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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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The Mass or service of worship itself includes a reading of the Passion , the narrative of Jesus' capture, sufferings and death, as recounted in one of the Synoptic Gospels. In the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite celebrated according to the Roman Missal of , the Passion narrative read on this day is always that of St. Before the reform of the rite by Pope Pius XII , the blessing of the palms occurred inside the church within a service that followed the general outline of a Mass, with Collect, Epistle and Gospel, as far as the Sanctus.

The palms were then blessed with five prayers, and a procession went out of the church and on its return included a ceremony for the reopening of the doors, which had meantime been shut. After this the normal Mass was celebrated. The Gospel accounts are not always clear or in agreement on the events which occurred on these days, though there are traditional observances held by some denominations to commemorate certain events from the last days of Jesus' life.

Among them. The Chrism Mass, whose texts the Roman Missal now gives under Holy Thursday, but before the Paschal Triduum , which begins that evening, may be brought forward to one of these days, to facilitate participation by as many as possible of the clergy of the diocese together with the bishop. In this Mass, the bishop blesses separate oils for the sick used in Anointing of the Sick , for catechumens used in Baptism and chrism used in Baptism, but especially in Confirmation and Holy Orders , as well as in rites such as the dedication of an altar and a church.

Tenebrae Latin for "shadows" or "darkness" is celebrated within Western Christianity on the evening before or early morning of Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday. Tenebrae is distinctive for its gradual extinguishing of candles while a series of readings and psalms is chanted or recited. In the Catholic Church , "tenebrae" is the name given to the celebration, with special ceremonies, of Matins and Lauds , the first two hours of the Liturgy of the Hours , of the last three days of Holy Week.

During the meal, Jesus predicted the events that would immediately follow, including his betrayal, the Denial of Peter , and his death and resurrection. Events of the last supper play varying roles in commemoration services depending on the denomination. In the Catholic Church, on this day the private celebration of Mass is forbidden.

The Mass of the Lord's Supper commemorates the Last Supper of Jesus with his Twelve Apostles , "the institution of the Eucharist , the institution of the priesthood , and the commandment of brotherly love that Jesus gave after washing the feet of his disciples. All the bells of the church , including altar bells, may be rung during the Gloria in Excelsis Deo of the Mass the Gloria is not traditionally sung on Sundays in Lent.

The bells then fall silent and the organ and other musical instruments may be used only to support the singing until the Gloria at the Easter Vigil. The Roman Missal recommends that, if considered pastorally appropriate, the priest should, immediately after the homily, celebrate the rite of washing the feet of an unspecified number of men, customarily twelve, recalling the number of the Apostles.

In the Catholic Church and optionally in the Anglican Church, a sufficient number of hosts are consecrated for use also in the Good Friday service, and at the conclusion the Blessed Sacrament is carried in procession to a place of reposition away from the main body of the church, which, if it involves an altar, is often called an " altar of repose ".

In Methodist and Lutheran churches, the altar is covered with black, if the altar cloths have not been removed. Some Protestant churches practice the foot washing Maundy ceremony on Maundy Thursday. For others, it may be the only time in the year when Holy Communion is celebrated. Good Friday commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus and his subsequent death. Commemorations of often solemn and mournful, many denominations use Good Friday to perform the Stations of the Cross , or other commemorations of the Passion , either as a self-guided time of reflection and veneration or as a procession of statues or images of the stations.

The evening liturgical celebration on Holy Thursday begins the first of the three days of the Easter Triduum, which continues in an atmosphere of liturgical mourning throughout the next day in spite of the name "Good" given in English to this Friday. The Anglican Communion defines fasting more generically as: "The amount of food eaten is reduced. In some countries, such as Malta, Philippines, Italy, and Spain processions with statues representing the Passion of Christ are held.

This traditionally consists of a series of sermons, interspersed with singing, one on each of the Seven Last Words from the Cross , together with an introduction and a conclusion. Another pious exercise carried out on Good Friday is that of the Stations of the Cross , either within the church or outside. The celebration at the Colosseum with participation by the Pope has become a traditional fixture widely covered by television. Holy Saturday is the day between the crucifixion of Jesus and his resurrection.

Liturgical Year

As the Sabbath day , the Gospel accounts all note that Jesus was hurriedly buried in a cave tomb after his crucifixion, with the intent to finish proper embalming and burial ceremonies on Sunday, after the Sabbath had ended, as the Sabbath day prohibitions would have prevented observant Jews from completing a proper burial. While daytime services or commemorations of the day are rare in the Western tradition, after sundown on Holy Saturday is the traditional time for Easter Vigil.

Paschal Mystery Benchmark 1

In the Catholic tradition, Mass is not celebrated on what is liturgically Holy Saturday. The celebration of Easter begins after sundown on what, though still Saturday in the civil calendar, is liturgically Easter Sunday. On Holy Saturday the Church waits at the Lord's tomb in prayer and fasting, meditating on his Passion and Death and on his Descent into Hell, and awaiting his Resurrection. The Church abstains from the Sacrifice of the Mass, with the sacred table left bare, until after the solemn Vigil, that is, the anticipation by night of the Resurrection, when the time comes for paschal joys, the abundance of which overflows to occupy fifty days.

In some Anglican churches, including the Episcopal Church in the United States , there is provision for a simple liturgy of the word with readings commemorating the burial of Christ. The tabernacle is left empty and open. The lamp or candle usually situated next to the tabernacle denoting the Presence of Christ is put out, and the remaining Eucharistic Hosts consecrated on Holy Thursday are kept elsewhere, usually the sacristy , with a lamp or candle burning before it, so that, in cases of the danger of death, they may be given as viaticum.

The name of the Easter Vigil, even if the vigil is held on what on the civil calendar is still Saturday, indicates that liturgically it is already Easter, no longer part of Holy Week, but still part of the Easter Triduum. In the Anglican, Catholic, Methodist, and Presbyterian traditions, the Easter Vigil, one of the longest and most solemn of liturgical services, lasts up to three or four hours, consists of four parts: [6] [31].

The Liturgy begins after sundown on Holy Saturday as the crowd gathers inside the unlit church. In the darkness often in a side chapel of the church building or, preferably, outside the church , a new fire is kindled and blessed by the priest. This new fire symbolizes the light of salvation and hope that God brought into the world through Christ's Resurrection, dispelling the darkness of sin and death.

From this fire is lit the Paschal candle , symbolizing the Light of Christ. This Paschal candle will be used throughout the season of Easter, remaining in the sanctuary of the Church or near the lectern, and throughout the coming year at baptisms and funerals, reminding all that Christ is "light and life. The candles of those present are lit from the Paschal candle. As this symbolic "Light of Christ" spreads throughout those gathered, the darkness is decreased. A deacon, or the priest if there is no deacon, carries the Paschal Candle at the head of the entrance procession and, at three points, stops and chants the proclamation "The Light of Christ" until Easter , the official English text was "Christ our Light" , to which the people respond "Thanks be to God.

Then the deacon or a cantor chants the Exultet also called the "Easter Proclamation" , After that, the people put aside their candles and sit down for the Liturgy of the Word. The Liturgy of the Word includes between three and seven readings from the Old Testament , followed by two from the New an Epistle and a Gospel. The Old Testament readings must include the account in Exodus 14 of the crossing of the Red Sea, seen as an antitype of baptism and Christian salvation.

Each Old Testament reading is followed by a psalm or canticle such as Exodus —18 and a prayer relating what has been read to the Mystery of Christ. After the Old Testament readings conclude, the Gloria in excelsis Deo , which has been suspended during Lent, is intoned and bells are rung. A reading from the Epistle to the Romans is proclaimed. The Alleluia is sung for the first time since the beginning of Lent.

The Gospel of the Resurrection then follows, along with a homily. After the conclusion of the Liturgy of the Word, the water of the baptismal font is blessed and any catechumens or candidates for full communion are initiated into the church, by baptism or confirmation. After the celebration of these sacraments of initiation, the congregation renews their baptismal vows and receive the sprinkling of baptismal water.

The general intercessions follow. After the Liturgy of Baptism, the Liturgy of the Eucharist continues as usual. This is the first Mass of Easter Day. During the Eucharist, the newly baptised receive Holy Communion for the first time. According to the rubrics of the Missal , the Eucharist should finish before dawn. Easter Day, which immediately follows Holy Week and begins with the Easter Vigil, is the great feast day and apogee of the Christian liturgical year: on this day the Resurrection of Jesus Christ is celebrated.

The Resurrection of Christ on Easter Day is the main reason why Christians keep every Sunday as the primary day of religious observance. Cities famous for their Holy Week processions include:. Holy Week has developed into one of Brazil's main symbols of community identity, more specifically in the southern town of Campanha. The figure of Our Lord of the Stations, representing the blood-stained Jesus carrying the cross, is brought from the church in a large black box and displayed in the main square. Then it is solemnly taken to the church following a band and a procession of people.

Liturgical Year : Activities : The Mystery of Lent | Catholic Culture

Outside the church, a sermon is delivered on the Easter story of Jesus' death and resurrection. After the sermon, a choir inside the open doors of the church sings the Miserere by Manoel Dias de Oliveria, while the black box is brought inside the church, and people come in to kiss the human-sized figure of Christ. Processions on Tuesday and Wednesday stop at different chapels at each of which a large painting portrays episodes of the Way of the Cross and a related hymn is sung at each.

On Thursday morning the Chrism Mass is celebrated, with a blessing of the oils. Good Friday afternoon ceremonies are followed by the week's main spectacle of the Taking Down from the Cross in front of the cathedral followed by the Funeral Procession of Our Dead Lord. The drama shows Christ being taken from the cross and placed in a coffin, which is then taken around to the accompaniment of the "Song of Veronica". On Saturday morning a drama is performed by the youth. The following night, the Paschal Vigil is celebrated, and the streets are transformed into a beautiful array of intricate, colorful carpets to prepare for the following day.

Easter Sunday begins before sunrise with the singing of the choir and band performances to celebrate the resurrection of Christ. Bells and fireworks are followed by a Mass that ends with the "Hallelujah Chorus". Holy Week in Guatemala incorporates processions with images of saints carried on huge wooden platforms.

The heavy andas are held by the locals, both men and women, who are frequently in purple robes. The procession is led by a man holding a container of incense accompanied by a small horn and flute band. Intricate carpets alfombras line the streets during the week's celebration. Easter processions begin at sunrise and everyone comes to join the festivities. The priest calls Judas the "killer of Christ". The figure used to be beaten after the Crucifixion performance on Good Friday, but is now treated more calmly.

Holy Week is also observed in parts of Southern Italy, notably Sicily. The most famous is the Holy Week of Trapani , culminating in the Processione dei Misteri di Trapani or simply the Misteri di Trapani in English the Procession of the Mysteries of Trapani or the Mysteries of Trapani , a day-long passion procession featuring twenty floats of lifelike wood, canvas and glue sculptures of individual scenes of the events of the Passion.


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The Misteri are amongst the oldest continuously running religious events in Europe, having been played every Good Friday since before the Easter of , and running for at least 16 continuous hours, but occasionally well beyond the 24 hours; they are the longest religious festival in Sicily and in Italy. Similar but smaller or shorter passion processions are held in many other Sicilian cities, like Erice and Caltanissetta , but also in various Southern Italian cities, like Salerno and Taranto. Solemn celebrations take place in all churches together with processions in different villages around Malta and Gozo.

During the celebration, the narrative of the passion is read in some localities. The Cross follows a significant Way of Jesus. Yaqui Holy Week is both ritualistic and dramaturgic in its celebrations. The rituals date back to the early seventeenth century, at the time of pioneering Jesuit priest.

Catholic Activity: The Mystery of Lent

Light begins to go out and people beguin the whipping, screaming and crying to the sound of traditional music of sacrifice. In Tucson , dancers are used to wear dark coats and black hide masks, instead of blankets. Children in white robes with blue painted faces and a dark hooded figure, symbolizing the betrayer of Christ, join the Thursday morning procession to the church. There they promise to serve God for the next three or five years, until their eyes start to bleed just like Christ's would.

That night, there is a symbolic search for Jesus when the "Pharisees" visit various crosses in the streets and capture the "old man" symbolic Jesus. On Friday a member of the church who volunteers to represent Jesus is beaten and buried for two days. On Saturday, an image of Jesus' betrayer, Judas Iscariot , and takes place an apotropaic battle destroying the evil which has been accumulated in the town during the next year. A dance drama is performed enacting evil being defeated by good.

In the predominantly Catholic Philippines , Maundy Thursday and Good Friday are national holidays; work is suspended in government offices and private businesses. Most stores are closed and most people in the cities return to their home provinces to commemorate Holy Week in their home town. In some communities most famously in San Fernando , Pampanga , the processions include devotees who self-flagellate and sometimes even have themselves nailed to crosses as expressions of penance.

After PHT on Good Friday the time at which Jesus is traditionally believed to have died , noise is discouraged, many radio stations and television stations close down some broadcast religious programming, with non-Catholic owned stations continuing broadcast , and the faithful are urged to keep a solemn and prayerful disposition through to Easter Sunday. Many Filipinos bring home the palm leaves after the Mass and place these above their front doors or their windows, believing that doing so can ward off evil spirits.

The chanting, which continues day and night without interruption, lasts as long as two straight days. The last Mass before Easter is also celebrated on Maundy Thursday, usually including a reenactment of the Washing of the Feet of the Apostles. This Mass is followed by the procession of the Blessed Sacrament to be transferred to the Altar of Repose.

Good Friday in the Philippines is commemorated with street processions, the Way of the Cross , the commemoration of Jesus' Seven last words Siete Palabras and a Passion play called the Sinakulo. Easter Day is marked with joyous celebration, the first being the dawn Salubong rite, wherein statues of Jesus and Mary are brought in procession together to meet, imagining the first reunion of Jesus and his mother Mary after Jesus' Resurrection. This is followed by the joyous Easter Mass. Most Catholic communities across the Philippines practice this, though it is more popularly celebrated in the provinces.

A tradition dating from medieval times that has spread to other cities in Andalusia , the "Semana Santa en Sevilla" is notable for featuring the procession of "pasos" , lifelike wood or plaster sculptures of individual scenes of the events that happened between Jesus's arrest and his burial, or images of the Virgin Mary showing grief for the torture and killing of her son. Holy week processions in Seville include marching bands that escort the pasos. These pasos and tronos are physically carried on their necks or "braceros" this name is popular in Leon.

The paso can weigh up to five metric tonnes. In front of them walk the penitentes, dressed in long purple robes, often with pointed hats, followed by women in black carrying candles for up to 11 hours. Those members who wish to do so wear these penitential robes with conical hats, or capirotes , used to conceal the face of the wearer.

These "Nazarenos" or "Papones" this word is typical from Leon carry processional candles, may walk the city streets barefoot, and may carry shackles and chains in their feet as penance. Carlo Gesualdo 's Responsoria et alia ad Officium Hebdomadae Sanctae spectantia contains settings of all 27 Tenebrae responsories for matins of Maundy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday , and of a few other text for use in lauds of the Holy Week. The two days that follow, Lazarus Saturday and Palm Sunday , form a transition to Holy Week, neither in Lent nor in Holy Week themselves, but in combination with Holy Week containing the continuing observances in preparation for Pascha Easter , during which the faithful continue to fast.

Lazarus Saturday commemorates Jesus' raising of Lazarus from the dead, just before he went to Jerusalem himself. The main themes anticipate the Resurrection of Jesus , showing him as master over death. On this day wine and oil are allowed and, in the Russian tradition, caviar , lightening the fast by one degree. Palm Sunday is considered one of the Great Feasts of the Lord, and is celebrated with fish, wine and oil, the lightest degree of fasting, in observance of the festival.

Because it is a Great Feast of the Lord, the normal resurrectional elements of the Sunday services are omitted. However, some of these resurrectional elements are found in the Lazarus Saturday service. However, during Holy Week, in most parishes, many service times are advanced from six to twelve hours in time and celebrated in anticipation, which permits more of the faithful to attend the most prominent services.

Thus, it is the matins service of Great Monday that is on "Palm Sunday" evening in parish churches and often vespers is in the morning. Fasting during Great and Holy Week is very strict, as in Lent at a minimum: dairy products and meat products are strictly forbidden, and on most days, no alcoholic beverages are permitted and no oil is used in cooking. Holy Friday and Holy Saturday especially may exceed Lenten norms. Those who can, including monastics, observe them as days of abstention, meaning that nothing is eaten on those days. However, fasting is always adjusted to the needs of the individual, and those who are very young, ill or elderly are not expected to fast as strictly.

Those who are able may receive the blessing of their spiritual father to observe an even stricter fast, whereby they eat only two meals that week: one on Wednesday night and one after Divine Liturgy on Thursday. A new liturgical day beginning at sunset, the first service of each day is vespers at which stichera are chanted elaborating the theme of the new day. These days' Orthros services which in parishes is performed the previous night are often referred to as the "Bridegroom Prayer", because of their theme of Christ as the Bridegroom of the Church, a theme expressed in the troparion that is solemnly chanted during them.

On these days, an icon of the "Bridegroom" is placed on an analogion in the center of the temple , portraying Jesus wearing the purple robe of mockery and crowned with a crown of thorns see Instruments of the Passion. The same theme is repeated in the exapostilarion , a hymn which occurs near the end of the service. These services follow much the same pattern as services on weekdays of Great Lent. The canon that is chanted on these days is a "Triode", i. The hymn , written in the 9th century by Kassia tells of the woman who washed Christ's feet in the house of Simon the Pharisee.

O Lord, the woman who had fallen into many sins, sensing Your Divinity, takes upon herself the duty of a myrrh-bearer. With lamentations she brings you myrrh in anticipation of your entombment. Receive the fountain of my tears, O You who gathers into clouds the waters of the sea. Incline unto me, unto the sighings of my heart, O You who bowed the heavens by your ineffable condescension. I will wash your immaculate feet with kisses and dry them again with the tresses of my hair; those very feet at whose sound Eve hid herself from in fear when she heard You walking in Paradise in the twilight of the day.

As for the multitude of my sins and the depths of Your judgments, who can search them out, O Savior of souls, my Savior? Do not disdain me Your handmaiden, O You who are boundless in mercy. On vespers at the end of Monday through Wednesday is a reading from the Gospel which sets forth the new day's theme and then the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts may be celebrated. The Byzantine musical composition expresses the poetry so strongly that it leaves many people in a state of prayerful tears.

The Hymn can last upwards of 25 minutes and is liturgically and musically a highpoint of the entire year. This is in commemoration of the anointing of Jesus , and a preparation of the faithful to enter with Christ into his death and Resurrection. Orthros of Great and Holy Thursday does not follow the format of Great Lent with the singular exception of chanting Alleluia in place of God is the Lord , but is celebrated as outside Lent, having a complete canon. There is a custom among some churches to place a simple white linen cloth over the Holy Table altar for this Liturgy, reminiscent of the Last Supper.

In cathedrals and monasteries it is customary for the bishop or hegumen abbot to celebrate the Washing of Feet. When it is necessary for an autocephalous church to consecrate more chrysm the primate of that church will consecrate it at this Liturgy. Great and Holy Thursday is the only day during Holy Week when those observing the strict tradition will eat a cooked meal, though they will not do so until after the dismissal of the Liturgy.

At this meal wine and oil are permitted, but the faithful still abstain from meat and dairy products. During this service, twelve Matins Gospels are chanted, from which this service derives its name of "Matins of the Twelve Gospels". The Pope spoke also about new movements and groups working in the field of Christian formation. Among internationally active there are e. These communities, movements and groups have emerged in the 20th century on the grounds of Second Vatican Council 's renewal of the Church.

The concept of the paschal mystery is criticised by the traditionalists. According to the address of the Superior of the Society of St. Pius X , Bishop Bernard Fellay , the theology of the "paschal mystery" minimizes the mystery of the Redemption, because it considers the sacrament only in its relation with the "mystery", and because the conception that it makes of the "memorial" alters the sacrificial dimension of the Mass and as a consequence it renders the post-Conciliar Liturgy dangerously distant from Catholic doctrine.

Joseph Ratzinger and Jonathan Robinson CO show that the traditionalists put themselves in a false position, overlooking the fact that the Vatican II 's teaching about this issue restored a profoundly traditional doctrine, central to Christian thought and experience. Protestant view of grace and salvation was influenced very much by nominalism of William Ockham 's razor. In Martin Luther 's opinion Ockham was the only scholastic whose teaching was worth studying. While traditional understanding of the mystery of faith is that the Divine revelation can use human word, somehow assimilating the Word of God, to initiate man into the mystery of the divine life, according to Louis Bouyer , the Protestant view excludes such approach.

Revelation of the mystery of salvation to man is compatible with traditional philosophy, like Thomism , and incompatible with the Protestant view of grace, influenced by nominalism. Paschal mystery embraces several events of Jesus' passing away from this world. They are central to the Christian Creed.

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Jesus sacrificed his life by freely accepting death on the cross and being put in a tomb. In experiencing death and overcoming it in resurrection, Christ assures us that we will have life everlasting with God as we too, through Christ's accomplishment as our representative, will triumph over death and pass into eternal life with the resurrection of the glorified body.

Three days after he died and was buried, Christian faith holds that Jesus was raised from the dead with a new and glorified body. All four Gospels of the New Testament clearly give an account of the resurrection. This event is at the heart of faith in Christ see 1 Corinthians Forty days after the resurrection, the risen Christ ascended to the Father in Heaven, God's domain. From there, Christ, who is hidden from our eyes, will come again in glory at the end of time to judge the living and the dead.

Through the Ascension and Exaltation of Christ, humanity has been given the unbreakable promise of everlasting life with God. Through the Paschal Mystery everything has been justified and made right in Christ with God. Jesus came to fulfil and perfect the covenant of God, and to assure all that God's love is eternal and constant. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Peter's Basilica , Vatican City. Theologies Doctrine. Natural law Catholic ethics Personalism Social teaching Philosophers. Liturgy Mass Divine Office Liturgical year. Prayer Devotions Bible Biblical canon. Gallican Ambrosian Braga Mozarabic. Chaldean East Syriac Syro-Malabar. Byzantine Armenian. Alexandrian Ethiopic. Other philosophies. Ecumenism Monasticism Relations with: Islam Judaism. Societal issues. Links and resources. Understand, therefore, beloved, how it is new and old, eternal and temporary, perishable and imperishable, mortal and immortal, this mystery of the Pascha : old as regards the force but new as regards the Word; temporary as regards the model gr.

Eph ; Col Access date Access date: The Mass and Modernity. Walking to Heaven Backward. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. Retrieved Ratzinger, Joseph Farnborough: Saint Michael's Abbey Press. The spirit and forms of protestantism , p. Nor will he conclude that the Word of God has to remain an unresolved enigma, a symbol impossible to decipher. Knowing that God made all things as a reflection of his own thoughts, and the human mind as a reflection of his own word, he will strive, his mind illumined by faith, to open himself to the mysteries God reveals, not confining them in the framework of his own ideas, but transposing and enlarging these, not destroying their value in their own order, but transcending the limits of mere reason — a real elevation, not a collapse into the subrational.

Thus, the supernatural is received by the mind enlightened and elevated by faith, not as darkening its natural lights, but by the acquiescence of the human mind in its invasion by the Spirit of God; in this unique experience, it recognises both that it is rapt from itself and taken back by Him who had made it for Himself, in His own image. Eerdmans, pp. Bouyer, Louis , The Paschal Mystery. Bouyer L. Littledale trnasl.


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London: A Libra Book, , pp. Access date Categories : Resurrection of Jesus Christian terminology.