aim to unite movements and create a seed crystal or social body that can be scaled globally. With this movement commons initiatives move out of the shadows or margins of the regular economy.

The focus now is aimed at a changing consciousness and telepathical tooling with software applications such as Noomap. Mazibuko Jara was born in in Mdantsane in the Eastern Cape. From until , he served as the chief spokesperson and strategist of the SACP. He is also an Associate Editor of Amandla! I am a co-director Letting Space, an arts organisation in Wellington, New Zealand concerned with broadening the commons. I was a founding director of Loomio software company and am part of the Enspiral Network. I am researching toward a PhD in Europe University of Copenhagen concerned with art and architecture practice and the commons.

I am a PhD student at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki working on issues related to the urban environment and the urban commons. I am specifically interested in bottom-up commoning initiatives in cities that produce new urban spaces. EDUin serves as a watchdog permanently confronting education policies in Czech Republic and as an information joint among government, businesses, schools and another NGOs. We also run several projects. Their common base is focus on innovations. We has created Alliance for open education which members are organizations and individuals engaged in education, technologies etc.

Personally: I do regularly publish about education in many of Czech media and serves as regular media commentator of educational events.

Numéros en texte intégral

Teacher at University of Economics and Management in Prague. I do contribute to launch business start up Education Republic. In I participated on the content and realization of Forum in Prague, one of the most high profile annual event in Czech Republic. Last year was education choosen as main theme of conference.

He focus not only education, his next field of interest are media. I'm a senior web developer in innovative web projects since 15years, looking at the world in a common way, thinking out of the box to build new open source approaches to benefit the commons. Since 4years, I'm managing and working on an NGO project, building an openSource citizen societal network called communecter. We are trying to build the platform itself as a common.

Recent Acquisitions in Philosophy

I'm also actively interested in modeling and mapping out commons in territories, cities and organisations. I'm very active in creating tools for Open Organisations, in order to make them glocaly localy and globaly more efficient. She has worked on community planning and visioning projects in Pittsburgh. Her interests include community planning, sharing and collaboration, urban sustainability, green infrastructure and closed loop systems. Prior to her work in the US, she collaborated with several firms in Athens, Greece and worked independently as an architect.

Eleni is a Fulbright and Onassis scholar and a registered architect in Greece. In Torange Khonsari co founded the art and architecture practice public works, an interdisciplinary practice working in the threshold of participatory and performative art, architecture and related fields of anthropology, always engaged with notions of civic in the city.

Their projects are socially and politically motivated and directly impacts public space, working with local organisations, communities, government bodies and stakeholders. As a practice it is a vehicle and an umbrella that both hosts and tests the academic research undertaken within university teaching. Torange is currently a director of public works- social and political art and architecture practice, and teaches architecture and activism at UMA school of architecture Sweden where she is an Adjunct professor.

The direct two -way communication between academia and practice has enabled and enriched an exploratory environment within which public works is now operating. We try to transform existing technical DIY solutions to reach height up to of 6 floors on the basis of renewable and affordable materials in a modular way. My relation to the Commons emerged in during my master thesis when dealing with "participatory design processes" in the context of urban planning. Resulting further meetings eventually led to the foundation of the "Commons Institut e. In the context of the Commons Institute, especially with Christian Siefkes, we currently try to find ways how various initiatives can form something like a "Commons association", so people involved can fulfill their needs in a broader spectrum through commoning while avoiding potential excessive demands.

I am also planning to organize a sort of 'commons' meeting in Spring Amsterdam myself. Since has been active with several local and international grassroots movements driven by the concern of scarcity and inequality. A turning point has been the co-organization of CommonsFest in Heraklion for the last three years. Recently co-founded a social co-op working on free software and open source hardware, the CommonsLab. I am Sunna Kovanen, a regional geographer and freelance writer from Finland.

With Commons I have mostly been involved during my studies and freetime. I have been active in Commons. My themes have included common learning of embodied knowledge via theater improvization in comparison to common digital knowledge processes, and institutionalization and upscaling of common self-organized service production. The interest to embodied knowledge comes from my hobby in theater improvization. The theme of my next article ist care commons and feminist economies.

I have lived the last year in Berlin, getting known to german-speaking commons movements and supporting the organizational development of our CSA-farm in Brandenburg. Starting from next year I am planning to work and study with a Cooperative "Ehta Raha" in Helsinki, which develops needs-based economy with local communities in Finland.

Her researches focused a lot on the way health issues are taken into account during the negotiation of intellectual property in Free Trade Agreements. Until recently and during 4 years she was an advisor on Access to Knowledge and Intellectual Property issues for the Greens at the European Parliament. She is the author of articles about the Commons, Intellectual property issues, Access to medicines, Access to knowledge. As a feminist she is part of several groups in France. Being an elected official , I am particularly interested in the question of public policies design, especially regarding mobility and accessibility.

The issue of representation of public and exchanges of experience among the various governance bodies emerging common interests me first. Since , my project is been to nurture and support commoners and the commons and the search for the alternatives that we so badly need, alternatives to the neoliberal model of globalisation, the current world disorder and the ill conceived economic recipies that lead to plunder of people and the planet.

Of Spanish and British background but born in Colombia, she lives in Madrid since , where she experiences and researches the rising transformation of citizen laboratories and P2P practices. During , she developed a project on peer-to-peer initiatives that are transforming public space through Southern Europe: 'P2P Plazas: a Southern European Network'. Since I have been working as a cultural coordinator and transmedia artist, developing social and participatory processes.

From rural association i develop social and cultural activities on rural areas.

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As a political agitator i have been involved since on a kind of 15m international commission, a type of decentralized and espontaneous activist net that has been appearing and disappearing depending on global events linked to movements as 15m occupy yosoy Manifencours, direngezy, NuitDebout, etc. We support each other in solidarity on issues such as education, human rights, migration, austerity or financial fraud and economic corruption, coordinating some global demos as Globalnoise or GlobalDebout Anne-Catherine Lorrain is a lawyer with expertise in copyright law.

He had published several articles and books about cultural economy, participatory governance, critical approach to social innovation and community based economies. Auteur du blog S. I was particularly involved in issues relating to biodiversity, agro ecological, commons, citizen mobilizations against GMOs. Through practical experimentation, this leads to new models of positive relationship with Internet logics and the common benefit. During we also applied to the own festival a CC license promoting the CCWorld Audiovisual Commons Net, a global net with local festivals self-sustainables copy-derivated of the Barcelona's ones and spreeded in differents towns and cities all around the world, specially in Latin-American countries.

We are more than 30 festivals sharing and collaborating in a decentralized the knowledge and sources and connecting communities, messages and struggles through the audiovisual language. As always, but more than ever now. Camille Meyer is a Ph. His work focuses on social finance community banks and complementary currencies and analyze the extent to which grassroots financial organizations and services can be considered as commons.

He realized field works in Brazil and lived in several European countries. We work in different common issues in our stateless Nation, Galiza, and also here in Brussels, translating to the EC different proposals, resolutions and doing political incidence helping people and communities with the social, environmental and participative focus. Katharina Moebus is a Berlin-based designer who works at the crossroads of design, art, activism and research. Her special fields of interest include critical pedagogy, peer-to-peer learning, DIT-culture, the commons, and emerging practices of design for socio-political and environmental change.

She has gathered experience in working with neighbourhoods, communities and grassroots projects and is particularly interested in ways of strengthening local engagement with attention to its transformative potentials of greater scale. With an autodidactic vocation, he has spent the most part of his professional life in his birth-town as a filmmaker and a scriptwriter.

Since starting, he has developed several works for television until , when he starts a new stage devoted to documentary films. We cooperate on occasion with the P2P foundation and FairCoop, among others. I'm an urban 'activist' since long years in Brussels working on differents fields like public space, environment, food, cultural diversity, community territories. Technically - because the question of the commons are technological questions too - we propose to elaborate "new urbane rivers" which are note more than a network of decentralized devices cocreates with inhabitants of the valley.

This kind of program is not yet fully recognized by the authorities who are continuing to develope centralized technology. But academics of this city are really interested. On the field of the commons self, I have propose several years ago the concept of Festival des biens commons which became Commons Josaphat. This project is now one of the main project in Brussels about the commons. It will be presented during our meeting.

I would like to propose to work in Brussels about the Commons of our Commons, which can be an Commons Assembly of Brussels. I'm working also with trade union. It is a very interesting experience in this very depressed part of the country. The main question is how not to be fatalist after the crisis, and the closure of heavy industry. His research interests include open source technologies, urban commons, "smart city", makerspaces, IoT and do-it-yourself culture.

Contact: vasilis. I have worked as an architect and planning consultant and as an activist for sustainability for over 20 years. My main input was in Feasta: Foundation for the Economics of Sustainability www. About four years ago, I gave up all that ineffective advocacy promising myself only to work on real projects that promise immediate benefits. The commons movement is a framework for projects that perfectly fit the prescription!

We think we can mainstream biochar using a business model that has proved very successful in Irish agriculture in the s - the agricultural cooperative.

APPROACH TO THE SUBJECT MATTER

The Biochar Coop has 8 founder members representing workers, producers, users, service providers and community. We hope to expand with roll out of our habitat management services and new farm products this year. We may form our own community land trust or we may partner with a local authority in an arms length trust. We will know in 6 months or so. CitizensLab members engage in P2P learning experiences and look for generating and sharing the new narratives of their local initiatives that have a European relevance and dimension to the European political discourses.

They are both inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches on the concept of DIY networking and community wireless networks. I am currently a semi-professional musiciana, and my current interests, along with the above topics, include translation-interpretation, English language, socially conscious art, modern economics, P2p practices, and transitioning to a post-scarcity economy. Aix Marseille. I represent myself as an 'artist-organiser', cultural producer, educator and independent researcher. I am specialised in developing and leading inter- and trans- disciplinary projects exploring connections between art, digital culture and science, cultural activism, ecological and sustainability movements, cultural heritage and collaborative networks.

I am from central Scotland, grew up and lived there until , however I have been based in Helsinki and Eastern-Baltic Sea region since the end of I consider myself a Commons activist working from within the cultural sector. From early until end of , I was coordinator and facilitator of the 'Pixelversity' around-the-year informal educational programme for Pixelache. I am currently involved in their ongoing work-group project 'Ferment Lab' , and as a board-member self-allocated responsibility for international networks and archival processes.

All more or less relate to participatory or commons-based peer-production. Daniela Patti is a co-founder of Eutropian. Specialised in urban regeneration and environmental planning through collaborative processes, her recent research and projects focus on the governance of peri-urban landscape, the revitalisation oflocal food markets and new economic models for urban development. Furthermore, in and she worked for the Rome Municipality, where she elaborated the strategy for the access to the European Structural Funds to be invested on urban regeneration.

Since , she is Board Member of the Wonderland Platform for European Architecture, responsible for its collaborative planning series. Between and , she has been a researcher at the Central European Institute of Technology, where she was responsible for the Project Management of EU Smart Cities and urban regeneration projects. My name is Martin Pedersen and I have been doing research on and been involved in a wide variety of commons, temporary and "permanent" - material and "immaterial", since the early s.

A great source of inspiration for paradigmatically different ways of sharing, living and learning in common has been two years working with indigenous people in the Amazon, to where I will also return soon and spend considerable time the next three years. Attention allows for a naturalized view of the economy while simultaneously focusing on the feelings that characterize humanity Economic efficiency can thus be evaluated as the result of an attention deficit between two firms. Attention remains a good that circulates, is perishable and is not attached to a particular person or organization.

As it is limited, it is the object of unbridled competition:. And like airplane seats and fresh food, attention is a highly perishable commodity. Attention directly affords access to the flow of thought , to the extent that it becomes difficult to distinguish between the attention paid to the person and that which goes to the words that he or she pronounces Goldhaber, And, yet, attention is also difficult to achieve owing to its intrinsic scarcity. That combination makes it the potential driving force of a very intense economy.

They know how to prioritize that which is important for them and for others. This skill assigns a collective responsibility to them. They participate in the global conversation and by the singularity of their judgment, constitute a filter in the information flow that serves to put the focus on relevant information. Self-awareness becomes simply vanity. This recognition precedes any attempt to tell others where to put their attention.

Moreover, the unworthy are not themselves able to control their own attention: they manage informational priorities poorly, let themselves be overwhelmed, and end up being dispersed Datchary, In these configurations, attention is definitively attached to those objects—as critics put it with regard to certain audiovisual programmes—, so that those who pay attention derive less fulfilment than a numbing of the mind. Other states of being, such as fascination , that no longer allow for the distance needed to make a critical judgment, or addiction , that reveals a loss of autonomy and individual freedom, can be interpreted as signs of decline.

An extreme example of fanatical decline, cited by Goldhaber, concerns the development of international terrorism, which is an attack on common humanity and human dignity It is thus possible, through reflexive analysis, to perform a diagnosis in order to determine whether attention is correctly distributed according to the activity in which the individual is engaged, or to position the attention received by a firm in relation to its competitors. For a rival it is not a matter of being situated in a magic triangle where the attention received is back of mind, captive and attractive.

As noted above, even if these characteristics seem positive, attention is never definitively captured, nor linked to an entity. On the contrary, according to Davenport and Beck, it is necessary to play on different levels to capture a consumer whose attention is, by definition, fleeting. Those firms that fail to do so, even those that are situated in the best positions on the attention map, take the risk of seeing their position assailed by their rivals.

As attention is not set , it needs to be fed constantly. Boltanski and Chiapello have shown how the concept of this pyramid underpinned management approaches in the s, which emphasized a need for security, but was strongly criticized in the s by those who defended autonomy and networking. The pyramid used by Davenport and Beck is inverted to highlight the fact that although essential needs for survival and security capture a significant part of attention, whether they are attractive or aversive, good management necessitates the preservation of the top levels of the pyramid those related to self-actualization or transcendence.

The most common case in business is that of individuals who focus primarily on the intermediate scales the need for love and esteem. In the former case—the publication of information on the Web—the analytical operation of judgement consists, in a constant flow, in proceeding by comparative statics, as neo-classical economists do to judge the qualities of an equilibrium. Actually, when one considers this on a small scale, the flow of information is discontinuous and it is from the aggregation of all these mini tests that the judgement can be done.

In the latter case—the public intervention or talk—the test is more visible. But as noted above, the qualification of worth is two-sided: receiving and giving. The comment calls for reciprocity, which is hoped for and happens sometimes, but rarely in proportions equivalent to the attention received. The recurrent example of this mark of attention is the spectators of a particularly intense tennis match, whose concentration on the game is characterized by the to-and-fro movement of the gaze following that of the ball from one side of the court to the other.

The design of a product invites us to attend to it in a particular way, to pay a certain type of attention to it. Design tells us not about stuff per se but what we think about stuff. The role of design in product development is beginning to reflect an awareness of this interface. As he explains to economists, art and literature are means for steering attention , and someone who has the style can effortlessly do so.

Create value by manipulating the ruling attention structures. Judo, not brute force, gets the best results. Duchamp did this for a joke. Do it for business. The world of Internet thus has filters for selecting relevant information. The inbox and the phenomena of cognitive overload that it entails are prominent objects of the polity.

Filters and search or recommendation engines are others. They not only constitute a means to respond to the phenomena of cognitive overload but also allow for exploratory openings, by playing on curiosity, in particular. This is so true that these authors, who are also consultants, wonder whether the process of taking into consideration the value of the attention consumed by top managers will not, in the future, require assistants in the knowledge economy. Of these devices, design technologies afford interesting possibilities regarding the play of attention, by creating reflexivity effects.

Individuals in situations of theatrical self-awareness become aware of themselves and, by entering the play of attention, modify their behaviour. It was found that productivity increased, whether the light was brightened or dimmed. It also increased in the control workshop in which no change was made. It can therefore be assumed that it was because the workers knew they were being observed that they were more productive.

The light was a cognitive attractor like any other. But this enhanced reflexivity is not necessarily negative; it can be beneficial to the individual. The harmonious and natural figure of the attention economy takes on the form of a technological world of interlinking communication where virtual connections—even though some correspond to physical ties—are self-sufficient. People do not need to know one another in real life, that is, to have met face-to-face, in order to exchange information, make comments to one another and like one another. Nor is it necessary to have produced intense interaction with these people to receive their attention.

In the attention polity, it amounts to giving up focusing their attention on one thing only, and sporadically delivering a narrative on themselves, through which they share their thoughts with the world. Thus, participating in the world means giving up part of their privacy :. Even if you in some way choose to remain anonymous, putting out your thoughts to the world allows other people to think them, which enlarges you.

Even with some degree of anonymity, if you are canny, say, in your use of the Internet, you may draw on this attention as well. Goldhaber, This position allows for unplanned discoveries, as in the history of the three princes of Serendip, a Persian tale from which Horace Walpole drew the concept of serendipity. By observing attentive clues the grass cut only on one side of the path, lighter hoof-prints on the ground, a column of ants on the edge of a path, etc. When this proved not to be the case, their sagacity was rewarded. A sticky site lures web surfers, holds them, and keeps them coming back for more.

The attention economy is not a good match for projections into the future or dependence on past attachments.


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At the most, it allows some patches related to the constitution of an active network that always needs to be fed. Spoken words and outcomes are soon obsolete. I know that. A few years. These structures differ in nature and aim to capture definitively transient attention. Various communication channels, email and telephone, blogs and social networks, can be used to feed the flow incessantly.

In the attention economy the worthy know how to help others to pay attention to essential elements. Additionally, great attention leaders are also skilled at blocking attention.

John Searle: Our shared condition -- consciousness

Davenport and Beck, , It is what makes leaders great. Goldhaber argues that this circulation of attention attests to the balanced nature of the exchange, without which it is difficult to qualify economic relations. Another way of contributing to the collective and obtaining recognition is by oneself being the follower of other followings , and of drawing attention to some of their selected publications.

This process of reciprocity cannot however be confused with a convergence of opinions and even less so with that of personalities. These arguments usually draw on the work of Donald Winnicott, George H. Mead and Jean Piaget He or she acquires the ability to point out objects to his or her attachment figure by means of protodeclarative gestures and then to view these objects with this person. Likewise, Davenport and Beck mention this aspect and have a photo of a baby on the cover of their book. It is also found in the work of literature professor Yves Citton 14 , close to the Multitude movement.

These two authors advocate policies to protect attention, and directly draw on care theories in their demonstrations. As we have seen, the attention polity requires people to have an initial ability to pay attention when undergoing the tests of real life and for access to material and symbolic goods. To restore justice, it is therefore necessary to help those who have lost these qualities of attention to restore them. Care is characterized by interest, insofar as it is oriented towards others and implies a moral commitment. It also opposes morality based on a concrete problem like producing care to another morality based on principles like equity.

Care is a practice before being a disposition, but it is also a singular activity and a process. Attention is strongly associated with the first step of this process, that which stems from concern for others. As care demands the recognition of a need and the necessity to have consideration for it, the first moral aspect of care is attention. In this sense, the notion of care contrasts with an idealized society in which individuals take care only of themselves and are independent of one another.

Distinguishing the specific features of these two economic forms sheds light on three contemporary sociological problems. The first problem concerns the notion of privacy. The appearance of the participatory economy strongly undermined the fiction, stemming from the Enlightenment, of a market world constituting an extension of political liberalism.

When they are pooled by democratic processes or by the market they serve to define the collective welfare. Since the late s economics has of course moved away from this normative view. Based on richer representations of behaviours and rationality specular behaviours and game theory , economists have developed the means to endogenize preferences. But, with the exception of the Chicago school Posner, , this evolution in the doctrine was not seen to challenge the social and political value of privacy.

With the development of the market attention economy, this is no longer the case. If we consider that self-exposure is an existential condition of the attention economy in its participatory form, this paradox no longer exists. Here, individual freedom is the freedom to share with others singular information that one deems worthy of collective attention. The difficulty lies in the fact that the market attention economy is not indifferent to personal data.

It exploits them with the aim of personalizing the market relation. Other types of harm caused to social media users concern the decontextualized use of words or photos for example, in a job interview, bringing up festive photos that were shared with a circle of friends. Political debate around the right to be forgotten and amendments to European regulations aim to reduce the possibilities of market exploitation of personal data.

These legal solutions come up against difficulties controlling the actual use of data. Another possible way is to favour the VRM Vendor Relationship Management solution designed to deliver ownership and use rights on personal data to those who produce them. As in the Coasian solution Coase, , the idea this time is to reduce the damage by increasing the collection costs. The second problem relates to the articulation between these two forms: economics and politics.

The accumulation of personal data in the digital world can be used by the State to inform its system of control of individuals and to reinforce what some authors in the tradition of Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze call a surveillance society or control society.

In , at the dawn of the computer age, the interconnection of databases on individuals and the storage of these data in a centralized system triggered stormy debates in France. It must be developed in the framework of international cooperation. Yet the development of tracking technologies, the spatial and temporal extension of movements, and a political context marked by international terrorism have led to a strengthening of security policies and a proliferation of police files. One issue is the collaboration of market enterprises with the security services of States. Social media users denounce this form of institutional surveillance but promote another.

While the market attention economy, unlike the general equilibrium market of Walras, is set in the tradition of a panoptical control of citizens, the participatory attention economy opens the way to a form of bottom-up citizen surveillance sub-surveillance. This time it concerns control over the activities of the representatives of public institutions.

The third social problem stemming from the two modalities of expression of the scarcity of attention in the economy relates to the creation and distribution of value. The knowledge economy is closely linked to the attention economy in its participatory form and is antinomic with the notion of intellectual property rights. Social media users exchange a large volume of intellectual products or personal data, and relay information published by others.

These data, provided free-of-charge by Web users, are available to social networking platforms which use them to improve their knowledge of customers market form of the attention economy. Although access to the service is supplied free-of-charge, the exchange is often perceived by analysts as being unequal, insofar as the wealth generated by the use of the data and sometimes their appropriation bears no relation to the free access to the service.

This form of unpaid work, nicknamed digital labor in the specialized literature Scholz, , has triggered strong criticism of the exploitation of users. The most commonly cited examples concern pro-amateur activities photos, videos, varying content and freeware. The solution of property rights, as in the case of personal data, is not an option this time because it runs counter to the circulation of ideas, a core principle of the participatory attention economy.

In fact, what we have here is a conflict of values, for the value created by Web users cannot be expressed in monetary terms in the participatory economy. It implies a compromise between two antagonistic logics. The solution can but be fragile and likely to revive criticism. The two economies described, that which strengthens an industrial-market dynamic and that which stems from the participatory economy, have little in common.


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Yet they are not independent. Far from witnessing a transition from one to the other, we see that they are closely related and in tension, especially because in order to exist they mobilize the same objects: personal data. The participatory attention economy creates networks of sociability, which inform the processes of market capturing. From the market point of view, this can be analysed as a positive externality.

From the participatory attention economy point of view, market processes constitute a negative externality. I have thus accounted for the intrinsic logics of the two economic forms, the market form and the participatory form, and have highlighted the fact that they are based on two different principles of justice. This should prompt us to reflect on how to ensure that the autonomy of these two forms of economy of attention, or the two spheres of justice, as Michael Walzer would say, are respected.

Unless we are able to do so, it would be advisable to advocate for regulations that would preclude domination of one by another. This article presents elements analysed in a different form in my book Kessous, I would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers of a first version of the text, as well as the editor of the article and the editor-in-chief of the journal who, through their relevant comments, enabled me to consolidate the argument.

Needless to say, any remaining shortcomings are entirely my responsibility. Auray, Nicolas. Paris: Hermann, Barrey, Sandrine. Agir entre dispositifs et dispositions. In Franck Cochoy ed. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail, Benkler, Yochai. Boltanski, Luc and Eve Chiapello. The New Spirit of Capitalism.


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Datchary, Caroline. La dispersion au travail. Toulouse: Octares. Davenport, Thomas H. De Lagerie, Pauline and Emmanuel Kessous. In Marie Trespeuch Philippe Steiner eds. Constestations morales et dispositifs marchands. Toulouse: Presses Universitaire du Mirail, Deleuze, Gilles. Demoulin, Nathalie and Pierre Zidda. Falkinger, Josef.